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Figure 2. Organisation with Wide Span

Advantages: superiors are forced to delegate authority, clear policies must be made, subordinates must be carefully selected.

Disadvantages: tendency of overloaded superiors to become decision bottlenecks, danger of superiors loss of control, requires exceptional quality of managers.

Well-trained subordinates need less of their managers time and less contact. If a manager clearly delegates authority to undertake a well-defined task, a well-trained subordinate can get it done with a minimum of the managers time and attention. Much of the character of subordinates job is defined by the plans to be set into effect. If these plans are well defined, if they are workable, if the authority to undertake them has been delegated and if the subordinate understands what is expected, little of a supervisors time will be required. A manager must find out either by personal observation or using objective standards, whether his subordinates are following the plans.

Task 33. Translate the sentences into English:

1. , . 2. . 3. , . 4. . 5. , . 6. , , . 7. . 8. . 9. . 10. . 11. . 12. . 13. ֳ . 14. . 15. .

Task 34. Think over and then write for half an hour on one of the following issues:

A.Do you have any experience of being a member of an organisation? What type of organisation is (was) it? Why, do you think, the organisation works (worked) effectively or ineffectively?

B.Have you ever tried to plan and organise any event? Supply details and stress the role that planning and organising play in any event being a success or a failure.

C.What is the organisational structure of the educational institution you are studying at? Get to know and describe the structure itself and managerial positions in it.

DEVELOPING SPEAKING SKILLS

Task 35. Having read the material of the unit, how would you answer the questions:

Why is it important and helpful to plan your life?

What are the advantages of planning?

What aspects highlight the character of planning?

What are the characteristic features of different types of plans?

What are the main steps of the planning process?

What is the main managerial function of organising?

What aspects of organising do you know?

Task 36. Choose any of the dialogues offered below. Reproduce them with a partner. Change the roles. Single out the major ideas and be ready to report them to the group.

Dialogue 1.

A: I am interested in problems of organisational levels. Will you be so kind as to explain this issue to me?
B: Certainly. The division of activities into departments and hierarchical organisation and the creation of multiple levels are not desirable in themselves.
A: What is the reason? Are levels expensive?
B: Yes, as they increase, more and more effort and money are devoted to managing because of the additional managers, the staff to assist them and the necessity of coordinating departmental activities, plus costs of facilities for the personnel.

Dialogue 2.

A: I think that departmental levels complicate communication, dont they?
B: Of course, you are right. An enterprise with many levels has greater difficulty communicating its objectives, plans and policies downward through the organisation structure than does a firm in which the top manager communicates directly with employees.
A: I suppose that numerous departments and levels complicate planning and controlling as well. A plan that may be definite and complete at the top level loses coordination and clarity as it is subdivided at lower levels.

Dialogue 3.

A: Control becomes more difficult as levels and managers are added, doesnt it?
B: Yes, you are right. At the same time the complexities of planning and difficulties of communication make this control more important.

Task 37. Work with a partner and complete the following dialogues. Act them out.

Dialogue 1.

A: ........................................................
B: I think we should group activities in accordance with the functions of our enterprise.
A: Well, the main functions of our company are production, selling and financing.
B: ........................................................
A: But why do we choose functional departmentalisation? There exists departmentalisation by simple numbers, by time, by territory or geography, customer departmentalisation, process or equipment departmentalisation and departmentalisation by product.
B: ........................................................
A: This is an important consideration for a functional manager, as he sees the influence of staff and service groups, which sometimes threaten the security of the principal line executives.
B: ........................................................
A: O.K. Then lets create the organisation structure of our company according to functional departmentalisation.

Dialogue 2.

A: Could you tell me something about one of the main functions of management which is planning?
B: ........................................................
A: Is it the same as strategic planning?
B: ........................................................
A: Oh, I understand, speaking more precisely, a process of strategic planning is like an umbrella under which all administrative functions are hidden!
B: You are right! Strategic planning gives basis for decision-making.
A: ........................................................
B: Yes, after choosing the fundamental general strategy it must be realised. But keep in mind that plans are efficient if they attain their purpose at a rational cost. Besides, we can distinguish between various types of plans. Its up to you to choose the best one.
A: ........................................................
B: ........................................................
A: It will be very interesting to speak about other organisational functions, but I dont have enough time. Maybe we will meet one day and continue our conversation.
B: ........................................................

Task 38. Role plays.

A. (1).Imagine that you are a manager and you have some ideas about introducing a new product into the market. Your task is to persuade the president of your company to take part in this project. Make up a business plan according to the following points, present it to the president of the company and answer all his questions.

Give a brief description of the industry and a detailed explanation of the products or services to be offered.

Discuss the size of the market, the need for the new product or service and the nature of the competition.

Design a marketing plan that includes location, symbols, advertising and display.

Create an operating plan that includes a sales forecast, financial projections, accounting procedures and personnel requirements.

Make up a comprehensive capitalisation plan describing how much money the owner is committing. Few banks or venture capital companies will support a new firm unless the owner has a substantial financial commitment.

Describe the experience and expertise of the owner. This may include a resume, letters of recommendation and financial statements.

(2).Make a list of goals you wish to achieve in your life. Test them against the criteria shown in the checklist. Make a conclusion for your future.

 

 

  CRITERIA YES/NO
Is the list of goals too long? If so, can I combine some of them?  
Will I know at the end of the period whether or not they have been achieved?  
Do the goals indicate:  
  Quality?  
  Quantity?  
  Time?  
  Cost?  
Are my goals in compliance with external circumstances?  
Have I communicated my goals to all who need to be informed?  
Are my short-term objectives consistent with long-term goals?  
Do the goals provide for timely feedback so that I can take any necessary corrective steps?  
Are my authority and resources sufficient for achieving the goals?  

B. (1). Look at the chart attentively. Try to translate the titles. What duties do these employees have, do you think?

(2). Use your imagination. According to the following charts try to make up your own company using the following titles. As a president invite your group-mates to head the departments. The head of every department defines the responsibilities of his/her department, duties of its employees and presents them to the staff.

Chart 1.Marketing, purchasing, finance, engineering, sales, accounting, production, president.

Chart 2.Director of engineering, project D manager, preliminary design, mechanical engineer, project B manager, electrical engineer, project C manager, metallurgical engineer, hydraulic engineer, project A manager, preliminary design, mechanical engineer, metallurgical engineer, hydraulic engineer, hydraulic engineer.

 

Unit 3

DIRECTING AND CONTROLLING

INTRODUCTION

Task 1. Discuss the following questions:

What is controlling for, do you think? How often do people use controlling in everyday life, in your opinion?

What are the main goals of tests and control papers, to your mind?

Do you like to control or to be controlled?

Do your friends, parents, relatives control each other? Why?

What approach to controlling his subordinates should a good manager have, in your opinion?

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