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II. Translate into Ukrainian, paying attention to Absolute Participle Construction.

 

1. Barley is widely grown in all subtropical and temperate countries, large areas being devoted to its cultivation in many parts of the British Isles. 2. Barley is used for human food, its straw being strictly a by-product. 3. Barley can be grown under almost any conditions of soil and climate, the only frequent cause of failure being soil acidity. 4. Barley does best on a very fine and moderately deep seedbed, the, seedbed being prepared by harrowing and rolling. 5. Barley has a shorter period of growth than the other cereals, sometimes crops being obtained from seed put in as late as May. 6. Barley being grown on land in high condition, it is not necessary to supply any artificial fertilizers.

 

Wordlist

 

allocated , ,

dent maize

flint maize

sweet corn

soft maize

waxy maize

pod maize

texture

avoid

draining

oxygen

alkaline

germination

inter-row cultivation

rot

survive

I. Read the text and answer the following questions:

 

1. What main groups of maize do you know?

2. Where is successful maize cultivation achieved?

3. Why is draining so important on maize land?

4. How should phosphate, potash and the nitrogen be applied for maize seeding?

5. What kind of ploughing, cultivation and seed-beds does maize require?

6. What minimum temperature is preferable for maize growing?

 

MAIZE

 

Types of Maize.Several thousand varieties of maize now grown throughout the world and most of these can be allocated to one of the seven most important groups: dent maize, flint maize, sweet corn, soft maize, popcorn, waxy maize, pod maize.

Soil Requirements.Successful maize cultivation is more frequently and more easily achieved on soils, which are of medium texture. As the soils become lighter the greater is the chance of their "drying out" in midsummer and although there is really nothing else against them, the very light sandy soils should be avoided.

Having suggested light to medium textured soils for maize, it must also be stressed that organic status and fertility should be high.

The maize land should be free draining in order that as much of the heat as possible is employed in raising soil temperatures and not removing excess of soil moisture. The soil should be naturally free draining to enable a full rooting system to develop in a plentiful supply of oxygen.

Maximum yields are believed to be obtained between pH 4 and 9. Some scientists believe maize to be successfully cultivated on the moderately acid soils (pH 6-7 as optimal). Others say that maize growing can be successful under alkaline conditions provided there are no serious deficiencies of the micronutrients.

Application of Fertilizers.It has been suggested that phosphate and potash should be applied to the land well in advance of drilling and the nitrogen incorporated into the seedbed just prior to drilling, otherwise much of it would be lost by leaching.

One should remember that germination is much retarded by fertilizers in contact with the seed.

Cultivation.With a more extensive and deeper rooting system than the other cereals, maize will require deeper ploughing, cultivations and seed-beds to obtain maximum growth. Autumn ploughing is advisable on stronger soils and it may be left until the early spring when textures are light. Cultivations, which follow should be to a depth of 4-5 inches. They kill the weeds after germination; inter-row cultivation can follow crop emergence to obtain further weed control. Chemical means are often preferred. Seed-beds should be uniform and fine to obtain a quick germination and to assist the action of herbicides in their control of weeds.

Seeding.Minimum temperatures for growth of maize are around 50F(10C) and thus early spring sowings are of little value except when the soils are warmer than usual. Under cool conditions seeds rot.

When the average t is over 50 F the emergence of maize will take approximately two weeks. Late spring frosts can also be damaging to seedling maize although with the cold tolerant varieties being introduced there is every chance that this crop may now survive the first few degrees of frost.

 

II. What meaning have the following word combinations in the text?

Successful maize cultivation, "drying out", very light sandy soils, medium textured soils, removing excess of soil moisture, free draining, Maximum yields, moderately acid soils, deeper ploughing, to obtain maximum growth, Autumn ploughing, weed control.

 

III. The following sentences have mistakes. Correct them.

1. When the average t is over 60 F the emergence of maize will take approximately two weeks.

2. Cultivations, which follow should be to a depth of 2-3 inches.

3. One should remember that germination is not much retarded by fertilizers in contact with the seed.

4. The soil should be naturally free draining to enable a full rooting system to develop in a plentiful supply of the nitrogen.

5. Successful maize cultivation is more frequently and more easily achieved on soils, which are of high texture.

6. Maximum yields are believed to be obtained between pH 2 and 6.

7. Autumn ploughing is advisable on lighter soils and it may be left until the early spring when textures are strong.

8. Under warm conditions seeds rot.

 

IV. Look back at the text and choose the correct words to go together.

 

They kill the weeds behind/after germination

it is much retarded with/by fertilizers

should be applied to/on the land

to be obtained among/between pH 4 and 9

on/in soils

without/throughout the world

to develop out/in a plentiful supply of oxygen.

over/under alkaline conditions

it would be lost with/by leaching.

it may be left to/until the early spring

V. Translate this text using the dictionary for 20 minutes.

Maize Root System

 

Maize root system contains no taproot, and its feathery strands spread out in all directions, mainly in the topsoil.

In most varieties the form of the root system is characteristic. The four seminal roots may perhaps persist throughout the life of the plant, but the main adventitious fibrous system, developed from the lower nodes of the stem below ground level, spreads out in a lateral direction in the upper layers of the soil, after which the roots turn vertically downwards and tap the lower levels of the soil.

The extent to which the roots penetrate to the deeper layers depends largely upon the supply of nutrients and on the drainage of the topsoil and subsoil. In soil, which is rich in nutrients, the roots are comparatively strong and branch out in all directions. In dry soil they grow longer and in damp soil weaker.

 

VI. Read the following text using the dictionary and answer the question: Why is it so important to put fertilizer in maize seed-beds?

Almost without exception, wherever efforts are made to raise agricultural efficiency and production for an expanding population, more fertilizers and manures are needed. The benefits to be derived from greater use of fertilizers and manures have been demonstrated in many countries.

According to American writers, the Indian maize growers of earlier times used large quantities of fish caught ascending the streams in the spring as manure in maize cultivation. Later, ashes and slaughterhouse wastes also were applied to arable land. Farmers observed that crops made excellent growth where these wastes had been distributed. "The Complete Farmer," 2nd edition, of the year 1769, said of maize growing: "The English in North America plough the ground thoroughly before the grain is planted. They seldom, if ever, dung the whole face of the field but sometimes put a little dung in each hill of corn, if they think the ground requires it. Where fish are plenty, in the planting season, they put two or three small fish into each hill, with the grain." It is not unreasonable to suppose that the English settlers adopted this practice from the Indians as well as the maize crop itself.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

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