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VIII. Translate into English.

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GRAMMAR EXERCISES

I. Put up four questions of different types (general, special, disjunctive, alternative) to each sentence.

Model: The shoot system consists of vegetative shoot (stem and attached leaves) and floral shoots terminating in flowers.

1) Does the shoot system consist of vegetative shoot (stem and attached leaves) and floral shoots terminating in flowers?

2) What does the shoot system consist of?

3) The shoot system consists of vegetative shoot (stem and attached leaves) and floral shoots terminating in flowers, doesnt it?

4) Does the shoot or root system consist of vegetative shoot (stem and attached leaves) and floral shoots terminating in flowers?

 

1.Shoot growth is usually concentrated at the apex of a shoot.

2.Leaves are the main photosynthetic organs of most plants.

3.The leaves consist of a flattened blade and a petiole (stalk).

4.Vascular arrangement, leaf shape and leaf placement on a stem can help to identify or classify plants.

 

II. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate form and explain the usage of that form in the sentence.

1. Vascular tissues (to allow) for the transport of materials between roots and shoots. 2. A terrestrial plant (to inhabit) two very different environments at the same time: soil and air. 3. The number of leaves (to vary) between 8 and 48 and averages 12 to 18. 4. Some varieties (to have) a strong tendency to grow side-shoots. 5. The shoot system (to depend) on water and minerals absorbed from the soil by the roots.

III. Make the sentences of the exercise II negative.


UNIT 6

Wordlist

cereals

grains

wheat

rice

maize

rye

barley

oats

sorghum

millet

seed grains

till

weed

yield

 

I. Read the text and answer the following questions:

1. What family do the cereals belong to?

2. Where is the original home of barley?

3. Where is the original home of wheat?

4. What advantage has the rye in compare with other cereals?

CEREAL GRAINS

 

The cereals are crop plants belongingto the grass family (Graminea). The cereal grains are wheat, rice, maize, rye, barley, oats, sorghum and millet. They are the most important source of food for man and domestic animals. Cultivation of all the cereal grains except oats and rye began before the dawn of history. Wheat, barley and millet were cultivated in many parts of the Old World.

Long before the beginning of civilization the seed grains of wild grasses were gathered by primitive man and formed an important part of his food. Later, as man began to till the soil, cereal grasses were his first crops. The history of the cereals was the history of civilization.

Wheat and barley, oats and rye, all have been cultivated for so long1in many lands that their original homes are forgotten. We know that the greatest number of varieties of a plant is found in its original home. Not less than eighteen kinds of the common barley are found in Abyssinia, about five in Southern Europe and only one in Norway, at the northern limit of barley cultivation.

Abyssinia is the original home of barley. Later the barley was carried down the Nile to Egypt.

In the early times of cultivation wheat was widely spread over Europe. Its original home lies in the great mountainous area of Persia and Afghanistan. How and when wheat arrived in Europe is an unsolved problem. One thing is certain, it did not come alone. Along with2it came a number of weeds. Rye was one of them. It is a hardier plant than wheat and can grow on poorer soils and in colder climates. The cultivation of rye in Europe extends to the Arctic circle. The story of oats has much in common3with the story of rye. Many kinds of oats travelled as weeds in the wheat crops. The oat plant, like rye, is hardier than wheat.

Soil and climatic conditions are very important for growth, yield and quality of cereals. Wheat, maize, rye, barley, oats, sorghum and some of the millets are generally grown in the temperate climates.

Notes

1. for so long

2. along with

3. much in common

 

II. What meaning have the following word combinations in the text?

 

The grass family, the most important source of food, the dawn of history, the Old World, long before the beginning of civilization, primitive man, original home, varieties of a plant, in the early times, one thing is certain.

III. The following sentences have mistakes. Correct them.

1. The cereal grains are wheat, rice, maize, rye, barley, oats, sorghum and corn.

2. Not less than eighteen kinds of the common barley are found in Norway, about five in Southern Europe and only one in Abyssinia, at the northern limit of barley cultivation.

3. The wheat is hardier than oat.

4. The Southern Europe is the original home of barley.

5. Maize original home lies in the great mountainous area of Persia and Afghanistan.

 

IV. .

1. Wheat, rice, maize, rye, barley, oats, sorghum and millet are the most important source of food for man and domestic animals. 2. We know that the greatest number of varieties of a plant is found in its original home. 3. The climate of Norway is much colder than that of Persia. 4. This soil contains less humus than that one. 5. Rye is a hardier plant than wheat and can grow on poorer soils and in colder climates. 6. The oat plant is hardier than wheat.

 

V. .

1. Wheat is grown in the temperate climate. 2. Yesterday we studied the history of wheat cultivation. 3. Wheat belongs to the grass family. 4. This plant was planted three months ago. 5. We have planted many trees in this town. 6. Barley came to Europe from Abyssinia. 7. We shall sow cereals at our experimental-training farm next year.

VI. How much do you know about the history of the cereals?

1. family do the cereals belong to?

(a)Bambusoideae

(b)Gramineae

(c)Rosaseae

 

2. is the original home of barley?

(a)Egypt

(b)Norway

(c)Abyssinia

 

3. is the original home of wheat?

(a)Europe

(b)Afghanistan

(c)Persia

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

I. Put up four questions of different types (general, special, disjunctive, alternative) to each sentence.

 

Model: The history of the cereals was the history of civilization.

1) Was the history of the cereals the history of civilization?

2) What was the history of the cereals?

3) The history of the cereals was the history of civilization, wasnt it?

4) Was the history of the cereals the history of civilization or not?

 

1. The cereals are crop plants belonging to the grass family.

2. Cultivation of all the cereal grains except oats and rye began before the dawn of history.

3. Wheat, barley and millet were cultivated in many parts of the Old World.

4. In the early times of cultivation wheat was widely spread over Europe.

5. Abyssinia is the original home of barley.

 

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