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III. Find the words in the text, which correspond to the following definitions.

1.branch of agriculture dealing with various physical and biological factors- including soil management, tillage, crop rotation, breeding, weed control, and climate- related to crop production.

2.together compose the science of biology.

3.science devoted to the study of plant.

4. science and art of gardening and of cultivating fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants.

5the management of forest lands for wood, water, wildlife, forage, and recreation.

 

IV. Translate into English.

 

1. , . 2., . 3. . 4. 쳿, . 5. . 6. , , , , , .

V. Complete each sentence with a word or phrase from the box. Use each word or phrase only once.

 
 
management of forest lands, came in classical times, the science of genetics, various physical and biological factors, gardening and of cultivating fruits, the study of plants, the science of biology, into specific scientific disciplines


1) Botany, science devoted to.

2) Botany, microbiology, and zoology together compose .

3) The establishment of botany as an intellectual science .

4) From the work of Mendel in plant breeding at the middle (1859) of the 19th cent grew.

5) The various practical aspects of botany have developed .

6) Horticulture [Lat. Hortus=garden], science and art of .

7) Forestry is the.

8) Agronomy, branch of agriculture dealing with .

 

VI. Read the text without the dictionary and answer the following questions:

1. When and where was Gregor Mendel born?

2. What main occupations did he have?

3. What plants did Menedel study?

4. What theories did Mendel develop during his research?

5. What three basic laws of genetics did Mendel discover?

Wordlist

1. ordination

2. theories of heredity

3. pea pod plants

4. trait , ,

 

GREGOR MENDEL

1822 - 1884

Gregor Johann Mendel was born on July 22, 1822, in Heizendorf, Austria. He was the only son of a peasant farmer. In 1843 he began studying at the St. Thomas Monastery of the Augustinian Order in Bruno. He was ordained into the priesthood in August of 1847. After his ordination, Mendel was assigned to pastoral duties, but it soon became apparent that he was more suited to teaching.

In 1849, he was assigned to a secondary school. It was there that he took the qualifying examination for teacher certification and failed. In 1851 he entered the University of Vienna to train to be a teacher of Mathematics and Biology. It was at the University of Vienna that he developed his skills as a researcher, which he utilized later in his life. Mendel returned to teaching in Bruno in 1854. Two years later he again attempted the state certification examination. He became quite ill, perhaps as a result of severe debilitating test anxiety, and he withdrew. He did attempt to take the examination again, but returned to Bruno in 1856 where he continued to teach part-time. Toward the end of his life, in 1868, Mendel was promoted in the monastery to Abbot. He died on January 6, 1884.

During the middle of Mendel's life, Mendel did groundbreaking work into the theories of heredity. Using simple pea pod plants, Mendel studied seven basic characteristics of the pea pod plants. By tracing these characteristics, Mendel discovered three basic laws, which governed the passage of a trait from one member of a species to another member of the same species.

The first law states that the sex cells of a plant may contain two different traits, but not both of those traits. The second law stated that characteristics are inherited independently from another. The third theory states that each inherited characteristic is determined by two hereditary factors (known more recently as genes), one from each parent, which decides whether a gene is dominant or recessive. In other words, if a seed gene is recessive, it will not show up within the plant, however, the dominant trait will. Mendel's work and theories, later became the basis for the study of modern genetics, and are still recognized and used today.

VII. Name a word or a word combination, which is not a part of the logical group.

1. Agronomy, soil management, management of forest lands, crop rotation, breeding, weed control, climate- related to crop production, field crops.

2. Forestry, timber management, fruits, wood, water, wildlife, forage.

3. Horticulture, tillage, vegetables, flowers, ornamental plants

 

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

I. Put up four questions of different types (general, special, disjunctive, alternative) to each sentence.

 

Model: Gregor Johann Mendel was born on July 22, 1822.

a) Was Gregor Johann Mendel born on July 22, 1822?

b) When was Gregor Johann Mendel born on July 22, 1822?

c) Gregor Johann Mendel was born on July 22, 1822, wasnt he?

d) Was Gregor Johann Mendel born on July 22, 1822 or on June 22, 1822?

1) In 1851 he entered the University of Vienna to train to be a teacher of Mathematics and Biology.

2) Mendel returned to teaching in Bruno in 1854.

3) He died on January 6, 1884.

4) Mendel did groundbreaking work into the theories of heredity.

5) Mendel studied seven basic characteristics of the pea pod plants.

6) The sex cells of a plant may contain two different traits, but not both of those traits.

7) Characteristics are inherited independently from another.

8) Each inherited characteristic is determined by two hereditary factors

 

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