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. Pre-reading stage:

1. Whatcountries does Ukraine border on?

2. What are the main rivers in Ukraine?

3. What is a number of people living in Ukraine?

4. What is the territory of Ukraine?

5. What branches of economy are developed in Ukraine?

6. Why our economy is interested in oil and gas pipelines going through the territory of Ukraine?

7. What is the biggest treasure in our country?

8. What are the main agricultural cultures grown in our country?

9. What is the industrial potential of Ukraine?

1. Study the following words andcombinations:

1. to be located -

2. to be criss-crossed -

2. to ensure - ,

3. highway -

4. watershed -

5. pipeline -

6. high-voltage transmission lines -

7. above sea level -

8. depth -

9. deposit -

10. up-to-date -

11. synthetic diamonds -

12. fuel-

. While-reading stage:

2. Read and translate the text.

UKRAINE'S ECONOMY IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERNATIONAL

ECONOMIC RELATIONS

On the map of the world you can find a new independent state with a thousand-year-old history - Ukraine. It borders on Belarus and Russia in the north and in the east. In the west Ukraine is bounded by Moldova, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia and Poland. Great areas are occupied by steppes and forest-steppe regions. The main part of Ukraine is located in the watershed of the Dnipro River, which divides Ukraine into two parts: Right-Bank and Left-Bank Ukraine.

The territory of our country has an astonishing variety of landscapes. We have high mountains, endless forests, beautiful rivers and lakes. The largest lake of Ukraine is Swit-yaz, its total area is 24.2 sq.km and the depth is 58.5 metres.

Within the borders of Ukraine we find the Carpathian Mountains with the highest peak Hoverla (2061) which is located in the Chornohora massif.

The Crimean Mountains stretch in three parallel ranges. The Main Range is the highest, rising to 1500 m above sea level. Its highest peak is Roman Kosh (1545 m.).

To have an idea of Ukraine's economic potential and define the scale of reforms which must be carried out let us get acquainted with some objective data. Ukraine is situated in the geographical center of Europe. The country occupies a territory of 604 thousand square kilometers. Ukrainian's population is 48 million, more than 74 percent of whom are Ukrainians. For comparison the population of Germany is 79.7 million people, Great Britain - 57, Poland - 39, Finland - 5. Ten million ethnic Ukrainians live outside the country on the territories of the former Soviet Union, and close to 5 million live in other foreign countries. The diaspora is the strongest in Canada and the USA. There are 6 cities in Ukraine with a population of over 1 million.

Ukraine takes a leading place in iron ore extraction, production of steel, cast iron, tractors, mineral fertilizers, sugar, and grain; it also succeeded in coal mining, producing concrete, electric energy and various equipments.

In the south of the country Ukraine has access to the Black Sea and the Sea of Above which are connected with the ocean. Twenty-seven thousand kilometers of railroads intertwine throughout the territory of Ukraine.

Oil and gas pipelines of international significance go through the territory of Ukraine. Fees from transit oil and gas pipelines pay for most of the imported products. Ukraine's main importers of oil and gas are Russia and Turkmenistan. In spite of great reserves of coal, the importance of rock-coal in the energy balance is decreasing, and this tendency will continue in the future because the layers are located very deep and their extraction becomes more and more costly. That is why Ukraine should pay more attention to regeneration sources of energy: solar, wind, hydrothermal, and even more attention to resources and energy saving technologies.

Steppes and plains compose the most part of the territory of Ukraine. The top soils are mainly black. They are the biggest treasure of the Ukrainian land. 25 percent of world's black rich soils are in Ukraine. Together with the fact, that Ukraine's climate is mainly moderately continental, it allows for considerable progress in agricultural production under the conditions of market economy. Sugar beets, wheat, rye, barley, oats, corn, sun flower, flax, buckwheat, potatoes, onions, tomatoes, cabbages, also a large variety of grain cultures, fruits and vegetables are grown in Ukraine.

Because of her potential Ukraine is an industrial-agricultural country. Her machine-building potential includes tractors and agricultural machine-building, production of diesel locomotives and railroad cars, automobiles, rockets, sea and river vessels, refrigerators, TV-sets, electric motors, equipment for metallurgic, chemical, mine and textile industries.

Natural and human recourses are sufficient for creating a developed internal market and becoming a friendly and equal partner in the world market.

3. Find equivalents in two columns:

To border

To divide

Neighbour

Fertile black soil

Coal

-Iron ore

Oil

Oil pipeline

Independence

Non ferrous metallurgy

Sugar beet

Flax

Sunflower

To deteriorate

Cast iron

Concrete

To decrease 㳿

Energy saving technology

4. Translate the following words and word combinations:

Rock-coal, great reserves, extraction, mineral fertilizers, sea level, moderately continental, considerable progress, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, cabbages, vessel, to create, internal market.

5. Use proper tense-forms of the verbs. Translate the sentences.

1. Ukraine (to have) many rivers.

2. The Dnipro (to divide) Ukraine into two parts: Left-bank and Right-bank territories.

3. Ukraine (to take) a leading place in iron ore extraction, production of steel, cast iron, tractors, mineral fertilizers, sugar, and grain.

4. Twenty-seven thousand kilometers of railroads (to intertwine) throughout the territory of Ukraine.

5. In spite of great reserves of coal, the importance of rock-coal in the energy balance (to decrease), and this tendency (to continue) in the future because the layers are located very deep and their extraction (to become) more and more costly.

046. Steppes and plains (to compose) the most part of the territory of Ukraine.

7. The top soils (to be) mainly black.

8. Natural and human recourses (to be) sufficient for creating a developed internal market and becoming a friendly and equal partner in the world market.

IV. Practice Drills:

1. Speak on the topic "Geographical Position of Ukraine". Use the chart.

 

I. Pre-reading stage:

1. Study the following words and combinations:

1. a sovereign state -

2. legislative -

3. executive -

4. judicial -

5. to be accountable to -

6. rectangular

)' .

7. trident -

8. the National Anthem -

II. While-reading stage:

Read and translate the text.

POLITICAL SYSTEM OF UKRAINE

Ukraine is a sovereign state. On June 16, 1990 the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine passed the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine. On August 24,1991, Ukraine's independence and the formation of the independent state of Ukraine was proclaimed by the Ukrainian Parliament.

On December 1,1991, an all-Ukrainian referendum was held, involving 84.18 percent of citizens.

Winning 61.6 percent of the votes, L.Kravchuk, the former head of the Verkhovna Rada, was elected President of Ukraine.

In 1994 L.Kuchma won the Presidential elections and became the new President of Ukraine, j

A new state, Ukraine, appeared on the world political map in 1991. It is a democratic state, which is ruled by the law. It includes 24 administrative regions and the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea. Ukraine has its own Constitution, which was adopted in 1996. The Constitution of Ukraine consists of 15 chapters (161 articles). The day of its adoption (June, 28, 1996) is a state holiday - the Day of the Constitution of Ukraine.

The political system of Ukraine is really democratic. The powers of the Government are divided into legislative, executive and judicial. The President is the head of the state. He is elected for a term of five years. *The highest body of the executive power is the Cabinet of Ministers. It is responsible to the President and is accountable to the Verkhovna Rada. It carries out domestic and foreign policy of the state.

The Verkhovna Rada (Parliament) is the only body of the legislative power in Ukraine. It includes 450 deputies who are elected for a term of five years. The Verkhovna Rada adopts the State Budget and controls the execution of it.

Judicial power in Ukraine is led by the Supreme Court.

There are very many political parties in Ukraine. The main parties are: the Social Democratic Party, the People's Rukh of Ukraine, the Batkivshchyna, the Communist Party, the Women of Ukraine.

The National Emblem of Ukraine is a Golden Tryzub (trident) on a blue shield. The National Flag of Ukraine is a rectangular cloth with two horizontal stripes of equal width, the upper colored blue and the lower golden yellow. The National Anthem has been performed since January 1992 (music by M.M. Verbytsky).

The National Holiday, Independence Day, is celebrated on August 24..

Now Ukraine establishes new relations with countries throughout the world. It sets direct contacts with them signing agreement and treaties.

III. Post-reading stage:

3. Give Ukrainian equivalents for the following:

to elect the national anthem

to divide domestic policy

to rule to be accountable to

to carry out foreign policy

the Supreme Court

4. Give English equivalents for the following:

( )

5. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. On August 24, 1991, Ukraine's independence was proclaimed by the Ukrainian Parliament

2. The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine is the only body of the executive power.

3. Ukraine includes 24 administrative regions and the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea.

4. The powers of the government are divided into legislative, executive and judicial.

5. The National Holiday, Independence Day, is celebrated on August 28.

6. In 1993 L.Kuchma won the Presidential elections and became the President of Ukraine.

7. L.Kravchuk was the first President of Ukraine.

6. Answer the following questions:

1. When did the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine pass the Declaration of State Sovereignty.

2. Who proclaimed Ukraine's independence?

3. What event took place in Ukraine on December 1, 1991?

4. Who was elected the first President of Ukraine?

5. When did L.Kuchma become the President of Ukraine?

6. How many regions does Ukraine include?

7. How are the powers of the government divided into?

8. What is the National Emblem of Ukraine?

9. Who was music to the National Anthem written by?

10. When is Independence Day celebrated?

11. When is the Day of the Constitution of Ukraine celebrated?

7. Speak on the topic "Political System of Ukraine".Use the chart:

 

 

IV. Practice Drills:

1. Role-play the following situations:

Situation 1.Paula Smith, a British guide of the Ukrainian students in London is going to visit Ukraine. She is interested in information on Ukraine. Answer her questions on geographical position, history, natural resources of Ukraine.

Situation 2.A student of the Law faculty is taking an exam in the Constitutional Law of Ukraine. He has difficulty with the question about the political structure of Ukraine. The teacher asks him questions and helps to reveal the question about the political system of Ukraine.

Situation 3.A young businessman has a possibility to invest money in the development of our country. He is interested in Ukrainian industry. Prove him that investing money in the development of industry will give a profit. Tell him about the main industrial centres of Ukraine.

Useful expressions: I'd like tosay a few words about - ...; As know - ; think that - ; Quite on the contrary -; Certainly - ; (Could) Can I ask you - ; want to give a few examples to prove it - , ; As far as I know - ; am interested in - ; What can you say about - ...; You are welcome - ; Thank you - .

1. Pre-reading stage:

/. Study the following words and combinations:

to set contacts -

an agreement -

a treaty -

joint venture -

to provide -

to enable -

to implant -

to be run -

Embassy -

2. Look through the text "Ukrainian-British relations". Be ready to answer the following questions:

1. How does Ukraine set new contacts with foreign countries?

2. When did Ukraine and Great Britain establish diplomatic relations?

3. What does Know-how fund offer?

4. What are the aims of fund programmes?

5. Which possibilities does the British Council provide?

II. While-reading stage:

3. Read and translate the text.

UKRAINIAN-BRITISH RELATIONS

Since Ukraine became an independent state, it has become to establish new relations with the countries throughout the world. It sets direct contacts with many foreign countries, signing agreements and treaties. A lot of joint ventures in the leading industries have appeared recently in our cities and towns. Many delegations, businessmen, specialists and tourists from other countries keep coming to Ukraine. Scientific contacts are also very important.

In 1992 Ukraine and Great Britain established diplomatic relations and since then Ukraine has got its Embassy which is situated in the center of London.

It's not secret that Ukraine passes through a difficult period of time. In Great Britain there are organizations which support the development of Ukrainian sciences, economy, and project cultural contacts. One of such organizations is Know-How fund of the British government. The fund offers different programmes for managers, providing them with management training courses in Great Britain. The main objectives of these programmes are: to introduce managers to the market economy and to enable them to get practical experience of management in market conditions, so that they can implant reforms of their own enterprises. British Council offices have been opened in main cities of Ukraine to support English language training in Ukraine. British Council Center offers a wide choice of English books, textbooks, cassettes and video films for teaching of English. Computer Literacy Courses and Seminars on teaching English are regularly run in the Center, besides each year the British Council sends 30 - 40 Ukrainian teachers of English to the UK to participate in British Council summer schools.

There are many other programmes for students, young scientists and specialists in different fields, which are implemented by the British Council. The cultural and scientific exchange is going on.

III. Post-reading stage:

4. Give the Ukrainian equivalents to the following.

Direct contacts Practical experience

Management training courses To sign an agreement

Main objectives A wide choice

Market conditions To establish new relations

5. Ask your friend all possible questions to the following sentences.

Model:Ukraine passes through a difficult period of time.

Does Ukraine pass through a difficult period of time?

What period does Ukraine pass through?

Does Ukraine pass through a difficult or an easy period of time?

What country passes through a difficult period of time?

Ukraine passes through a difficult period of time, doesn't it?

1. Ukraine is establishing new economic relations throughout the world.

2. In 1992 Ukraine and Great Britain established diplomatic relations.

3. In Great Britain there are organizations which support the development of Ukrainian sciences, economy, and project cultural contacts.

4. The Know-How fund offers different programmes for managers.

5. The cultural and scientific exchange is going on.

6. Say it in English:

1. .

2. ' .

3. , , .

4. .

5. .

 

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