II. Complete each sentence with a word or phrase from the box.

1. while the fine materials settle slowly. 2. mechanical analysis 3. the physical properties of the soil 4. size of soil particles 5. their productive capacity

1. The physical properties of soils determine.

2. The coarse materials settle rapidly,.

3. Texture refers to.

4. Many of the important chemical and biological properties are reflected by.

5. The determination of the proportionate amounts of sand, silt and clay is called.


III. Name a word or a word combination, which is not a part of the logical group.

1. texture, structure, porosity, smell, colour, temperature relations

2. sand, glue, silt, clay

3. fine band, coarse sand, fine sand, very fine sand

4. humus, manure, compote, composts

IV. Translate the text:


1. True humus is known to consist of the colloidal residue of organic matter. 2. We know humus to have great effects on soil texture and fertility. 3. Humus is known to absorb and hold plant nutrient substances. 4. Organic matter being added to light soils, the resulting humus binds the mineral particles into crumbs. 5. A strongly acid reaction imparted to the soil by "raw" humus in the absence of lime is unfavourable to the growth of higher plants. 6. We can maintain the humus content at a high level by using manure and composts, and by ploughing in "green manuring" crops.

V. Translate into English:


1. ̳ , , . 2. . 3. , , . 4. . 5. , .6. .



VI. Read and understand this text without dictionary.



Since all plants require 16 elements for proper growth, it is logical to conclude that the dead remains of these plants, like manure, contain all essential elements.

Organic matter, in addition to containing elements essential for plants, also contains elements necessary for livestock and man. These are sodium, cobalt, and iodine which are essential for animals but not for plants. Organic matter also contains traces of nickel and gold; in fact most of the elements in nature are found in plants.

Although organic matter contains all of the elements necessary for plant growth, these elements may not always be in the right balance for producing maximum crop yields.

VII. Translate this text without the dictionary and find out the answers to the questions given below.

Successful Farming Depends on the Soil.


Successful farming means making the best and the most scientific use of natural conditions, land, crops, livestock, machinery and all the other things which have to be put together to make the farming system work. Important points to be taken into consideration are: the soil types of the district, annual rainfalls, maximum and minimum temperature. The various factors that make up soil fertility are: moisture conditions, plant food and soil structure. All these factors influence the quality of plant, what later results in yield. The important job for farmer is to get the land into good condition and to keep it that way. Such land is more easily cultivated, provides better conditions for germination of seed and for crop growth and in the end produces better crops. The only crops, which supply part of their plant food needs, are the legumes. By means of their roots they take the nitrogen they need from the air, and with it they feed not only themselves but other plants growing with and sometimes other crops grown in the following year. That's why legumes are said to improve soil and manure, or form the fertilizers applied.

In order to understand the scientific growing of crops one must know the temperature requirements of plants as well, the optimum temperature for germination and growth varying with different kinds of plants. In fact crops vary in their climatic requirements. For example, winter wheat is grown in regions where the climate is cool and somewhat dry harvest period. A good winter wheat climate is not the same as that for corn. Corn is a summer crop; not being planted until after the soil has been well warmed up. Oats and barley do best in cool, moist climate, as well as potatoes. Their yield is better in cool regions. Cotton is highly important crop throughout the warmer parts of the world. It can withstand periods of drought and still produce satisfactory yields. Vegetables, because of their high adaptability, are grown over a wild range of soil and climatic conditions, soils of good physical properties being especially important. Such vegetables as tomatoes and cucumbers are often grown on a large scale under glass.

To obtain a high yield of good quality crop it is necessary to choose the proper variety best adapted to the conditions of the soil of the region where it is to be grown.


Answer the questions.

1. What does successful farming mean?

2.What are the important points of successful farming?

3.What are the factors that makeup the soil fertility?

4.What does the cultivated soil provide?

5.Do the legumes improve the soil fertility?

6.What must we know before growing the plants?

7.What is necessary to do to obtain a high yield of good quality crop?


VIII. Retell the text.




I. Translate sentences paying attention to the words: due to, to be due to ...:


1. Soil formation is due to the process of weathering rock and to the activity of plants, animals, and man. 2. The weathering of a rock is generally due to a combination of physical and chemical actions. 3. The general character of a soil is partly due to the nature of the parent material. 4. The decay of organic matter is due to the activity of microorganisms, bacteria, moulds and other fungi.


II. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate form and explain the usage of that form in the sentence.


1. Many of the important chemical and biological properties (to be reflected) by the physical properties of the soil. 2. Texture (to refer) to size of soil particles. 3. The sand fraction (to be) further divided into five groups, resulting in a total of seven size groups. 4. There (to be) two laboratory methods of analysis. 5. The means of maintaining the humus content (to include) the use of manure and composts.


III. Make the sentences of the exercise II negative.






legume i , ,

virgin soil , ,









I. Read the text and answers the following questions:


1. What is the crop rotation?

2. What is the way of returning nitrogen to the soil?

3. What is the difference between virgin soils and the soils for crops and pastures?

4. What things may contribute to the deterioration of soil structure?

5. What properties determine the agricultural quality of soils?



There has always been great variation in the quality of soils available for agriculture. In most instances, the better soils are used for crops, and the less suitable ones are kept for pastures or timberlands.

The systematic alternating of crops from field to field is known as crop rotation, which is one of the methods of soil conservation. A good rotation system consists of adjusting the crop arrangement to the physical nature of the land and, in the same time, maintaining a balanced economic farming programme. Rotation implies the growing of more than one crop on a farm. In other words, rotation and diversification go hand in hand.

Since no two crops make identical demands on the soil, one crop may require excessive amounts of a given nutrient, which another crop may be able to supply. For example, legumes return nitrogen to the soil, but most other crops require more nitrogen than the soil can normally supply.

Time makes little change in virgin soils. But when soils are used for crops or pasture, the balance that nature has given them is upset in various ways and to varying degrees. Changes in the nature of soils cannot be avoided as they are put to diverse uses. These changes may result in improvement in productivity. Frequently, however, soil use results in soil damage and decreased yields. Thus careful treatment of soils in ways that will keep them productive through continuous use is the aim of every good agricultural programme.

Improper use may result in the deterioration of soil structure; several things may contribute to this deterioration, including: plowing when soil is too wet; failure to return organic matter; unwise use or lack of lime; neglecting to rotate crops. An even more serious and widespread kind of soil damage is the loss of essential plant nutrients. This may result from continuous growing of the same crop and from failing to fertilize it properly. Still another serious cause of depletion in most soils is known to be the loss of organic matter.

Properties that determine the agricultural quality of soils include: 1) ability to produce high crop yields under good management and careful handling; 2) the ease with which they can be used profitably; 3) the amount and kind of care they require. Good soils respond well to proper management, which involves correct cropping practices, use of fertilizers, and effective protection against damage. Without good care all crop land deteriorates with continuous use. The loss that results from improper care of good soils is greater than from improper care of poor soils, since the former are more valuable. Nevertheless, it is highly important to give the best possible care to all soils, and particularly to the best soils. This is one of the first essentials of good farming methods.

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