Are we being poisoned by our food?


Scientists have discovered that a huge range of everyday food contains potentially dangerous levels of a cancer-causing toxin. Is this just another food scare, or should we be worrying about acrylamide?

What is acrylamide?It is a chemical that is widely used in industry, particularly in the manufacture of plastics. Highly toxic, it has been shown to cause nerve damage in humans, and has been linked to infertility. The US Environmental Protection Agency lists acrylamide, which causes tumours in rats, as a probable human carcinogen, and has limited the maximum permitted level in American drinking water to 0.5 parts per billion. In Europe, the permitted level for acrylamide left on food from packaging is no more than ten parts per billion.

How does acrylamide get into food?Nobody really knows, but tests suggest that it is the cooking process, rather than the food itself, that is responsible. The chemical, which is not present in raw produce, seems to be generated whenever certain foods are backed, microwaved, fried or grilled at temperatures above 120C. the longer food is cooked at high temperatures, the higher the acrylamide content is likely to be. I would say that boiling is the only safe cooking method, says Dr Margareta Tornqvist, the Swedish scientist who first alerted the world to the danger.

Should we be changing our diets?At the moment, the scientific establishment is urging people not to worry about acrylamide, not least because there is no evidence that the substance is a human carcinogen. According to the WHO, the levels the average person consumes are probably lower than those found to cause nerve damage in rats. On the other hand, it would do us no harm to cut back on fatty, fried foods such as crisps and chips, and eat more fruit and vegetables. So if the acrylamide scare encourages people to do that, they will indeed be better off.

In an attempt to create nicer-looking, longer-lasting, more nutritional food, scientists have played around with the genetic structure of food such as fruit and vegetables, soya and corn.



People who have HIV in their bodies are said to have HIV infection or to be HIV-positive. HIV damages the bodys immune system. The immune system normally protects the body from disease. HIV infection is a disease with many stages. An HIV-infected person can range from being healthy to being very sick the length of time between becoming HIV-infected and being diagnosed with AIDS varies from person to person. Some people have had HIV infection for 12 years or longer and still do not have an AIDS diagnosis. However, the average length of time between becoming infected with HIV and being diagnosed with AIDS is approximately eight to ten years. An HIV-infected people may look and feel healthy. They may not even know that they are infected. AIDS is the stage when an HIV-infected persons immune system gets very weak. When this happens, other diseases and infections can enter the body.

A diagnosis of AIDS is made when a person develops one or more of several specific diseases (pneumonia and sarcoma) or conditions that indicate critical impairment of the immune system.

Scientists who track the spread of HIV/AIDS disease estimated that:

60 million people worldwide have been infected with HIV;

36 million HIV infected people are ill now with AIDS;

There are 10 million HIV infected teenagers and young people worldwide;

13 million children are orphaned by AIDS;

16.000 people become infected with HIV every day;

Most new HIV infections occur in young people aged 14-24;

Ukraine with 280.000 HIV infections is the most affected country in Eastern Europe;

Ukraine has the fastest growing rate of HIV infection in Europe;

Most HIV infected people dont know they are infected;

United Nations officials believe the actual number of causes is four times higher;

AIDS is an epidemic. The number of people infected with HIV have increased dramatically each year.

The epidemic situation in Ukraine is evident. Many of us dont want to notice it! First of all, English teachers should remember that HIV/AIDS disease arrive in our country from abroad. Thats why we also need to teach our students to protect themselves from death and to stop spreading of the plague of the XXI century.

Many products on the shelves of the supermarkets in big countries already contain genetically engineered ingredients, and many more are ready to be introduced over the next few years.

So what is genetic modification (GM)? GM food is created by taking DNA from one organism and putting it into another. Many people feel that there has not been enough research done into genetic change, and that our entire food chain could be in danger.

A leading genetist, Dr. Michael Antoniou said: Once released into the environment, genetic mistakes cannot be cleaned up, but will be passed on to all future generations indefinitely.


Lesson 15.


Topic: Food and Meals.

It is interesting to know:


Coffee and Tea.


Coffee and tea were known in Europe two hundred years ago. People were afraid to drink them because they thought coffee and tea could kill a person. Once the king of Sweden decided to find out whether it was true or not.

At that time there were two brothers in prison. They were twins and were much alike. They had committed a crime and had been sentenced to death. The king said: I shall let them live but they must drink coffee or tea to the end of their lives. One brother must drink coffee and the other one must drink tea every day.

They both lived for many years. At last one of the brothers died when he was 80 years old. The other died a few years later. In this way it was proved that neither coffee nor tea is harmful to man.




Pizza has a long history. The ancient Greeks first had the idea of putting vegetables on large flat pieces of bread, and pizza ovens have been found in the ruins of Roman cities. But for centuries one vital ingredient was

The public is free to use the Service, or any independent part of it, as it pleases.

The public is free to choose his doctor, and to change to another if he wished to do so. The doctor may accept private patients while taking parts in the Service.

The practitioner services consist of the Family Doctors Service, the Dental Service, and the Pharmaceutical Service. All these Services provide the patient with the individual medical attention that he needs.

The professional attention of a family doctor is available to everyone. Patients may choose the doctor they wish provided only that he is enrolled in the Service and that he agrees to attend them. They may also change their doctor. The doctor has the same freedom to accept or refuse patients as he wishes. He cannot be forced to attend any person against his will. The doctor working in the Service is entitled to attend paying patients who have not joined the Service, if he cares to do so. If serious illness develops or diagnosis is difficult, he may call in a consultant and get hospital treatment without reference to any outside authority.

A doctor in Public Service is remunerated by a capitation payment for each patient registered with him.

At present the Family Doctor Service is almost always organized from the doctors own surgeries, to which patients do for advice and treatment unless the doctor visits them at home. A few doctors work from health centers.

Many general practitioners are working with one assistant. To become an assistant to general practitioner (the principal) is a common method of entering general practice.



Lesson 19.


Topic: Health Care System.

I) Read and translate the following text:


HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).

missingthe first tomatoes were not brought to Europe until the 16th century, from South America. It was the 19th century before Rafaele Esposito, a baker from Naples, began to sell the first modern pizzas. He was asked to bake a special pizza for a visit by the Italian King and Queen in 1889, and so the first pizza Margarita was created, named after the Queen.

Pizza became a favorite dish in Italy, but it was after the Second World War, when thousands of American soldiers went home from Europe, that pizza really became an international dish. Soon there were pizzerias all over the USA, and Americans spread the idea around the world.




The word restaurant was used for the first time to describe a soup invented by a French cook in the 16th century. It was a very tasty soup containing a lot of spices. Its taste gave you energy back or restored you. By 1760 it was very well-known. So when a French cook opened an inn in Paris he called it Restaurant, like the famous soup, using the French word for restore.





The famous spicy sauce based on tomatoes, onions, vinegar and sugar wasnt an American invention, but was originally a Chinese sauce called Ke Tsiap. Ke Tsiap was brought to the West by some English sailors. Later, its taste was made sweeter by the addition of a little sugar.





The word hamburger comes from the German city of Hamburg. In the Hamburg area the Tartars first made a sort of hamburger in the Middle Ages. They used to sit on pieces of meat when they rode horses; so the meat came out flat! But the Americans invented the modern hamburger about 100 years ago. Now they forget the origin of the wordand make cheeseburgers, fishburgers, beefburgers, eggburgers in fact anythingburgers!


Self-employed private physicians who charge a fee for each patient visit are the foundation of medical practice in the United States. Most physicians have a contractual relationship with one or more hospitals in the community. They send their patients to this hospital which usually charges patients according to the number of days they stay and the facilities operating room, tests, and medicines that they use. Some hospitals belong to a city, a state or, in the case of veterans hospitals, a federal government agency. Others are operated by religious orders or other non-profit groups. Still others operate for profit.

Some medical doctors are on salary. Salaried physicians may work as hospital staff member, or residents who often are still in medical schools, be hired by corporations to care for their workers or work for the federal governments Public Health Service.

Physicians are among the best paid professionals in the United States. In the 1980th, it is not uncommon for medical doctors to earn incomes of more than $100.000 a year. Specialists, particularly surgeons might earn several times that amount. Physicians list many reasons why they deserve to be so well rewarded for their work. One reason is the long and expensive preparation required to become a physician in the US. Most would be physicians first attend college for four years, which can cost more than $12.000 annually at one of the best private institutions. Prospective physicians then attend medical school for four years. By the time they have obtained their medical degrees, many young physicians are deeply in debt. They still face three to five years of residency in a hospital, the first year as an intern, an apprentice physician. The hours are long and the pay is relatively low. Setting up a medical practice is expensive, too. Sometimes several physicians will decide to establish a group practice, so they can share the expense of maintaining an office and buying equipment.

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