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II. What meaning have the following word combinations in the text?

Securing yields, control of these pests and disease pathogens, domestic and useful animals, bacterial diseases, the penetration of bacteria, the infected plant tissue, a soft pulpy mass, blocking of the vascular system, plant wounds, disease-resistant varieties, ground level, spray mixtures.


III. Find from the box the correct definition.

 
 
  1. Such disease symptoms are termed "wet rot"
  2. A pest or disease pathogen
  3. Bacterial diseases, so-called bacterioses
  4. The exhibited disease symptoms, known as "vessel bacteriosis"


1. lead to an interruption of the sap flow within the plant, followed by wilting and death.

2. are usually caused by the penetration of bacteria into injured plant parts.

3. are animal or plant organisms, which damage either cultivated plants or the products derived there from.

4. This is followed by decay of plant parts, the infected plant tissue turning into a soft pulpy mass .

 

IV. The following sentences have mistakes. Correct them.

1. Fire is the most effective way to distribute the sources of infection.

2. Bacterial diseases, so-called bacterioses, are usually caused by the penetration of bacteria into all plant parts.

3. Pest or disease pathogens directly or indirectly influence the health of plants.

4. Bacteria, unlike higher organisms, consist of two cells only.

5. By the time the disease is evident it is often possible to cure it.

V. Using the dictionary translate the text into Ukrainian.

1. The Hessian fly ( ) is believed to be the most destructive insect attacking wheat. 2. The most effective means of controlling the Hessian fly in the winter wheat regions are late planting. 3. The Hessian fly is known to occur in many parts of the world where wheat is grown. 4. The adult Hessian fly looks like a little dark-coloured gnat about one-tenth inch long. 5. The eggs of the Hessian fly are usually placed in irregular rows upon the upper surface of the leaves. 6. Small reddish maggots (, ) of the Hessian fly soon turn white, are cylindrical and have no true head or legs. 7. The maggots absorb the plant sap thus destroying the plant tissues. 8. Being attacked by the Hessian fly the plants stool out, the leaves turn dark, the central stems are absent, at last the plants yellow and die.

VI. Using the dictionary translate the text into Ukrainian.

Ridomil2E is registered for use on both bearing and nonbearing apple trees. Ridomil applications should be made before symptoms appear, especially in areas of the orchard favorable for disease development. Ridomil will not revitalize trees showing moderate to severe disease symptoms.

Stone fruit: For new plantings, make the first application 2 weeks after planting. Additional applications should be made at 2-3 month intervals or to coincide with periods most favorable for root, crown, or collar rot development.

For established plantings, the application should be made in spring before the plants start growth. Additional applications should be made at 2-3 month intervals or to coincide with periods most favorable for root, crown, or collar rot development.

Apply 2 gallons per treated acre (6 fl oz/1000 sq ft) in sufficient water to obtain thorough coverage of the soil under the canopy of the trees. Up to three applications can be made per year.

 

VII. Translate this text without the dictionary and find out the answers to the questions given below.

 

USING FUNGICIDES EFFICIENTLY

FOR EFFECTIVE DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN ORCHARDS

 

Tree fruit growers are well aware of the complex of pathogens that produce disease on leaves, branches, and fruit spanning the season from bud break to postharvest. There are 10 or more major diseases of apple trees alone. Managing these pathogens at levels below economic injury requires the integration of cultural and sanitation measures with prudent use of agricultural chemicals.

In this section we focus on different fungicide-use options for efficient and effective disease management. It is assumed that acceptable pruning (), fertilization, and sanitation measures known to reduce inoculum (, ) levels are being used and that minimal fungicide rates to maintain low disease levels are desirable.

Types of Fungicides

Pesticides used for managing fungi-caused fruit diseases are either fungicidal (they kill fungi) or fungistatic (they inhibit fungal growth). Fungicides can be separated into two categories: protectants and systemics.

Protectant fungicides protect the plant against infection at the site of application. Their characteristics are as follows:

They provide protection against infection.

They do not penetrate into the plant.

They require uniform distribution over the plant surface.

They require repeated application to renew deposit.

They have a multisite mode of action against fungi.

Fungi are not likely to become resistant to protectant fungi cides.

Some common protectant fungicides are Bravo, captan, copper, Dodine, Ronilan, Rovral, and sulfur.

Systemic fungicides prevent disease from developing on parts of the plant away from the site of application. Their characteristics are:

They penetrate into the plant.

They move within the plant.

They often control disease by eradication.

They often have a very specific mode of action against fungi.

Some systemic fungicides are Bayleton, Benlate, Funginex, Nova, and Rubigan.

Modes of Action

Fungicides can act on fungi by (1) inhibiting energy production (e.g., sulfur, copper, manzate, and captan), (2) interfering with cell structure (e.g., Dodine), and (3) interfering with growth (e.g., Benlate, Funginex, Bayleton, Nova, and Rubigan).

* * * * *

1. Why is it so important to integrate cultural and sanitation measures with prudent use of agricultural chemicals to manage the plant pathogens?

2. What differences are there between Protectant fungicides and Systemic fungicides?

 

3. How can fungicides can act on fungi?

 

VIII. Translate this text without the dictionary and find out the answers to the questions given below.

European Red Mite

Description and life cycle

The European red mite ( ), Panonychus ulmi (Koch), a major tree-fruit pest attacking apples, stone fruits, and pears, is considered by many growers throughout Pennsylvania to be the most important apple pest. The mite was introduced into North America from Europe in the early 1900s and is now established in most fruit-growing areas.

 

 

The rate at which mites develop is primarily temperature dependent. Hot, dry weather favors development, while cool, wet weather delays mite activities. Overwintering eggs are laid in groups on roughened bark, in crevices and cracks, and around bud scales on twigs and branches. Eggs begin to hatch at prepink bud ( ) stages and continue throughout bloom. Young mites move to newly opened leaves where they feed, mature, and reproduce. The first generation requires approximately three weeks to develop; summer generations are completed in 10 to 18 days.

Each female is capable of laying 35 eggs during her average life span of 18 days. Eight to 10 generations occur during the year.

Mites feeding on leaves cause injury to the tree by removing leaf tissue. The most serious injury occurs in early summer when trees are producing fruit buds for the following season. Moderate to heavily infeted trees produce fewer and less vigorous fruit buds. Mites feeding on leaves also reduce the ability of leaves to manufacture enough food for desirable sizing of fruit. Characteristic brown foliage that, in severe cases, becomes bronze, results from heavy mite feeding.

 

Mite predators (), such as predaceous mites and the black ladybird beetle (), Stethorus punctum, are generally distributed in commercial apple orchards and contribute significantly to control of mites.

 

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