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II. Look at the figure and explain the distribution of the sunflower production throughout the world.

(Mainly Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia)
(Mainly France, Spain, and Italy)
(Mainly Russia and Ukraine)
(Mainly India, South Africa, and Turkey)

III. Read the text using the dictionary for 5 minutes and answer the question: Why is it so important to select high quality, uniform sunflower seed?

High quality, uniform seed with high germination (), known hybrid varietal purity, and freedom from weed seeds and disease should be selected to reduce production risks. Seed is sold on a bag weight basis or by seed count. Seed size designations are fairly uniform across companies. Most seed is now treated with a fungicide and insecticide to protect the germinating seedling ().

IV. Read the text without the dictionary trying to understand the meaning of the bold phrases with the assistance of the surrounding words.

Maturity

 

Sunflower in the Northern Great Plains production area usually is ready for harvest in late September or October, with a growing season of approximately 120 days. The growing season may vary in length depending on summer temperatures, relative moisture distribution and fertility levels. The sunflower plant is physiologically mature when the back of the head has turned from green to yellow and the bractsare turning brown, about 30 to 45 days after bloom, and seed moisture is about 35 percent.

Desiccants can be applied to the crop after physiological maturity to speed the dry-down process. The chemical compounds act much like a frost to kill the green tissue on the plant and accelerate its drying. After applications of a desiccant, dry-down of the seed is not as rapid as the dry down of the plant. Growers often are tempted to apply desiccants too early when potential loss factors are present. Application of a desiccant before the plant reaches physiological maturity will reduce yield and lower oil percentage. Drying is facilitated in most years by a killing frost, but if frost occurs too early, yield and oil percentage are reduced.

Harvesting sunflower at moisture contents ranging as high as 25 percent may reduce seed shattering loss during harvest and loss from birds. Sunflower seed from the combine is then dried in a grain dryer to 9.5 percent, which is considered a safe storage level.

V. Read the text using the dictionary for 5 minutes and answer the question: What are the best soil conditions for sunflower?

Sunflower is adapted to a variety of soil conditions, but grows best on well-drained, high water-holding capacity soils with a near neutral pH (pH 6.5-7.5). Production performance on high-stress soils such as those affected by droughtiness, salinity, or wetness is not exceptional but compares favorably with other commercial crops commonly grown.

VI. Read the text using the dictionary for 5 minutes and answer the question: What nutrients does sunflower obtain from the soil?

Sunflower, like other green plants, requires at least 16 elements for growth. Some of these, such as oxygen, hydrogen and carbon, are obtained from water and the air. The other nutrients are obtained from the soil.

Nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur are frequently deficient in soils in any climatic zone. Potassium, calcium, and magnesium are frequently deficient in high-rainfall areas. Deficiencies of iron, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum, boron and chlorine are uncommon but can appear in many climatic zones.

 

VII. Translate the text using the dictionary for 10 minutes and then answer the questions.

 

1. Following what crops are the sunflower yields the greatest?

2. What problems will growers who do not rotate sunflower fields sooner or later be confronted with?

 

Rotations

Growers who have produced sunflower as a cash crop for several years have learned that a systematic rotation with other crops is essential. Several research studies show that sunflower yields are greater following most other crops than following sunflower (Table).

Table. Average yields of sunflower grown in monoculture and in alternation

With potato, sugar beet, pinto bean, and wheat at Crookston, MN 1972-78.

 

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Seed yield/acre (pounds) 4 Yr.

Previous crop 1973 1975 1977 1978 Ave.

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Sunflower 852 1338 1852 1781 1456

Potato 908 1279 2348 1605 1535

Sugar beet 770 1683 2358 2168 1745

Pinto Bean 946 1410 2282 1674 1578

Wheat 1284 1549 2339 1655 1706

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Growers who do not rotate sunflower fields will sooner or later be confronted with one or more of the following yield reducing problems:

-Disease and disease-infested fields.

-Increased insect risk.

-Increasing populations of certain types of weeds.

-Increased populations of volunteer sunflower.

-Soil moisture depletion.

Therefore, there are many valid reasons for rotating sunflower fields.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

I. Put up four questions of different types (general, special, disjunctive, alternative) to each sentence.

 

Model: Two types of sunflower are grown.

1) Are two types of sunflower grown?

2) How many types of sunflower are grown?

3) Two types of sunflower are grown, arent they?

4) Are two or three types of sunflower grown?

 

1. Sunflower was used by North American Indians before colonization of the New World.

2. The American Indians used sunflower as a foodstuff before the cultivation of corn.

3. Sunflower was developed first as an important commercial oilseed crop in the Former Soviet Union (FSU).

4. Oilseed sunflower has been an economically important crop in the USA since 1966.

5. In the 1980s Argentina became firmly entrenched in second place.

 

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