Breakfast, packed lunch, take-away, ready-made meal, snacks.

1). These days people usually eat cereal and milk or toast and marmalade for .

2). is a meal that you can buy and take away or you can phone the restaurant and ask to deliver it to you.

3). The most popular in Britain are crisps and chocolates.

4). A typical might be sandwiches, a packet of crisps, a yoghurt, an apple.

5). are frozen meals, which can be prepared in minutes in microwave.


III. Put the words in correct order and make sentences.

1)coffee/ you/ like/ some/ Would?

2)order /to/ ice-cream/ you/ like/ some/ Would?

3)table / two / a / Wed / for / like.

4)bill / have / Can / the / we / please?

5)May / pay / card / I / by / credit?

6)menu/ have / we / the / Could?

7)included/ service / the / Is?

8)First /salad / Id / like / the.

9)vegetables / you / What / would / like?


IV. Role-play.

a) Discuss in pairs what your favorite dish is. What do you like most/least?

Possible answers:

Soft drinks soup

ice-cream pizza

vegetables salad

breakfast dish dessert

pie or cake fruit

chocolate sandwiches


III) Read and translate the following text:

Golden Rules for writing letters and memos

1. Give your letter a heading if it will help reader to see at glance what youre writing about.

2. Decide what are you going to say before you start to write or dictate: if you dont do this, the sentences are likely to go on and on until you can think of a good way to finish. In other words, always try to plan ahead.

3. Use short sentences.

4. Put each separate idea in a separate paragraph. Numbering each paragraph may help the reader to understand better.

5. Use short words that everyone can understand.

6. Think about your reader. Your reader:

must be able to see exactly what you mean:

your letters should be CLEAR.

must be given all the necessary information:

your letters should be COMPLETE.

is likely to be a busy person with no time to waste:

your letters should be CONCISE.

must be addressed in a sincere, polite tone:

your letters should be COURTEOUS.

may get a bad impression if there are mistakes in grammar, punctuation and spelling:

your letters should be CORRECT.

Lesson 21.


Topic: Business Communication.




The letter of application should conform to all requirements of a good business letter, and in form it should be correct in every detail. No one should do less than his very best in writing a letter of application, for it is in reality a sales letter in which the writer is trying to sell his services. The application letter usually consists of three or four paragraphs.

b) You are at the café. Its teatime. Discuss in pairs what you are going to have.

Samples of the dialogues:

A: Would you care for a cup of tea?

B: Only if you are having one.

A: Do you take milk and sugar?

B: A dash of milk and two lumps, please.



A:What about a cup of tea?

B:Id rather have a cup of coffee, if you dont mind.

A:Milk and sugar?

B:A milky one without sugar, please.



A:How about a nice cup of tea before you go?

B: Yes, Id love one.

A: How do you like it?

B: A strong one with three spoons of sugar for me.



A:Would you like a cup of tea?

B: Only if its not too much trouble.

A: Do you like it with milk?

B: Not too much milk.



Lesson 13.

Topic: Food and Meals,

How Americans Eat

Meal times.In the U.S. meals are usually served at the following times: breakfast: 6:30-10:00 a.m., lunch: 11:30-2:00 p.m., dinner: 5:00p.m.-8:00. Breakfast meals can vary from cereal and milk to eggs and pancakes or French toasts (slices of bread dipped in an egg and milk batter and fried).

In Great Britain the date may be indicated as follows: 7th April, 1998 or 23 March, 1998.

In the USA it is usually written like this: April 7, 1998.

The address of the recipient (inside address) is written on the left above, under the reference. Lower, the name of the firm is written under which the number of the house, street, city or town, state or country are indicated, the last element being the country.

The salutation is written on the left (not in the centre).

The salutation Dear Sir is appropriate, when you write to a real person if you do not know him. If you know this person, you should write Dear Mr. Jones, for example.

If the letter is addressed to the firm, the salutation should be Dear Sirs. In modern business correspondence it is needless to use any other forms of politeness.

In the subscription the expression Yours faithfully is usually used if you are not acquainted with the person(s) or Yours sincerely if you write to a man (woman) whom you know at least by correspondence. In American English the above expressions are rarely used. More common are the expressions Sincerely yours, or simply Sincerely, and sometimes Very truly yours.

The signature is affixed by hand above the typed name of the author. It is not obligatory to indicate your position. If near the signature there are two letters p.p (per pro) it means that the letter is by warrant.

If some material is added to the letter the words Enclosure (Enclosures) or the abbreviation Encl ( ) are written in the left lower corner of the letter. You can also use the expression We enclose ().


II). Comprehension questions

1. What letters are included into business correspondence?

2. What are the major elements of a business letter?

3. What are the requirements established for the text f a business letter?

4. What expressions are used in the salutation of a business letter?

5. What should be the subscription in a business letter?

Lunch tends to be a lighter meal a sandwich, yogurt or a light entree. Dinner includes a main course of meat, poultry or fish, accompanied by side dishes such as soup, salad and vegetables. Brunch, a common Sunday meal served between 10:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m., is really a combination of breakfast and lunch.

Common dishes. There are a wide variety of foods, depending upon which type of restaurant you go to. Some American-style restaurants have a typical menu.

Restaurants. Americans eat out often. Fast food restaurants have wide popularity. There are two types of restaurants in the U.S.: fast food and full-service restaurants. The style of fast food restaurants is much like than of cafeteria. Patrons go up to a counter to order their meal: hamburgers, hot chicken sandwiches and pizza. It is then placed on a plastic tray which patron brings to a table. A typical dinner costs from $3.00 to $6.00. It is expected that patrons will finish within 30-45 minutes. In full-service restaurants a waiter comes to take the patrons order. Dinner can vary from $10.00 to $50.00. It is expected that patrons will finish eating and leave restaurant within an hour. To express satisfaction with service patrons will give a tip of 20% of the bill. Small tips are given to coat check attendants (up to $1.00), rest room and car park attendants (50 cents).

Water and ice. Most people in the U.S. drink tap water. Any cold beverage you order will be served to you with ice unless you request otherwise.

How Canadians Eat


What Canadians eat often depends on where they live. Traditionally, most Canadians would have at least one daily meal of meat, potatoes and vegetables. Improved transportation and the influence of immigrants have changed the Canadian diet. Grocery stores today stock foods from around the world. Pizza, pasta and spicy rice or noodle dishes are now favourites. Increasing numbers of Canadians are vegetarians.

Canadians eat three meals a day. In some households, breakfast includes pancakes, eggs and bacon and hot cereal. People in a hurry are more likely to eat cold cereal, toast or a muffin with coffee or tea. Lunch is usually a light meal. Most people eat soup, a sandwich or a salad. Dinner, also called supper, is the largest meal, and is usually eaten early in the evening. The biggest family meals


letter of shipment

letter of delivery

letter of complaint -



to vary



I) Read and translate the following text:

Business Correspondence


Business letters include all kinds of commercial letters, inquiries, replies to inquiries, Letters of Credit (L/C), invoices, Bills of Lading (B/L), Bills of Exchange or drafts, letters of insurance, explanatory letters, orders, letters of packing, letters of shipment, letters of delivery, offers, letters of complaint, replies to those of mentioned above, etc.

A business letter should be as short as possible, intelligible, polite, benevolent and its language must be simple.

Rules and traditions of correspondence vary in time but some basic principles of a commercial letter remain unchanged.

A private business letter is written by hand, each paragraph begins with an indented line.

A letter is composed of the following elements: heading, date, address, salutation text, subscription.

A letter can be typed on the organizations form. Any form has its letter-head printed typographically. The letter-head bears the name of organization or firm, sending this letter, its address, address for telegrams, telephone, telex, fax. If you do not use the form , write your address (as a sender) on the upper right side of the letter. Do not indicate your name here, it will follow your signature. Ukrainian names of foreign trade organizations are not translated into foreign languages. They are written with Latin letters using English transcription. Your telephone number may be written below.

The date is written on the right side above (under your address if the letter is written on a form or under a typographical letter-head of the form)



are those served at Thanksgiving and Christmas, when turkey is usually served with cranberries and stuffing. At Thanksgiving the traditional dessert is a pumpkin pie; at Christmas many people serve a Christmas cake.

For some Canadians, life is too hectic for daily family meals around a table. Grocery stores carry prepared dinners that are quickly warmed and eaten. Fast food restaurants also cater to people in a hurry. Meals can also be ordered over the phone and delivered to the door. Most large cities have restaurants that serve food from around the world.





pumpkin pie

hectic ( )



III. Answer the following questions:

1. Do you like cooking?

2. What is cooking for you: an art or a dull everyday duty?

3. Are you conservative in cooking or do you prefer different innovations?

4. Who are better cooks: men or women?

5. Would you like to learn to cook any exotic dish?

6. Would you like to open any exotic restaurant in your town? Do you think it will prosper?



Lesson 14.

Topic: Food and Meals.



Read and translate some additional texts and discuss them:

I have a temperature

I have cold (in the had)

My heart is bothering me

I am allergic on

What shall I take for it? ?

Do I have to go to the hospital? ?

Please, give me a prescription , .

How much do I pay you? ?

Ive a terrible toothache

A filling has coming out

A crown has broken

Where is the nearest chemists/drugstore? ?

Could you fill this prescription?


When will it be ready? ?

Can I buy this medicine without

a prescription? ?

Please, give something for - ...

How should this medicine be taken? ?

Do you have an analogue? ?


Lesson 20.


Topic: Business Communication.

Active vocabulary


to do business

to cooperate


Eating well

One of the most important components of our health is food we eat. Human organism needs a lot of vitamins and mineral salts to function well. Its impossible to give a universal advice because we all are different. But still there are some recommendations that would be useful for everybody. The most wholesome food is vegetables, fruit, cereals. We need to eat them every day. Its good to eat some meat and fish from time to time, but not much. One should avoid eating too much salt and sugar. Its better to use honey instead of sweets and cakes. But the main thing is not to eat too much. There is an old rule: one must feel a little bit hungry after dinner.

Different food does different jobs in your body, so you need to eat a good balance of all the different types. Eating the right amount is important too: neither too much nor too little.

Protein food makes you grow and help repair your body. Meat, fish, eggs and nuts contain protein.

Milk, cheese and yogurt contain calcium, which makes your bones and teeth strong. They also contain protein.

Carbohydrates give you energy. Bread, cereals, rice, pasta and potatoes are good energy foods.

Fruit and vegetables contain vitamins and minerals. You need these to keep your body working efficiently.

Fiber is a carbohydrate that your body cannot digest. It is good for your digestive system, though. It prevents constipation and may protect against some serious illnesses. Fiber is found in whole meal bread and pasta, wholegrain cereals, brown rice, fruit and vegetables.

Water is important to your blood. Drink lots of water every day.

Foods to cut down on


Sugar gives you energy but has no other benefits; it rots your teeth and too much of it makes you overweight.

Too much fat can make you overweight. Animal fat, which is found in foods such as meat and butter, contains a substance called cholesterol. Over time, this can cause your arteries to get blocked and lead to heart disease.

Some foods, for example milk shakes, ice cream and cookies are mostly fat and sugary.

The goal of HIV Prevention Education is to empower individuals with the knowledge and skills to practice the lowest level of risk behaviour acceptable to them.

How people get infected with HIV. Anyone can become infected with HIV, regardless of age, sex, race, and sexual orientation. HIV is in the blood and semen or vaginal secretions of someone with HIV infection. It is most commonly transmitted from an infected person to an uninfected person in the following ways:

By using contaminated (already used) needles, syringes and drug equipment for injecting drugs, including vitamins or steroids, tattooing, body piercing and acupuncture;

From HIV-infected mother to child either before or during birth and through breast milk;

Through any sex without using latex condoms with someone who has HIV.

The virus has also been transmitted by receiving blood transfusions, blood components, tissues, organs, from donors infected with the virus.

How HIV is not transmitted. HIV is not transmitted through the air and by normal day-to-day contact between people (at home, school, work, or elsewhere in the community);

Touching, coughing, sneezing or dry kissing;

Contact with toilet seats, eating utensils, water fountains or telephones;

Being close to other people in the classroom, restaurants, crowded bus or other facility;

Mosquitoes or other biting insects;

Donating blood;

Tears, saliva or sweat.


I) Additional words and expressions:


I would like to make an appointment ,

with the doctor , please ...

Im a new patient

Im not a resident of the area

I have oclock appointment


Some people are allergic to additives, such as food dyes and preservatives, which are put into many foods.

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