²ʲв
:
³
ʳ
'
˳
˳
ϳ
'
㳿
Գ
Գ
Գ
Գ


Changes of Verb tense forms when transferring sentences

From Direct into Indirect Speech

He said: I informyou. He said (that) he informed me.
He said: I am informing you. He said (that) he was informing me.
He said: I have informed you. He said (that) he had informed me.
He said: I have been informing you. He said (that) he had been informing me.
He said: I informed you. He said (that) he had informed me.
He said: I was informing you. He said (that) he had been informing me.
He said: I had informed you. He said (that) he had informed me.
He said: I had been informing you. He said (that) he had been informing me.
He said: I will inform you. He said (that) he would inform me.
He said: I will be informing you. He said (that) he would be informingme.
He said: I will have informed you. He said (that) he would have informed me.
He said: I will have been informing you. He said (that) he would have been informing me.

THE INFINITIVE

The Infinitive is a non-finite form of the Verb, which names an action. There are six forms of the Infinitive in English.

Forms of the Infinitive Active Voice Passive Voice
Indefinite to manage to sell to be managed to be sold
Continuous to be managing to be selling
Perfect to have managed to have sold to have been managed to have been sold
Perfect-Continuous to have been managing to have been selling

 

The Indefinite Infinitive is used:
to name the action that is simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite Verb I was glad to maximise the potential, performance and the results of each member of my team. ,  .
to name the future action with regard to the action, denoted by the finite Verb (intention, hope) He decided to motivate employees of his company. ³  .
to express a future action with Modal Verbs You may come for interview tomorrow at 10 oclock. 10 .
The Continuous Infinitive is used:
to name the action in its progress simultaneous with that of the finite Verb They seemed to be discussing a new policy of our company. , 볭 .
The Perfect Infinitive is used:
to name the action prior to that of the finite Verb I was pleased to have set an example for my team-members. ,  .
to show that the action was not performed, after the Verbs should, ought, could, mightin the affirmative form, was/werein the modal meaning and to expect, to hope, to intendin the past tense He should have learnt the fundamentals of motivation. ( ). We ought to have encouraged employees of sales department. ( ). They could have obtained feedback the minute they came in. , ( ). The board of directors might have provided a reward for everybody. ( ). Our distributors were to have prepared reports about their commercial activity. ( ). I intended to have defined human resource policy and communicated it to the staff. ( ).
The Perfect-Continuous Infinitive is used:
to name the action that lasted during a certain period of time before the action of the finite Verb I am happy to have been working in our company for 10 years. , 10 .
In the sentence the Infinitive/Infinitive group is used as:
a Subject To be a leaderdoes not mean just to have the authority of management or supervisory position. . It was hard to influenceothers. .
a Predicate The goal of the future training is to develop leadership skills of team members. .
a part of the compound verbal Predicate You should have directed and influencedothers to achieve common goals. . She began to study and analyze leadership. .
an object to Verbs and Adjectives They asked me to define the way in which the functions of leadership are carried out. .
an Attribute Many people feel the need to be encouraged and developed. .
an adverbial modifier of purpose or result I decided to meet with you to have an honest understanding of what we can do. , .
THE OBJECTIVE INFINITIVE COMPLEX consists of:
Noun in the Common Case: Noun in the Common Case + Infinitive Pronoun in Objective Case + Infinitive
Personal Pronoun in the Objective Case:
in which the nominal part denotes the Subject or the Object of the action, expressed by the Infinitive.
The Objective Infinitive complex is used after the verbs denoting:
perceptions of senses: to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to observe, to notice We felt him allow the subordinates freedom of action. , .
wish, intention, emotions: to want, to wish, to desire, to hate, to intend, to like She wanted them to bring out extraordinary leadership qualities. ³ , .
mental activity: to consider, to believe, to think, to find, to know, to expect, to suppose We expected him to make the final decision. , .
order, request, permission, advice, compulsion: to order, to ask, to request, to allow, to permit, to advise, to recommend, to cause, to force, to make, to let He allowed managers to use authoritarian style in this situation. ³ .
         

 

 

THE SUBJECTIVE INFINITIVE COMPLEX consists of:
Noun in the Common Case: Noun in the Common Case + Infinitive Pronoun in the Common Case + Infinitive
Personal Pronoun in the Nominative Case:
in which the nominal part denotes the Subject or the Object of the action, expressed by the Infinitive.
The Subjective Infinitive complex is used:
after the verbsto say, to report(in Passive Voice) The style of leadership is said to be classified as: authoritarian, democratic and laissez-faire style. , , .
denoting perception of senses: to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to observe, to notice Many progressive companies were observed to use democratic style of leadership. ³, .
denoting mental activity: to consider, to believe, to think, to expect, to suppose The exhibition is expected to begin in time. , .
denoting order, request, permission, advice, compulsion: to order, to ask, to request, to allow, to permit, to cause, to force, to make Managers were ordered to integrate individual and group goals. .
after the verbsto seem, to appear, to happen, to chance, to prove, to turn out He seemed not to distinguish leaders from other people. , .
after the word combinationsto be likely, to be unlikely, to be sure, to be certain People are likely to work in teams. .

 

 

THE PREPOSITIONAL INFINITIVE COMPLEX consists of:
Noun in the Common Case: FOR + Noun in the Common Case + Infinitive FOR + Pronoun in Objective Case + Infinitive
Personal Pronoun in the Objective Case:
in which the nominal part denotes the Subject or the Object of the action, expressed by the Infinitive.
The Prepositional Infinitive complex is used as:
a Subject For us to cooperate with your company is the luckiest chance in our activity. . Its time for us to learn special skills and qualities. .
a Predicate The Eastern Europe market is for you to think about. .
an Object Everybody waited for the director to determine rewards. , .
an Attribute There is nobody here for her to help. , .
an adverbial modifier of purpose or result The manager gave several pieces of advice for employees to understand the task better. , .

THE PARTICIPLE

The participle is a non-finite form of the verb that has properties of the verb, adjective and adverb. There are two Participles in English: Present Participle (Participle I) and Past Participle (Participle II), having three forms.

 

Forms of the Participle Transitive verbs Intransitive verbs
Active Voice Passive Voice Active Voice
Present Participle managing being managed going
Past Participle --------------- managed gone
Perfect Participle having managed having been managed having gone

 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE is used to express an action:
1. simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb Researchingthe labour market I take into account supply and demand. , . Researching the labour market I took into account supply and demand. , . Researching the labour market I shall take into account supply and demand. , .
2. referring to the present irrespective of the time of the action expressed by the finite verb The managers working in our company, graduated from Lviv National Polytechnic University. , , .
3. having no reference to any particular time The managers are the people running the organisation. , .
4. preceding th action expressed by the finite verb if these actions closely follow each other: to enter, to open, to arrive, to see, to hear Entering the meeting room he greeted everybody. , .
PERFECT PARTICIPLE is used to express an action:
1. preceding the action expressed by the finite verb Having analyzed the market, they stopped their deliveries. , .
PAST PARTICIPLE is used to express an action:
1. preceding the action expressed by the finite verb We looked at the destroyedequipment. .

 

THE OBJECTIVE PARTICIPLE COMPLEX
Noun in the Common Case: Manager + Participle Him + Participle
Personal Pronoun in the Objective Case:
the first part (i.e. the noun or pronoun) denotes the subject or the object of the action expressed by the Participle.The Objective Participle complex is used with the verbs denoting:
sense perceptions: to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to observe, to notice We saw him communicatingwith subordinates. , . We noticed the program breaking down. , .
wish and mental activity: to want, to wish, to desire, to hate, to intend, to like, to consider, to believe, to think, to find, to know, to expect, to suppose(only Past Participle) She wanted them fulfillingher order immediately. , .
to have, to get(only Past Participle) She wanted the personnel changed. , . I must have my computer repaired. .
THE SUBJECTIVE PARTICIPLE COMPLEX
Noun in the Common Case: Director + Participle We + Participle
Personal Pronoun in the Nominative Case:
which stands in predicate relation to the Noun or Pronoun. The Subjective Participle complex is used with the verbs denoting:
sense perceptions: to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to observe, to notice Progressive companies were observed usingdemocratic style of leadership. , .
to consider, to believe, to find(only Past Participle) The meeting was considered finished. .
THE ABSOLUTE PARTICIPLE COMPLEX
Noun in the Common Case: Leader + Participle They + Participle
Personal Pronoun in the Nominative Case:
and they perform the function of the Participle subject. The Absolute Participle complex is used as adverbial modifiers of:
time The conversation having stopped, everybody went home. , .
cause The presentation being very informative, he called to supplier. , .
manner or attending circumstances and condition His eyes smiling, he informed us about the system of rewards. , .
     

THE GERUND

The Gerund is a non-finite form of the verb which has properties of the Verb and Noun.

Forms of the Gerund Active Voice Passive Voice
Indefinite managing being managed
Perfect having managed having been managed
THE INDEFINITE GERUND is used to express an action:
simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb He researchedthe market of Ukraine without paying attention to the new trends in economic development. ³ 볭 , .
having no reference to any particular time Managing means understandingothers. .
future action with regard to that denoted by the finite verb after the words: to intend, to suggest, to insist He suggested preparingpresentation.³ .
preceding the action expressed by the finite verb after the words: to thank, to forget, to remember, to excuse, to apologise Thank you for preparing report in time. .
THE PERFECT GERUND is used to express an action:
preceding the action expressed by the finite verb Thank you forhaving analyzed the market. , .
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GERUND
THE VERB characteristics THE NOUN characteristics
the Gerund of transitive verbs takes a direct Object the Gerund can be used in the sentence as a Subject, Predicative and Object
the Gerund can be modified by an Adverb the Gerund can be preceded by a Preposition which refers to it
the Gerund has Perfect and Non-Perfect forms and is used in the Active and Passive Voices the Gerund can be modified by a Possessive Pronoun and by a Noun in the Possessive Case
       

© 2013 wikipage.com.ua - wikipage.com.ua |