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Task 4. Match each word in section A with the one of the similar meaning in section B:

A.To attain; to demand; to require; to determine; to consider; to highlight; to contribute; to assign; to envision; to carry out; to hire; to pursue.

B.To define; to follow; to give, to consign; to achieve, to accomplish; to perform, to complete; to employ, to take in service; to imagine, to foresee; to need, to oblige; to add, to donate; to think, to believe; to emphasise, to draw attention to; to order, to stipulate.

Task 5. Match each word in section A with the one of the opposite meaning in section B:

A.Consciously; subordinate; superior; reasonable; external; ordinarily; internal.

 

B.External; unwise; unusually; internal; main; subordinate; unintentionally.

Task 6. Match each word in section A with its definition in section B:

A.Estimate; primacy; purpose; qualification; expenses; cost; strength; framework; sequence; discretion.

B.The price paid for smth.; capacity to resist force; a result which is desired to obtain; a basic structure; cost paid to achieve an end; a judgment which needs calculation or assessment; the state or being first in rank; quality fitting a person for particular work; freedom to make ones own decisions; a series of things which are connected in some way.

Task 7. Rearrange the following jumbled words into sentences:

1. The purpose of strategy, and communicate, a picture of enterprise, is, to determine, that managers envision. 2. Strategies, a framework, for guiding, provide, thinking and action. 3. Policies, before, help, they become, to decide issues, problems. 4. Managers, and still, maintain control, delegate authority, over their subordinates. 5. Rules, the simplest type, are generally, of plan. 6. Budget, planning instrument, is the basic, in numerous companies. 7. Budget, it reflects, a sensible standard of control, cannot supply, unless, the plans. 8. A managers, is to see that, everybody understands, basic task, the groups purposes. 9. People, what they are expected, must know, to accomplish. 10. Plans of this company, the achievement of, the purpose and objectives, contribute to, of the enterprise.

Task 8. Memorise the essential vocabulary to Text 2 and translate the sentences containing it:

(1) to affirm(, , ) to state publicly that smth. is true. The principle of the span of management affirms that there is a limit to the number of subordinates. affirmative affirmation
(2) bottleneck(, ) an obstruction which prevents a forward movement. There is atendency of overloading superiors which becomes decision bottlenecks.
(3) capacity () the ability. There should be room for discretion, for advantageous utilisation of creative talents and for recognition of individual likes and capacity in the most formal of organisations.  
(4) to cause () to lead to some result. Last year they began to restructure their organisation and this caused staff reduction.  
(5) to cooperate () to work jointly with others to some end. There can be no doubt that good people and those who want to cooperate will work together most effectively if they are acquainted with the parts they are to play in any team operation and the way their roles relate to one another. cooperation  
(6) creative () having the quality or power of creating. There are many examples of centers, started and run by creative individuals, which focus on communication. to create creation  
(7) to depend on ( ) to rely for livelihood, support. Organisation levels exist because there is a limit to the number of persons a manager can supervise effectively, even if this limit varies depending on situations. dependence dependent  
(8) division() a section of a large organisation. A department as the term is usually used for the production division, the sales unit, western/southern branch, the market research section or the accounts receivable unit. divide
(9) exceptional() unusual, outstanding. Organisation with wide span requires exceptional qualities of managers. to except except , exception
(10) excessive (, ) going beyond the limit of what is needed, tolerable, desirable. One of the disadvantages of the organisation with wide span is excessive distance between the lowest level and top level.  
(11) to force () to make smb. do smth., that he/she does not want to do; to influence smb. to do smth. He is forced to delegate authority to others.  
(12) formal() relating to form, rule or ceremonial. Many authors on management distinguish between formal and informal organisation. informal  
(13) to furnish() to provide, to supply, to equip. One of the tasks of chief management is to furnish decision-making and communications networks of the enterprise.  
(14) identification () the process of recognising smth. or smb. The identification of organisational needs and required activities is vital. to identify identity  
(15) impact (, ) the effect or influence; the impression made by a person, thing, idea. The principle of the span of management affirms that there is a limit to the number of subordinates a manager can effectively supervise, but the exact number will depend on the impact of underlying factors. to impact ,  
(16) to incorporate (ᒺ ) to include smth. as a part of a group, system, plan; to unite into a whole. An organisational role incorporates different objectives, which are the most important part of planning.  
(17) intentional () done on purpose.Formal organisation means an intentional structure of roles in formally organised enterprise. intention  
(18) network (, ) an interconnected system. Informal organisation is a network of personal and social relations arising spontaneously as people associate with one another.  
(19) observation () an act of observing or being observed. A manager must find out either by personal observation or using objective standards whether subordinates are following plans. to observe observer  
(20) obstacle () smth. that makes it difficult to achieve the aim. An organisation structure should be designed to clarify who is to do what tasks and who is responsible for what results, to remove obstacles to performance caused by confusion and uncertainty of assignment.  
(21) operation () work, activity. There can be no doubt that good people and those who want to cooperate will work together most effectively if they are acquainted with the parts they are to play in any team operation and the way their roles relate to one another. to operate ,  
(22) overloaded () loaded too heavily. Managers are always overloaded with different tasks. to overload  
(23) receivable () that can be accepted or received. A department as the term is usually used for the production division, the sales unit, western/southern branch, the market research section or the accounts receivable unit. to receive, receiver  
(24) to relate to ( ) to connect with; to have or be in relation. There can be no doubt that good people and those who want to cooperate will work together most effectively if they are acquainted with the parts they are to play in any team operation and the way their roles relate to one another.  
(25) room () space regarded as available to contain smth. There should be room for discretion, for advantageous utilisation of creative talents and for recognition of individual likes and capacity in the most formal of organisations.  
(26) to select () to take from among a number. You should select subordinates carefully. selection  
(27) span of management( ) the maximum quantity of subordinates managed by supervisor, manager, director. This company has the structure of organisation with narrow span.
(28) standard() a model to be followed or imitated. A manager must find out either by personal observation or using standards, whether his subordinates are following the plans.  
(29) to supervise (, ) to control, to direct, to manage. Thus we think of organising as the grouping of activities essential to attain objectives and the assignment of each grouping to a manager with the authority necessary to supervise it. supervision , supervisor ,  
(30) tendency () development in a particular direction; the quality of tending towards smth. In organisation with wide span there is atendency of overloaded superiors to become decision bottlenecks.  
(31) underlying (, ) being at the basis. The principle of the span of management affirms that there is a limit to the number of subordinates, a manager can effectively supervise, but the exact number will depend on the impact of underlying factors. to underlie  
(32) to undertake ( , , ) to assume responsibility for smth. If a manager clearly delegates authority to undertake a well-defined task, a well-trained subordinate can get it done with a minimum of the managers time and attention.  
(33) to vary (, , ) to change often; to introduce variety into smth. Organisation levels exist because there is a limit to the number of persons a manager can supervise effectively, even if this limit varies depending on situations. various variety  
(34) utilisation () use of smth. for a particular purpose. There should be room for discretion, for advantageous utilisation of creative talents and for recognition of individual likes and capacity in the most formal of organisations. to utilise

Task 9. Match each word in section A with its translation in section B:

A.To cooperate; to relate; operation; to incorporate; identification; to supervise; to clarify; obstacle; spontaneously; department; division; receivable; span; to vary; excessive; to force; to cause; to furnish; network; to imply; to select; tendency; overloaded; bottleneck; intentional; formal; exceptional; to depend on; informal; impact; room; advantageous; utilisation; capacity; creative; underlying; to undertake; workable; observation; standard.

B.; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ᒺ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; .

Task 10. Match each word in section A with the one of the similar meaning in section B:

A.To furnish; to vary; to force; to select; to depend on; to cause; to clarify; to supervise; to incorporate; to relate; to cooperate; to undertake.

B.To work together; to be connected with; to include; to administer; to take on; to make clear; to motivate; to choose; to oblige; to differ; to supply; to reckon on.

 

Task 11. Match each word in section A with the one of the opposite meaning in section B:

A.Intentional; formal; informal; advantageous; spontaneous; receivable; excessive; underlying; workable; overloaded; exceptional.

B.Planned; unaccepted; moderate; minor; ordinary; underloaded; impracticable; formal; accidental; informal; disadvantageous.

 

Task 12. Match each word in section A with its definition in section B:

A.Operation; identification; obstacle; network; room; utilisation; capacity; department; division; span; tendency; bottleneck; impact; observation; standard.

B.Coming to know by seeing; affect or influence made on smb.; measure, distance; a section; a distinct branch of a whole; the quality of tending towards smth.; obstruction to flow; work, activity; an interconnected system; a model to be followed or imitated; process of using smth.; mental ability; process of confirming some parameters; space available to contain smth.; an obstruction which prevents a forward movement.

Task 13. Rearrange the following jumbled words into sentences:

1. Designing and maintaining, is, the managerial function, the systems of roles, of organising. 2. An organisational role, which are, incorporates, the most important part, different objectives, of planning. 3. Organising, and classification of, the identification, is, required activities. 4. An organisation structure, and, who is, is designed, who is to do what tasks, to clarify, responsible for what results. 5. Communications networks, and support, reflect, enterprise objectives. 6. Many authors on management, formal, and, distinguish between, informal organisation. 7. Formal organisation, the intentional structure of roles, in, means, a formally organised enterprise. 8. There is a room, and for recognition, for advantageous, utilisation of, of individual likes, creative talents, and capacity in the most formal of organisation. 9. Informal organisation, not established, or, required, is a network of, personal and social relations, by a formal organisation. 10. Organisation levels, a limit to the number of persons, a manager can supervise, exist, because there is, effectively.

APPLIED GRAMMAR

(seeGRAMMAR REFERENCE 2, 3)

Task 14. Complete the sentences with:

A. Some, any, no. Translate them and explain your choice.

1. Do you have __ time to spare? 2. __ manager can tell you that organising and motivating employees are not easy tasks. 3. Do you have ___ information about the current expenses? 4. Without managers, there would be ___ business. 5. ___ company has the right to sell such kinds of products. 6. We received ___ letters from the distributors in Great Britain. 7. Our managers have got ___ practical experience of working in foreign countries. 8. If you have ___ questions about the company and its consumers, please contact us. 9. Before ___ product appears on the market it should be submitted to a regulatory body for approval. 10. We should define ___ factors, which will influence our success in the international market.

B. Many, much, few, little. Translate them and explain your choice.

1. Our young executives seem to have __ motivation for the job. 2. __ people like their boss interfering with their work. 3. Multinational companies distribute their financial risks over __ markets. 4. Even with heavy discounts, __ of these products have been sold well. 5. __ people have studied the art of management. 6. The company has forced __ rivals out of business. 7. He has __ reliable suppliers. 8. Today __ women have top positions in management. 9. Our new manager has not got __ ambition. 10. It is __ use in switching to a new target market.

 

Task 15. Fill in the gaps with the following pronouns: a little, a few; some, no, any or their derivatives.

1. A country having ___ inflation is like a woman being ___ pregnant (Leon Henderson). 2. Men of ___ words are the best men (William Shakespeare). 3. __ knowledge is a dangerous thing. (Alexander Pope). 4. ___ people can be happy unless they hate ___ other person, notion or creed (Bertrand Russell). 5. If you want your children to keep fit on the ground put ___ responsibility on their shoulders (Abigan Van Buren). 6. The nicest and sweetest days are not those on which ___ very splendid or wonderful happens, but just those that bring simple little pleasures ___ (Lucy Montgomery). 7. Be enthusiastic, ___ of consequence was ever achieved without enthusiasm (James Fisher). 8. A smile doesnt cost ___ and pays big dividends (James Fisher). 9. Its ___ good just moaning about ___ that needs to be done, ___ you have to have a vision of change and then offer senior managers a practical way of moving towards it (Callum Thomas).

Task 16. Translate the sentences into English using different kinds of Pronouns:

1. - ? 2. . 3. ? 4. , , . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , . 8. . 9. , . 10. . , . 11. . 12. , , , . 13. , . 14. , . 15. , .

 

Task 17. Use the following word combinations to make up sentences in:

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