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VIII. Find the correct Ukrainian translation of the following sentences.

1. The quality of wheat is expected to be poor on peaty soils. 2. Winter hardiness is considered to be of great importance in winter varieties. 3. The wheats proved to be self-fertilized. 4. The great majority of wheats appears to have been produced by artificial cross-fertilization of pre-existing varieties. 5. Wheat is thought to grow well on heavy loams and clays. 6. This crop seems to be greatly valued by plant breeders (). 7. The cultivation of wheat is believed to have begun in prehistoric times. 8. Cultivated wheats seem to have originated from certain species of wild grasses. 9. Wheat is known to be an extremely deep-rooted and drought resistant crop.

1. , , , .. 2. , , . 3. ǒ, . 4. , . 5. , , . 6. , , .7. , . 8. ,, .9., .

IX. Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to the different meanings of the word as:

1.In Britain rye is cultivated as a forage crop. 2. As rye is a drought resistant plant it is productive upon almost any class of soil. 3. As to rye it is considerably more winter-hardy than wheat. 4. The seedbed is prepared as for wheat, and the grain may either be broadcast or drilled. 5. Rye is a cereal as well as wheat. 6. Where rye is grown as a forage crop it must be cut earlybefore it shoots, as towards the end of its growing period it becomes hard, dry and unpalatable. 7. Rye must be cut as soon as the ear has filled. 8. Rye is mostly cultivated for forage purposes and feeding-off as well.

X. Read the text without the dictionary, divide it into the paragraphs and give the name to each of them.

Rye

 

Rye is a drought resistant plant, which thrives under a great variety of conditions; it is productive upon almost any class of soil and very resistant to acid conditions. When rye is grown for grain on good soil it is usually less profitable than the other cereals, and its cultivation is therefore confined to districts1 of poor, dry, light land that produce inferior wheat and oats. It also succeeds on peaty soils2 and on the poorer sorts of black fen. Rye does best on good loams, which however, yield more profit under other crops. Rye is considerably more winter-hardy than wheat. When rye is grown on good land it is mostly cultivated for forage purposes and it is extremely valuable for feeding-off or for soiling. The seed-bed is prepared as for wheat,3 and the grain may either be broadcast or drilled in the usual way. Seeding should take place from two to three weeks before wheat sowing begins. Cutting takes place about the beginning of August. When high-quality rye straw is required for special purposes it may be cut before the ear has filled4 then dried and used: this avoids the threshing process which damages the stems considerably. Where it is grown as a forage crop, it must be cut early before it shoots5as towards the end of its growing period it becomes hard, dry, and unpalatable. In Britain rye is cultivated as a forage crop, but more largely for its grain and straw.

Notes

1. its cultivation is therefore confined to districts ... ...

2. it also succeeds on peaty soils ()

3. as for wheat

4. before the ear has filled

5. before it shoots

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

I. Put up four questions of different types (general, special, disjunctive, alternative) to each sentence.

Model: In Britain rye is cultivated as a forage crop.

1) Is in Britain rye cultivated as a forage crop?

2) What is cultivated in Britain as a forage crop?

3) In Britain rye is cultivated as a forage crop, isnt it?

4) Is in Britain or in the USA rye cultivated as a forage crop?

1. Combine-drilling is the most economical way of applying these fertilizers.

2. The amount of seed required for autumn wheat will vary between 1 and 2.5 cwt/acre.

3. Winter wheat is normally harvested from August to October.

4. The basic aim is to make the soil favourable for sprouting the seed and growing the plant.

5. A new drought resistant variety of wheat has been developed by this scientist.

II. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate form and explain the usage of that form in the sentence.

1. High yields of wheat (to obtain) on all except very light soils. 2. The seedbed (to prepare) as for wheat 3. Rye (to do) best on good loams. 4. Rye (to be) a drought resistant plant. 5. The cultivation of wheat (to believe) to have begun in prehistoric times.

III. Write the following sentences in the Passive Voice:

 

Example: We have found a new wheat variety.

A new wheat variety has been found by us.

 

1. Our scientists have found much starchy and nitrogenous food material in wheat grains. 2. This scientist has developed a new drought resistant variety. 3. We have grown perfect crops of wheat on heavy loams and clays. 4. Our experimental station has developed a new frost resistant variety of wheat. 5. Frost has killed this young plant. 6. This winter wheat variety has produced a high yield.


UNIT 7

Wordlist

fen

water-table

clay

loam

kainit .: .:

bread cereal

malting

peaty land

by-product

harrowing

rolling ()

artificial

smut

leaf-stripe - -

I. Read the text and find out the main differences between oats cultivation and wheat and barley cultivation.

Oats

The oat is the most extensively cultivated cereal in Britain, and is grown in every country and under widely different conditions of soil and climate. While not as resistant to winter cold as wheat and barley, oats are much more successful than these cereals in wet districts.1

The number of oat varieties in cultivation2is very large, and since the crop is grown under a very wide range of soil and climate conditions3,from the poorest to the most fertile soils, and under annual rainfalls of 20 to perhaps 70 in., it will be obvious that a wide choice of types is desirable.

There is a fairly sharp distinction between true winter varieties (which are normally sown in October and are usually ripe for harvest before the end of July) and the spring varieties, for which seed-time ranges from late February to the middle of April and which ripen from early August to late September, or even as late as October in the extreme north.

The oat is the best of the commonly cultivated cereals for growing on poor soil, in dull rainy districts, and where the summer temperature is rather low; it can be ripened by a minimum of sunshine. Very high rainfall encourages the development of straw rather than grain. Lower rainfall and better soil lead to the development of more and better grain but less straw of lower feeding value.

In the fens the rainfall is low; very fine crops of oats can be grown because the soil receives a constant supply of moisture from the high water-table. A clayloam that is supplied with abundant moisture is the best soil for this crop, but black-top and peaty lands give almost as good results.

Manuring. While the oat crop is capable of producing a fair yield on very poor soil, it nevertheless responds to liberal manuring,4 and it is common to treat it with nitrogenous, phosphatic, and under certain circumstances, potassic dressing.5A common treatment is to give 1 to 3 cwt.6of superphosphate according to local conditions, up to 2 cwt. of sulphate of ammonia at seed-time and if the soil is light, an addition of 2 cwt. of kainit applied a month or so before sowing.7On good soils that are in high condition,8first-class crops of oats can be grown without the application of any manure.

Notes

 

1. While not as resistant to winter cold as wheat and barley, oats are much more successful than these cereals in wet districts. , , , .

2. varieties in cultivation ,

3. under a very wide range of soil and climate conditions -

4. responds to liberal manuring

5. it is common to treat it with ... dressing

6. 1 to 3 cwt (hundred weight) 1- 3- (1 cwt=50,8 )

7. a month or so before sowing

8. to be in high condition

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