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Managing mites in the apple integrated pest management program

Our integrated pest management program for apples depends largely on a miticide () to suppress mites until the Stethorus punctum population reaches levels high enough to regulate the mite population below economic injury levels. This black ladybird beetle is a voracious predator of European red mites. By conserving Stethorus in their orchards, growers in much of Pennsylvania often can reduce the number of pesticide applications to control mites. To use this beetle, several practices must be followed:

Pesticides that are toxic to the beetle should be avoided .

The alternate row middle pesticide application method is recommended, but certain conditions will dictate the use of complete sprays. These conditions include extremely high mite pressure, use of a pesticide of questionable efficacy, and weather conditions conducive to a rapid increase in the mite population.

The population densities of the mites and the beetles must be known in order to determine if the beetle population is sufficient to overcome the mite population or if the aid of a miticide is needed.

Stethorus adults emerge from overwintering sites in and around orchards between the half-inch green and petal () fall stages of apple development and quickly move into the trees to begin feeding on overwintered mite eggs. As foliage develops on the fruit trees and mites begin to hatch and disperse onto the leaves, the beetles follow to feed on these motile mites.

* * * * *

1. What weather favors the European red mite activities?

2. When do the European red mite eggs begin to hatch?

3. What damage do European red mites make for orchard trees?

4. What is the main European red mite predator?

5. What practices must be followed to use the black ladybird beetle in orchards?

6. How do black ladybird beetles contribute to control of red mites?

 

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

I. Put up four questions of different types (general, special, disjunctive, alternative) to each sentence.

 

Model: A decisive factor for securing yields is the protection of agricultural cultures.

1) Is the protection of agricultural cultures a decisive factor for securing yields?

2) What is a decisive factor for securing yields?

3) A decisive factor for securing yields is the protection of agricultural cultures, isnt it?

4) Is the protection of agricultural cultures a decisive factor for securing yields or not?

 

1. Every year millions of tons of produce are lost.

2. Bacteria, unlike higher organisms, consist of a single cell only.

3. Bacteria multiply by simple fission.

4. Some bacteria penetrate deeper into the tissue.

5. Insects also act as carriers of bacteria.

6. Efficient drainage of the soil helps in checking diseases.

 

II. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate form and explain the usage of that form in the sentence.

 

1. This black ladybird beetle (to be) a voracious predator of European red mites. 2. Mite predators (to distribute) generally in commercial apple orchards. 3. Eight to 10 generations (to occur) during the year.4. The first generation (to require) approximately three weeks to develop. 5. Overwintering eggs (to lay) in groups on roughened bark. 6.Hot, dry weather (to favor) development, while cool, wet weather (to delay) mite activities. 7. The mite (to introduce) into North America from Europe in the early 1900s.

 

III. Make the sentences of the exercise II negative.


 
 

General Botany


1 tree

2 bole (tree trunk, trunk, stem)

3 crown of tree (crown)

4 top of tree (treetop)

5 bough (limb, branch)

6 twig (branch)

7 bole (tree trunk) [cross section]

8 bark (rind)

9 phloem (bast sieve tissue, inner fibrous bark)

10 cambium (cambium ring)

11 medullary rays (vascular rays, pith rays)

12 sapwood (sap, alburnum)

13 heartwood (duramen)

14 pith

15 plant

Root

16 primary root

17 secondary root

18 root hair

Shoot (sprout)

19 leaf

20 stalk

21 side shoot (offshoot)

22 terminal bud

23 flower

24 flower bud

25 leaf axil with axillary bud

26 leaf

27 leaf stalk (petiole)

28 leaf blade (blade, lamina)

29 venation (veins, nervures, ribs)

30 midrib (nerve) 31-38 leaf shapes

31 linear

32 lanceolate

33 orbicular (orbiculate)

34 acerose (acerous, acerate, acicular, needle-shaped)

35 cordate

36 ovate

37 sagittate

38 reniform

Compound leaves

39 digitate (digitated, palmate, quinduefoliolate)

40 pinnatifid

41 abruptly pinnate

42 odd-pinnate

Leaf margin shapes

43 entire

44 serrate (serrulate, saw-toothed)

45 doubly toothed

46 crenate

47 dentate

48 sinuate

49 ciliate (ciliated)

50 cilium

51 flower

52 flower stalk (flower stem, scape)

53receptacle (floral axis, thalamus, torus)

54 ovary

55 style

56 stigma

57 stamen

58 sepal

59 petal

60 ovary and stamen [section]

61 ovary wall

62 ovary cavity

63 ovule

64 embryo sac

65 pollen

66 pollen tube

Inflorescences

67 spike (racemose spike)

68 raceme (simple raceme)

69 panicle

70 cyme

71 spadix (fleshy spike)

72 umbel (simple umbel)

73 capitulum

74 composite head (discoid flower head)

75 hollow flower head

76 bostryx (helicoid cyme)

77 cincinnus (scorpioid cyme,

curled cyme) 78-82 roots

78 adventitious roots

79 tuber (tuberous root, swollen taproot)

80 adventitious roots (aerial roots)

81 root thorns

82 pneumatophores

Blade of grass

83 leaf sheath

84 ligule (ligula)

85 leaf blade (lamina)

86 embryo (seed, germ)

87 cotyledon (seed leaf, seed lobe)

88 radicle

89 hypocotyl

90 plumule (leaf bud)

Fruits

91-96 dehiscent fruits

91 follicle

92 legume (pod)

93 silio.ua (pod)

94 schizocarp

95 pyxidium (circumscissile seed vessel)

96 poricidal capsule (porose capsule)

Indehiscent fruits

97 berry

98 nut

99 drupe (stone fruit) (cherry)

100 aggregate fruit (compound fruit) (rose hip)

101 aggregate fruit (compound fruit) (raspberry)

102 pome (apple)


Arable Crops

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