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Task 16. Imagine that you work in a company.

A. You have a meeting with your partner. Ask him about his business. Use the following words:

up to now; up to the present; lately; recently; so far; since; not yet; for a long time; for ten years; since January.

 

B. You have just come back from a business trip. Tell your colleagues about it:

1. When I came to the office, ___. 2. By that time ___. 3. By two oclock ___. 4. By Monday ___. 5. Before the meeting ___. 6. When I presented our new product ____. 7. Before he signed the document ___. 8. When I calculated the deal ___. 9. When I had a speech ___. 10. Before I left the office ___.

 

C. You have a plan of activities for your working day. Explain what you will have done by the definite time:

by 10 oclock/to send fax and to make calls; by 11 a.m./to meet with client # 1; by noon/to communicate with client # 2; by 1 p.m./to visit client # 3; by 14 oclock/to have dinner with client # 4; by 3 p.m./to discuss the terms of contracts with the top manager; ; by 16 oclock/to prepare a new contract with corrections; by 5 p.m./ to analyze the working day; by 18 oclock/ to make up a plan for the next working day; by 7 p.m./to get home and have supper.

Task 17. Translate the sentences into English using Perfect Tenses:

1. ? . ? 5 . 2. ? 3. ? 4. . . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. . . 9. - ? 10. . 11. , . 12. , . 13. 6 . 14. , . 15. , , . 16. , 5 . . 17. ϳ , , , . 18. , , . 19. ϳ , , . 20. , . 21. . 22. ³ . 23. . 24. ³ . 25. , . 26. . 27. . 28. ³ . 29. . 30. .

Task 18. Paraphrase the following sentences referring to the actions in past and future, translate them:

A.1. Professional services conduct periodic free seminars where clients and potential clients can discuss various problems. 2. The employee can improve his own job methods. 3. A manager is a person who can get things done through others. 4. We can say that good leaders tend to be flexible. 5. They can work in small, cohesive units where people work together, know each other and cooperate. 6. No organisation can operate effectively without both types of organisation: formal and informal. 7. Our company can adapt to new international competition. 8. You can buy this product in our store. 9. The organisations can be divided into divisions, centres and plants. 10. You can imagine that the cost of keeping all these managers and support people is quite high.

 

B.1. A book publisher may have a trade book department, a textbooks department and a technical books department. 2. A pharmaceutical company may have one department that focuses on the consumer market, another that calls on hospitals and another that targets doctors. 3. Organisations may use the expert advice of staff assistants in such areas as safety and quality control. 4. Networking may become a business relationship where a small central organisation relies on other companies and suppliers. 5. You may use electronic money to buy these products. 6. The cost of land may be a critical factor in choosing a plant location. 7. The increase in farm productivity may be the basis for economic growth in this country. 8. The government may try to cushion the effects of unemployment by paying people unemployment benefits for a limited period while they seek new jobs. 9. His disposable income (that is, income after taxes) may actually increase. 10. Both the consumer price index and the produce price index may be calculated and published in business periodicals.

Task 19. Paraphrase the following sentences using:

A. The modal verb May according to the model and translate them: I wish you organise the meeting. You might organise the meeting.

1. I wish you made corrections in the plan. 2. I wish the standards pointed deviations at a critical point. 3. I wish the standards reflected the various positions in an organisation structure. 4. I wish the managers of our company knew exactly where to apply the corrective measures. 5. I wish managers corrected deviations by redrawing their plans or by modifying their goals. 6. I wish controls were specially tailored to plans and positions, to individual managers and to the needs for efficiency and effectiveness. 7. I wish controls were designed to point out exceptions at critical points, to be objective, to be flexible, to fit to organisational culture, to be economical and to lead to corrective action. 8. I wish you used a variety of tools and techniques in controlling. 9. I wish they used the budget as a control device. 10. I wish budgeting were the formulation of plans for a given future period in numerical terms in our business.

 

B. The modal verb Must according to the model and translate them: I am sure your manager is a highly qualified specialist. Your manager must be a highly qualified specialist.

1. I am sure you are tired to work by yourself. Create your own team. 2. I am sure your managerial skills are perfect. 3. I am sure our competitors know about our plans. 4. I am sure he is short of time, as usual. 5. I am sure he is talking with vice-president now. 6. Evidently they are preparing a new strategy of the firm. 7. I am sure they are discussing our budget. 8. Evidently she is surfing in the Internet and does not hear the phone ring. 9. I am sure they were in the local market last year. 10. I am sure they organised exhibition two years ago. 11. Evidently they have lost the competition. 12. Why are you so late? Evidently our boss has been waiting for you for half an hour. 13. I am sure they have been discussing his hiring since 10 oclock. 14. I am sure she has been working in this department for all her life. 15. I am sure he has been working in this company for 5 years.

 

C. The modal verb Could + Perfect Infinitive according to the model and translate them: You could prepare a new business plan but you did not do it. You could have prepared a new business plan.

1. They could phone but they didnt do it. 2. Our company could buy this piece of land, but we didnt buy it. 3. She could get a good treaty but she didnt get it. 4. You could send me all the documents by fax, but you didnt do it. 5. She could succeed in her interview with the top manager, but she failed. 6. They could prepare this report carefully, but they didnt do it. 7. Our company could win the competition, but it failed. 8. The managers could organise this meeting, but they were late. 9. You could travel by plane, but you lost the passport. 10. I could come in time, but I didnt catch the bus.

Task 20. Translate the sentences into English using:

A. The modal verb Can:

1. . 2. , . 3. . 4. ? . 5. . 6. , 11 00. 7. . 8. ? 9. . 10. , . 11. ? 12. , . 13. ? 14. , . 15. ? 16. , . 17. ? 18. , . 19. ? 20. , .

B. The modal verbs May, Can, Might and Could:

1. , ? 쳿 . 2. ? 3. ? 4. ? . 5. . 6. . 7. , . 8. ᒺ . 9. . 10. , ? 11. , . 12. , ? 13. , ? . 14. , . 15. 볺 . 16. . . 17. , . 18. . . 19. , . 20. . .

C. The modal verbs Must, Had to:

1. 8 45. 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. ? 6. . 7. . 8. ³ , . 9. , . 10. , , . 11. , . 12. ³, , . 13. , , , . 14. ³, , . 15. , , . 16. ³ , , , . 17. , , . , ? 18. , , , . 19. . 20. , .

READING AND WRITING

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