²ʲв
:
³
ʳ
'
˳
˳
ϳ
'
㳿
Գ
Գ
Գ
Գ


THE VERBAL COMPLEXES: COMPARISON

 

The Verbals The Objective Complex The Subjective Complex The Absolute Participle Complex The Prepositional Infinitive Complex
The Infinitive Manager + Infinitive Him + Infinitive We wanted him to deliver a lecture on non-verbal communication. , .   Director + Infinitive We + Infinitive The Ok sign is considered to be rude and insulting in Germany and Brazil. Ok ͳ 볿. ____________ For + Leader + Infinitive For + them + Infinitive Its time for us to look at non-verbal symbols through the prism of self-analysis. .
The Participle Manager + Participle Him + Participle We saw him greeting the guests. , . Director + Participle We + Participle He was seen nodding his head. , . Leader + Participle They + Participle His face smiling the manager left the room. , . ____________

SYNTACTIC FUNCTIONS OF THE VERBALS: COMPARISON

  The Infinitive The Gerund The Participle
A Subject It was easy to confuse all the data. . Thrusting the head forward can be used to convey different meanings. .   ____________
A Predicative The most efficient way to improve the situation wasto create a new team. . The meaning of this gesture isconveying disagreement. . (only Past Participle) When the top manager entered the room, the agreement was signed. - , .
A part of the compound verbal Predicate Alan tried to analyze behaviour of his colleagues. . ____________ ____________
An object He asked me to remain calm. ³ . Americans tend to view hunkering as primitive. . We saw him foldinghis hands. , .
An Attribute Communication has the need to be conformed to different cultures. , . She had a strange habit of rubbing her nose. . I cant stand people taking bribes. , .
An Adverbial Modifier He shook his head to show disagreement. ³ , . Dont come in without knocking. , . Having nodded his head, he continued. , .

 


11. THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

The Subjunctive Mood represents an action not as a real fact but as something that would take place under certain conditions, something desirable, necessary or unreal, unrealisable.

There are four forms of the Subjunctive Mood in English: the Conditional Mood, the Suppositional Mood, Subjunctive I and Subjunctive II.

THE CONDITIONAL MOOD

Type of the Conditional Formation Usage
The Present Conditional should/would + The Indefinite Infinitive without the particle to expresses an action which would take place under certain conditions in the present or future: But for that supplier, he would be in his office now. , . Wedstore the information, but it will be unnecessary. , .
The Past Conditional should/would + The Perfect Infinitive without the particle to expresses an action which would have taken place under certain conditions in the past: He would have conveyed the information, but I managed to get it on my own. ³ () , . I should/would have interacted with this company, but there was no need. , .

THE SUPPOSITIONAL MOOD

Type of the Suppositional Formation Usage
Represents an action not as a real fact but as something necessary, important, ordered, suggested etc. and not contrary to reality:
The Present Suppositional should (for all persons) +The Indefinite Infinitive without the particle to in the present or future: It is demanded that all the necessary information should be gathered in 2 days. , .
The Past Suppositional should (for all persons) + The Perfect Infinitive without the particle to in the past: It was unpleasant that this should have occurred to our suppliers. , .

 

THE SUPPOSITIONAL MOOD is used in:

in subordinate clauses after the expressions: it is (was) necessary, it is important, it is desirable, it is advisable, it is requested, it is ordered, it is arranged, it is demanded, it is odd, it is strange, itwas doubtful; it is (was) a pity, it was a shame etc. It was ordered that all the subsets were summarised in advance. , . It was a shame that we should not have taken advantage of such a favourable situation. , .
in object clauses after the verbs to suggest, to demand, to insist, to order, to arrange, to request, to recommend etc. He suggested that they should use the Internet, along with all types of media, for advertising. ³ , , ̲ .
in subordinate clauses introduced by lest, often preceded by verbs tofear, to worry, to be afraid, to be uneasy etc. He moved closer lest others should overhear us. ³ , . Victor dreaded lest his role in this business should have been predetermined. ³ , .

SUBJUNCTIVE I

Formation Usage
Subjunctive I is a feature of formal style and can be found:
Identical to the Infinitive without the particle to (no tense distinctions) in subordinate clauses after the expressions: it is (was, will be) necessary, important etc. (see the previous table): It is necessary that all the resources be concentrated in this place. , .
in object clauses after the verbs to suggest, to demand, to insist, to order, to arrange, to request, to recommend, etc: He demands that his employees be able to take action in case of need. ³ , .

SUBJUNCTIVE II

Type of the Subjunctive Formation Usage
The Present Subjunctive II identical to the forms of Past Indefinite Indicative* represents an action as contrary to reality in the present and future: If this resulted in disaster, I would be responsible for it. , (, ). If I were* responsible, I would tell them about it. , ( ).
The Past Subjunctive II Identical to the forms of Past Perfect Indicative represents an action as contrary to reality in the past: If the delivery of products to retailers had been excellent, there would have been no complains. , ( ).

*Note: The only exception is the verb to be which has the form were for all persons.

SUBJUNCTIVE II is used:

in object clauses when the predicate of the principal clause is the verb to wish. I wish I were a successful manager! , ! Tom wished he had captured that information. , .
in subordinate clauses joined to the principal clause by the conjunctions as if, as though, often preceded by the verbs to look, to feel, to seem, to be, to act. After that meeting he feltas if he were a young inexperienced beginner. ϳ 򳺿 , . The supplier lookedas though he had not been informed. , .
in adverbial clauses of condition, introduced by the conjunctions if, even if, even though, when the realisation of the condition is impossible or unlikely. If I were you, I would support the idea about this transaction. . Even if you had done this, it wouldnt have helped. , .
in simple sentences after the expressions if only; oh, if; oh, that. If only I had done this earlier! ! Oh, if she were there in time! !
to express advice in the pattern smb. had better do/not do smth. You had better alert them. . He had better not cooperate with them. .
in the pattern it is (was) time smb. did smth. It is high time they came to the conclusion. , .

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

The subordinate clauses of condition can be introduced by the connectors if, unless, even if, in case (that), only if, provided (that). They can be divided into the following types:

Conditional I Real Condition ( ) for the present, past and future The Principal Clause The Subordinate Clause
Past, Present, Future Past, Present*
They usually look through classified ads if they need some new workers. , . He was badly needed by the company, if he was head-hunted by it.³ , . Youll get a lot of information about head hunters, if you visit this web-site. , .
Conditional II ImprobableCondition ( ) for the present and future Would, could, might + Indefinite Infinitive Past Indefinite, Past Continuous**
He could be a successful head-hunter provided he tried himself in this field.³ , . They would poach this manager, if he were a bit younger. , . I might make some calls to the contacts of mine, if you wanted to get this job. , .
Conditional III UnrealCondition ( ) for ever, referring to the past Would, could, might + Perfect Infinitive Past Perfect
I would have tried to get that job, even if I had had the smallest chances for success. , ( ). He might have prepared an excellent portfolio provided, he had had more time.³ , ( ) ( ). He could have granted special advantages to some of these employees, if he had known that they were approached by head-hunters.³ () , , ( ).
       

*Note: We never use Future tenses in the subordinate clauses of Condition.

**Note: Here we use form were for all persons of singular and plural. Though there is a tendency in Modern English (esp. conversational) to use was in singular, according to the rules.

13. THE COMPOUND SENTENCE

A compound sentence ( ) consists of two or more sentences equal in rank which are called clauses. The clauses of a compound sentence are linked by means of:

 

a) copulative conjunctions ( ) He was a very eminent scholar and his works greatly influenced the development of this science. ³ , .
b) disjunctive conjunctions ( ) I must distribute this information or Ill be fined. , .
c) adversative conjunctions ( ) I read this book, but I didnt read that article. , 򳺿 .
d) asyndetically () He graduated from Kharkiv University; he passed his Masters examination; he wrote his first work. ³ , , .

THE COMPLEX SENTENCE

A complex sentence ( ) consists of a principal (main) clause ( ) and one or more subordinate clauses ( ). There are five types of subordinate clauses.

SUBJECT CLAUSES ( )perform the function of the subject. They are introduced by:
a) conjunctions that, whether That is what I wanted to say. .
b) conjunctive pronouns and adverbs who, whom, whose, what, which, where, when, how, why What the real cause was and which theresults would be was unknown then. . What I need now is someone to do the job. , , .
PREDICATIVE CLAUSES ( ) have the function of the predicative of the principal clause. They can be introduced by:
a) conjunctions that, if, whether, as if, as though, lest His wish was that all profits should be divided.³ , .
b) conjunctive pronouns and adverbs who, whom, whose, what, which, where, when, how, why The question was who was responsible for all this. .
OBJECT CLAUSES( )have the function of the object. They can be introduced by:
a) conjunctions that, if, whether, lest He knew that introduction of these regulations was inevitable. ³ , .
b) conjunctive pronouns and adverbs who, whose, what, which, where, when, how, why We know what risks are to be expected. , .
b) asyndetically Everybody understoodhe was close to bankruptcy. , .
ATTRIBUTIVE CLAUSES( )have the function of the attribute to a noun or a pronoun of the principal clause. They can be introduced by:
a) conjunctive pronouns who, whose, which, that J. Keynes mother was a remarkable woman who was a great pioneer in social reform. , , . Political economy accepted the historical method, which can be called experimental. , .
b) conjunctive adverbs where, when M. Ziber was educated at the department of law at Kyiv University, where he showed a particular interest in political economy. . dz , 쳿.
b) asyndetically One of the most important projects he was involved in was the setting up of the International Monetary Fund. , .
ADVERBIAL CLAUSES ( ) have the function of various adverbial modifiers of the principal clause. They can be divided into adverbial clauses of:
time (introduced by conjunctions when, after, before, while, till, until, whenever, as soon as,since etc). Ill buy this equipment when it is improved. , . Youll do this, after you realise its necessity. , , .
place (introduced by conjunctions where, wherever) Ive found a place where you can produce these goods. , .
cause (introduced by conjunctions because, as, since, for) Since you are the manager, you should deal with this problem. , . The results are very poor because he has been doing all this very grudgingly. , .
result (introduced by conjunctions so that, so) The improvement was so considerable, that we decided to enhance domination of these methods. , .
purpose (introduced by conjunctions so that, that, so, in order that; lest) Lets generalise these concepts so that clients may look through them more quickly. , 볺 . He intensified his control over the costs lest they should involve investments.³ , .
manner and comparison (introduced by conjunctions as, asas; not so as; than; as if, as though; the morethe more) He tried to see as many potential suppliers as it was possible.³ , . The more eminent you are, the more successors you have. 쳭, .
concession (introduced by conjunctions though, although, whoever, whatever, whichever, however) He tried to gain recognition, though it was difficult. ³ , . Whatever you do, we are ready to help you. , .
condition(introduced by conjunctions if, unless, even if, only if, in case (that), provided (that) There wouldnt be the study of the history of economic thought provided if it were unimportant. , .
Peculiarities of the Complex Sentences Translation There are some peculiarities which you are to remember while translating the complex sentences into English:
1) always observe the rules of the sequence oftenses, if the verb of the principal clause denotes a past action He realised that this stepwould ruin his career. ³ , . They confirmed that the priceshad beenalreadydefined. , .
2) we never use future forms in time and condition clauses; we normally use a present form When, in some years, youhavesome profits, you will have to share them with your partners. , . If youattemptto do this, you will enhance your chances for success. , .

VOCABULARY

 

A
access ,
to accomplish ,
to accomplish objectives
accomplishment
accordingly ()
account (of) ,
to account for ,
accountant
accounting , ,
accounts receivable
to accumulate capital
accumulation ,
accumulative ;
to achieve
achievement
to acknowledge ;
acknowledged
acknowledgement ;
to acquire experience
activity
ad . ,
to adapt ,
adaptability
adaptable ,
adaptation ,
additional funds
to adhere to ()
adherence , ,
adherent ,
adhesion
to adjust ,
administer ;
to adopt ,
adoption
adoptive , ,
advanced ,
advantage ; ,
adverse ,
adverse effects
to advertise ,
advertisement ,
advertising ,
to advise ();
adviser ;
advocate ,
to advocate ,
to affect ,
to afford
afterthought ,
to aggregate
aid ,
to aid ,
to alert
to allocate ,
allocation
to alter
alteration
analysis
to analyze
annual membership ,
to anticipate ,
anticipation
appalling ,
appeal ; ,
applicant ,
application ;
to apply ;
to appoint ; ( )
appointment ( )
approach
appropriate
to arch
array
arrogant ,
aspiration ;
to assess
assessment ,
assessor ,
asset , ;
asset stripping
to assign duties
assignee
assignment
to assist
assistance ,
assistant
associate
to assume , , ,
assumption
at the expense of
to attach ;
attachment ;
to attain
attainable
attempt ,
to attempt
attitude ,
attribute ,
authoritarian ,
authority ; , ;
to authorise
available , ,
to be available to ,
B
to be backed up with
balanced sheet
to become a bankrupt
bankruptcy
bargain , , ,
to base ;
basis ;
to be influenced by smth.
belligerent ,
beneficial , ,
benefit ,
bias , ,
to bias
biased ,
board of directors
bond
bottleneck ,
brand ,
breach ,
to break down ,
to break up
bribe
brief ,
briefly
broad
to broaden
budget
business , ; ,
business cycle
to do business with ,
C
to calculate
capacity
capital assets ;
to capture ,
cargo
to carry forward , ,
to carry off
to carry on
to carry out , ,
to carry through , ,
cause
to cause
to cease
challenge ,
charisma
chief executive officer (CEO)
clarification , ,
to clarify , ,
clash , ,
to clash ,
classified ad
to classify
coach
to coach ,
to coerce
coercion
coercive
to cohere ,
coherence
coherent
cohesion , , , 璺
cohesive ',
to coincide ; ,
coincidence
coincident
coincidental
coincidentally
cold-calling
collateral
collateral
to come (to draw, to reach) a conclusion
command
to command ,
commerce ,
commitment
commodity
common , ,
comparative
to compare
to compete ,
competition ,
competitive , ,
competitively
competitor ,
to complete
compliance
in compliance with
compliant
composition of the market
to comprise ,
computer terminal
to conceal
concealment
concept ;
concern ;
concise ,
concisely ,
conciseness (concision) ,
to conclude
conclusion
condition
to conduct ,
to conduct research
confident
to confirm
confirmation
conflict
to conform ,
to confront
confrontation ,
to confuse ,
to conquer ,
conqueror
conquest ,
conscious
consciously
consciousness
consent ,
to consent
consequence ,
consequent ,
consequently ,
to consider ; ;
considerable
consideration , ,
considered ,
to consist in
constancy of purpose
to constrain ,
constraint ,
consumer
contagion ,
contemporary ;
content , ,
to contribute to
contribution ,
contributive
contributor , ,
to control
conventional , ,
conversation ,
to convey ,
to cooperate
cooperation
co-owner
corporate affairs
to correct ,
correction
corrective
corrector ,
cost ,
the cost of living
cost-accounting (self-support)
costs ,
at all costs, at any costs
at great costs of life
costs of production
counsel ,
counselor
to cover losses
to cover the costs
to create
creation
creative
creativeness
crew member
criterion
critical point
customer
to cut expenses
cycle
D
data analysis
to deal with ,
debentures ,
to debrief
to deceive
deception ,
deceptive
decline , , ,
to decline
to dedicate
dedicated
to default
to define ; ;
definite ,
delay , ,
to delay ,
to delay payments
to delegate ,
deliverance ,
delivery ,
demand , ,
to demand ,
to make a demand
democracy
democratic
department
to depend on
dependence
dependent
to deride
to derive
to deserve credit
despite
to detect ,
to determine
determined
to devastate
to develop
development
deviations
device , ,
to devise ,
to differ
to differentiate between
to direct ,
direction ,
directive
director
discount
discreet , ;
discreetly ,
discretion
to disperse , () ()
to displace ;
distinction , ,
to distinguish ,
to distribute ,
distribution ,
distributor , ,
diverse ,
diversified
to divide into
division
division of profit
to dominate ,
domination ;
to drive ,
duration
dweller ,
E
earnings ;
ease of management
to ease
economic losses
economic relations
edict ,
effective , , ,
efficiency
efficiency expert
efficient , , ,
effort
to elect
to eliminate , ,
to embark on ,
embraces
to emerge
eminent ,
empathy ,
to emphasise
to employ ,
employee ,
employer
employment
empowerment ,
to enable
to encompass ,
to encourage ,
encouragement , ,
encouraging
to enhance , ,
to enrich ,
to ensure ,
entitled
to envision ,
equity financing
essential ,
essentiality ,
essentially ,
to establish
to be esteemed ,
to estimate
estimate
estimation
ethical
ethical code
ethical dilemma
ethical relativism
ethics , , ,
to evaluate
to evolve , ; ,
to examine ,
to exceed
except ,
exception
exceptional
excessive
execution , 䳺,
to exhibit ;
to expand ()
to expend
expenditure
at the expense of
to go to expense
expenses
expensive
experience
experiential
exploration
to explore
external
external funding
F
to face ,
facet of the problem
to facilitate
facilities ;
failure
to fall within , -
to favor
feedback ,
to feel secure
field
financial analysis
to fine-tune
finished goods
fiscal
to fit in/into ,
fixed assets ;
flexibility
flexible
to focus
to fold , ,
follow-up , ,
force ,
to force
to forecast ,
formal
framework
fringe benefits
to fulfill ()
fundamentals ,
funds , ,
to furnish
G
to gain ,
generalisation
to generalise
to generate ,
genuinely ,
gesture ,
to get into , ,
goal and objective
to grant ,
a great deal of
grudge ; ; ;
grudgingly ;
to guarantee
guidance ,
to guide , ,
H
habit ,

© 2013 wikipage.com.ua - wikipage.com.ua |