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Instruction, instruct, instructed, instructor

a) Our maths _____ explained to us the principles of binary arithmetic.

b) We were _____ to document our programs very carefully.

c) Both ____ and data have to be changed to machine code before the computer can operate on them.

 

Compilation, compiler, compile, compiled

a) Our university computer does not have a PASCAL________.

b) Usually, a programmer _____ his program before he puts in the data.

c) A source program cannot be directly processed by the computer until it has been ____.

 

Result, results, resulting

a) The linkage editor links systems routines to object module. The _______ program, referred to as the load module, is directly executed by the computer.

b) The _________ of these mathematical operations were obtained from the university mainframe and not from my micro.

 

 

Task 9

Get ready for module text reading. Practice active vocabulary on the topic. First, read the words in the left column paying attention to their pronunciation. Then, find the Ukrainian equivalents in the right column. Spare column is left for your notes.

1. Programming 2. A set of instructions 3. A sequence of instr-s 4. to perform a procedure 5. to constitute 6. computation 7. subroutine 8. to be available to 9. in order to 10. so-called 11. programming language 12. assembly language 13. to provide smth 14. to be similar to 15. low/high level 16. to be oriented to 17. user 18. to be familiar with 19. to write in notation to be aimed at 20. several versions 21. internationally accepted 22. scientific/commercial use 23. to be designed 24. an error     ϳ , -, , ., ̳ , , ./.

Task 10

Read the text and say what languages the programmers and IT-specialists use in their work.

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

Programming is the process by which a set of instructions is produced for a computer to make it perform a certain procedure. The word "program" means the sequence of instructions which a computer carries out. A program usually consists of subroutines or subprograms. A subroutine is part of a program which constitutes a logical section of the program. It is written only once in the program, but may be used many times during the computation.

Many common subroutines are used quite often. That is why it is necessary to have a library of subroutines stored in some part of the computer memory and available to the programmer.

In order to make a computer perform certain instructions or commands, people use the so-called programming languages. The most primitive type of programming language is known as an assembly language. It provides commands that are very similar to the machine language of the computer. The assembly language is the most machine-dependent one. The advantage of this language is that it is easy for the computer to understand it.

The assembly language is a low level language which is oriented to the machine code of a computer. But there are also the so-called high level languages which allow users to write in a notation which they are more familiar with.

High level languages are usually aimed at a certain problem. There are several types of high level languages. One of them is FORTRAN. FORTRAN is an acronym for FORmula TRANslation. It is a problem oriented high level programming language for scientific and mathematical use. FORTRAN was the first high level programming language. It was introduced in 1954. There were several versions of FORTRAN.

Another high level language is PL/1. It was introduced in 1964. PL/1 stands for Programming Language 1. It is a general-purpose high level programming language for scientific and commercial applications.

ALGOL is another high level language. It was introduced in the early 1960s and gained popularity in Europe more than in the United States. ALGOL is an acronym for ALGOrithmic Language. It is a problem oriented high level programming language for mathematical and scientific use.

COBOL is an acronym for COmmon Business Oriented Language. It is internationally accepted programming language developed for general commercial use.

BASIC is a high level programming language designed by solving mathematical and business problems. It was developed in 1965 and stands for Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.

One more high level programming language is PASCAL. It is a general-purpose high level language named after the French mathematician Blaise Pascal.

C is a modern high level programming language, designed in the 1970s for usage with UNIX operating system. It replaced the programming language B which had been intended for UNIX. C is much more flexible than other high level languages and due to this it has now become a widely used professional language for various reasons. There are two modifications of this language C+ and C++.

One more modern high level programming language is Java. It looks a lot like C++, but its strength lies in a slightly different area than that of C++. A well-written Java program is generally far simpler and much easier to understand than the equivalent C program. Javas error handling is a big improvement over most other languages which lead to greater programming productivity.

Task 11

Read the text again and choose an appropriate variant

 

1. Programming is _____.

a. the process by which a set of instructions is produced for a computer to make it perform a certain procedure

b. the process of finding an unknown member of equation

c. the process of creating programmes

2. A program can be defined as _____.

a. a set of programming languages

b. the sequence of instructions which a computer carries out

c. a subroutine

3. A subroutine is _____.

a. everyday activities

b. the process of creating programmes

c. a part of a program which constitutes a logical section of the program

4. A subroutine is _____.

a. written only once in the program, but may be used many times during the computation.

b. written over and over again

c. used only once

5. A library of subroutines is _____.

a. stored on the shelf

b. not available to the programmer

c. stored in the computer memory

6. People use programming languages ______.

a. to keep some information in a secret

b. to make friends with a computer

c. to make a computer perform certain instructions or commands

7. The assembly language is _____.

a. the most primitive type of programming language

b. the least machine-dependent one

c. difficult for the computer to understand it

8. High level languages _____.

a. allow users to write in a notation which they are not familiar with

b. are usually aimed at a certain problem

c. and the assembly language are the same

 

9. FORTRAN _____.

a. was the last high level programming language

b. was introduced in 1955

c. had several versions

10. ALGOL was _____.

a. introduced in the beginning of 20th century

b. the assembly language

c. more popular in Europe than in the United States

Task 12

Answer the questions on the text:

 

1. What is programming?

2. What "program" means?

3. What are the main components of a program?

4. For how long is a subroutine usually used?

5. Whats the purpose of a library of subroutines?

6. What is the main function of a programming language?

7. Whats the most primitive type of a programming language and what do you know about it?

8. What is specific about high-level languages?

9. Give the examples of programming languages.

Task 13

Find Ukrainian equivalent for the word combinations below:

 

Access program, application program, archived program, binary program, common program, compatible/ incompatible program, control/ management program, database program, debugging program, educational/ teaching/ training program, free program, general- purpose program, high- performance program, off- line/ on-line program, operating (-system) program, processing program, protected- mode program, remote program, running program, self- loading program, simulation program, support program, utility program, virus- detection program, watch- dog program.

, , () , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ( ), , / , , , , , .

Task 14

Read the text and render it in English:

Testing the computer program

There are two kinds of errors or bugs with which programmers mast deal. The first type is the coding error. Such errors are syntax errors that prevent the language processor from translating successfully the source program to object program code. The language processor identifies the nature and the location of the error on the source program listing, so these errors are relatively easy to find and correct.

The second type of bug is the logic error. The computer program can be successfully translated, but the program does not produce the desired results. These errors are generally much more difficult to find and to correct than coding errors. Logic errors can be avoided through careful planning of the program logic, but it is the programmers responsibility to test thoroughly all of the program functions, in order to verify that the program performs according to specifications.

There are many tools provided to the programmer to help in debugging the program logic. These tools are called debug packages or tracing routines. They assist the programmer in following the logic by printing out calculation results and field values used in making logic decisions in the program. In a few cases it may be necessary to use a memory dump a printout of the instructions and date held in the computer memory in order to find the cause of logic errors.

Task 15

How would you describe what the Internet is? Discuss it with your partner.

 

 

Task 16

Match the terms and their definitions.

a) Internet

b) World Wide Web

c) e-mail

1. A global network connecting millions of computers.

2. The transmission of messages over communications networks.

3. A system of Internet servers that support specially formatted documents.

 

 

Task 17

Now read the text and try to describe the Internet again using the key vocabulary in bold type.

 

Believe it or not, the Internet was created way back in 1969, during the Cold War, by the United States military. It was meant to be a "nuke-proof"(1) communications network. Today, the Internet spreads across the globe and consists of countless networks and computers, allowing millions of people to share information. Data that travels long distances on the Internet is transferred on huge lines known collectively as the Internet backbone. The Internet is now maintainedby the Internet service pro-viders.

Many people think the Internet and the World Wide Web are the same thing. They're not! The World Wide Web is what you are browse. It is one of the many features of the Internet. E-mail, FTP(2), and Instant Messaging (3) are also features of the Internet.

 

(1) "nuke-proof"

(2) FTP File Transfer Protocol (
-)

(3) Instant Messaging

 

 

Task 18

Interview your partners if they surf the Internet. Use the questions given below.

 

1. Do you often surf the Internet? Which websites do you usually visit?

2. Do you download any programs from the Internet? If so, what are they?

3. Do you belong to any chat forum? Why? / Why not?

4. What feature of the Internet do you consider the most attractive? Why?

5. What is netiquette?

Task 19

Read the passage below and think if you always follow the netiquette. Why? / Why not? Discuss it with your partner.

 

Netiquette, or net etiquette, refers to etiquette on the Internet. Good netiquette involves respecting others' privacy and not doing anything online that will annoy or frustrate other people. Three areas where good netiquette is highly stressed are e-mail, online chat, and newsgroups. For example, people that spam other users with unwanted e-mails or flood them with messages have very bad netiquette. You don't want to be one of those people. If you're new to a newsgroup or online chat room, it may help to observe how people communicate with each other before jumping in.

Task 20

Think of good and bad points of the Internet and fill in the table. You can work either individually or in pairs.

 

Advantages of the Internet Disadvantages of the Internet
   

 

 

Task 21

Do the crossword.

1. Electronic messages sent to someone over the Internet.

2. Copy information from a web site to your own computer.

3. The place on the Internet where a company/organization/etc stores its documents.

4. A system linking millions of documents stored on Internet computers around the world.

5. Move form one document or web site to another, to find information.

6. Text, image or button that connects to other destination on the web.

7. A device that makes connecting to the Internet possible.

8. A group of computers joined together.

9. Now provide your own definition.

 

 

               
o o o o o o o o
               
               
               
               
               
               
               

Task 22

Fill in the gaps and retell the joke in indirect speech.

Geniuss answer

Once Einstein _____1_____: "How new_____2____that change the world___3__"?

"Quite ___4___", Einstein_____5____. "Everybody knows that something is_____6___ Then quite _____7____ chance there happens an ______8____man who ____9____ and he makes a __10____".

 

1. . is asked 2. a. inventions

b. was asked b. goods

c. will be asked c. clothes

d. . is being asked d. clocks

 

3. a. will be made 4. a. simple

b. are made b. simply

c. is made c. more simple

d. is being made d. more simply

 

5. a. asked 6. a. impossible

b. is asked b.unpossible

c. answered c. dispossible

d. will answer d.impossibly

 

7. a. on 8. a. ignorant

b. in b. bad

c. by c. clever

d. at d. rich

 

9. a. does not know 10. a. money

b. did not know b. look

c. had not known c. discovery

d. do not know d. invention

Enjoy yourself!

Render the jokes in English:

A witty answer

A man flying in a hot air balloon suddenly realizes hes lost. He reduces height and spots a man down below. He lowers the balloon further and shouts to get directions, "Excuse me, can you tell me where I am?"

The man below says: "Yes. Youre in a hot air balloon, hovering 30 feet above this field."

"You must work in Information Technology," says the balloonist.

"I do" replies the man. "How did you know?"

"Well," says the balloonist, "everything you have told me is technically correct, but Its of no use to anyone."

The man below replies, "You must work in management."

"I do," replies the balloonist, "But howd you know?"

"Well", says the man, "you dont know where you are or where youre going, but you expect me to be able to help. Youre in the same position you were before we met, but now its my fault."

The oldest profession

An architect, a hooker and a programmer were talking one evening, and somehow, the discussion turned to which profession was the oldest. "Come on, you guys! Everyone knows mine is the oldest profession," said the hooker. "Ah," said the architect, "but before your profession existed, there had to be people, and who was there before people?" "What are you getting at, God?" The hooker asked. "And was He not the divine architect of the universe?" The architect asked, looking smug. The programmer had been silent, but now he spoke up. "And before God took on himself the role of an architect, what was there?""Darkness and chaos," the hooker said. "And who do you think created chaos?" the programmer said.

 

 

TASKS FOR SELF-ASSESSMENT

Be ready to speak on the topic "Programming" using the following as a plan:

1. What is programming?

2. What "program" means?

3. What are the main components of a program?

4. For how long is a subroutine usually used?

5. Whats the purpose of a library of subroutines?

6. What is the main function of a programming language?

7. Whats the most primitive type of a programming language and what do you know about it?

8. What is specific about high-level languages?

9. Give the examples of programming languages.

10. What is software and its functions.

11. What is Internet and its role in our life.

 

Check your active vocabulary on the topic:

Programming A set of instructions A sequence of instr-s to perform a procedure to constitute computation subroutine to be available to   in order to so-called programming language assembly language to provide smth to be similar to low/high level to be oriented to user to write in notation to be aimed at several versions internationally accepted scientific/commercial use to be designed an error to be familiar with

Translate into English and be ready to give illustrative examples:

-, , - ., ̳ ϳ ,   , ./.  

 

Fill in the gaps using a word from the list:

prevent errors responsibility printing out location logic correct debugging memory dump easy specifications produce programmers

1. There are two kinds of or bugs with which mast deal.

2. The first type is the coding error. Such errors are syntax errors that the language processor from translating successfully the source program to object program code.

3. The language processor identifies the nature and the of the error on the source program listing, so these errors are relatively to find and correct.

4. The second type of bug is the error.

5. The computer program can be successfully translated, but the program does not the desired results.

6. These errors are generally much more difficult to find and to than coding errors.

7. Logic errors can be avoided through careful planning of the program logic, but it is the programmers to test thoroughly all of the program functions, in order to verify that the program performs according to .

8. There are many tools provided to the programmer to help in the program logic. These tools are called debug packages or tracing routines.

9. They assist the programmer in following the logic by calculation results and field values used in making logic decisions in the program.

10. In a few cases it may be necessary to use a a printout of the instructions and date held in the computer memory in order to find the cause of logic errors.

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