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Task 37. Work with a partner and complete the following dialogues. Act them out.

Dialogue 1.

A: What economic schools in Ukraine do you know?
B: ...
A: What schools did Ivan Vernadskyy, Hryhoriy Tsekhanovetskyy and Mykola Ziber represent?
B: ...
A: What is the difference between these schools?
B: ....
A: How can you evaluate the contributions of I. Vernadskyy to economics in general and the economic emancipation of women in particular?
B: ....................

Dialogue 2.

A: .. ?
B: He was an economist, sociologist, historian of industrialisation and theoretician of cooperativism.
A: ...?
B: That was A Study of the Marginal Utility of Economic Goods.
A: .......?
B: Into German, English, French and Spanish.
A: ...?
B: To the Department of Political Economy.
A: ...?
B: He shared the aspirations, ideas and political programs of the Ukrainian national and cooperative movement.
A: .......?
B: The post of Minister of Finance in the Central Secretariat of the Ukrainian Central Rada.
A: .......?
B: On January 8, 1919.

Task 38. Role plays.

A. (1). One of the students of your group acts the part of a famous Ukrainian economist whom you have just read about in this Unit. Using the active vocabulary from the text (as many new words as possible), she/he tells the group about his life and scientific carrier and the class should guess his/her name.

(2). One of the students acts as a famous economist. Other students ask her/him at least 5 questions concerning his life, career, scientific work etc and try to guess what famous person the student acts. The winner is the student who guessed the name of the scientist and he is the next to continue the game.

 

B.Choose one of the most famous economists in your country/university and write some notes about him/her. Discuss your notes with a partner.

Is he/she alive or dead?

What is/was he/she famous for?

Where does/did he/she work?

What works of this scientist do you know?

Which of the works do you think are actual nowadays? Why (not)?

What do you know about his/her life?

EXTENDED READING

UNIT 1

Task 1. Read the text Frederick Taylor and translate it.

Task 2. Find answers to the following questions in the text and write them down:

4. Is Taylor generally recognised as the father of scientific management?

5. Did he have good life experience to see the greatest possibilities for improving the quality of management?

6. What made Taylor prosperous?

7. When was his well-known work published?

8. Why were most of congressmen unfriendly to Taylors ideas?

9. What are Taylors principles?

FREDERICK TAYLOR

(1856 1912)

Frederick Winslow Taylor stopped going to college and started out as a trainee patternmaker and machinist in 1875, joined the Midvale Street Company in Philadelphia as a worker in 1878 and rose to the position of chief engineer after getting a degree in engineering through evening study. He invented high-speed steel-cutting tools and spent most of his life as a consulting engineer. Taylor is generally recognised as the father of scientific management. Perhaps no other person has had a greater impact on the early development of management. His knowledge and practice as a trainee, a common employee, a foreman, a master mechanic and then the chief engineer of a steel company gave Taylor more than enough opportunity to know personally the problems and attitudes of workers and to see the greatest possibilities for improving the quality of management.

Taylors patents for high-speed steel-cutting tools and other inventions, as well as his early engineering consulting work, made him so prosperous that he retired from working for payment in 1901, at the age of 45 and spent the remaining 14 years of his life as a not paid advisor and lecturer to advance his ideas on scientific management.

Taylors most important concern throughout most of his life was to enlarge efficiency in production, not only to minor costs and increased profits but also to make possible enlarged pay for workers through their higher productivity. He supposed that the use of scientific methods, rather than custom and rule of thumb, could yield productivity without the expenses of more human energy of effort.

His well-known work entitled Principles of Scientific Management was published in 1911. But one of the best expositions of his philosophy of management can be found in his testimony before a committee of the House of Representatives; he was forced to defend his ideas before a group of congressmen, most of whom were unfriendly because they thought, along with labour leaders, that Taylors ideas would lead to overworking and displacing workers.

Taylors principles are as following:

Changing rules of thumb with science (organised knowledge).

Attaining harmony in group activity, rather than disagreement.

Achieving teamwork of human beings, rather than chaotic individualism.

Working for highest output, rather than limited output.

Developing all workers to the highest degree possible for their own and their companys highest success.

Task 3. Read the text Henry Fayol and translate it.

Task 4. Find answers to the following questions in the text and write them down:

1. How is H. Fayol called?

2. When did his monograph appear?

3. Into what six groups are the activities of a business activity divided, according to H. Fayol?

4. Is the formulation of a theory of management essential for effective teaching of the subject?

5. What elements of management and its functions did H.Fayol consider? For what spheres are they relevant?

HENRY FAYOL

(1841 1925)

The real father of modern management theory is the French manufacturer Henry Fayol. His monograph Administration Industrielle et Generale first appeared in 1916 in French and was reprinted several times. Fayol set up that activities of a business could be divided into six groups:

Technical (production),

Commercial ((buying, selling and exchanging),

Financial (search for and optimum use of, capital),

Security (protection of property and persons),

Accounting (including statistics),

Managerial (planning, organising, command, coordination, control).

Fayol considered the elements of management and its functions planning, organising, commanding, coordinating and controlling and examined them. In his works he pointed out that these principles were relevant not only to business but also to political, religious, philanthropic, military and other undertakings. Since all enterprises need managing, it follows that the formulation of a theory of management is essential for effective teaching of the subject.

Task 5. Read the text Hugo Munsterberg and translate it.

Task 6. Find answers to the following questions in the text and write them down:

1. Is Hugo Munsterberg the father of industrial psychology?

2. What scientific degree did Hugo Munsterberg receive?

3. What were the objectives of his research?

4. What was his approach aimed at?

5. What was he interested in?

HUGO MUNSTERBERG

(1863 1916)

Hugo Munsterberg is the father of industrial psychology. He studied psychology and received his Ph.D. at the University of Leipzig in 1885. He also studied medicine and received the M.D. degree at the University of Heidelberg in 1887. At the age of 29, in 1892, Munsterberg was invited to Harvard by psychologist William James to take charge of the psychological laboratory and to act as professor of experimental psychology. In 1910, his interest turned to the use of psychology in industry. In his book entitled Psychology and Industrial Efficiency, published in 1912, Munsterberg clarified that his objectives were to discover:

how to find people whose mental qualities best fit them for the work they are to do;

under what psychological conditions the greatest and most satisfactory output can be obtained from the work of every person;

how a business can influence workers in such a way as to obtain the best possible results from them.

He was interested in the reciprocity of interests between managers and workers. He stressed that his approach was even more strongly aimed at workers and that with the help of it he hoped to decrease their working time, increase their wages and raise their level of life.

UNIT 2

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