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Translate the following into English.

1. .

2. .

3. .

4. , .

5. .

6. .

7. .

8. .

Practice

1. Make up your own dialogue "Negotiating contract". Try to use phrases, you have

Learnt from this unit and phrases being given below.

Have you any questions as regards the contract? ?
I think, we have settled all the questions under dispute. , .
In that case we'll tell our experts and lawyers to prepare the contract for signing. .
I'm glad we agreed on the major points of the contract. , .
On the whole the contract is acceptable but I'd like to clear up some points. , , ' .
We would like to make some amendments into the draft contract. .
We have a few remarks on the contract. .
All this is specified in the draft contract. ' .
We accept your proposal/offer. .
What documents have you submitted? ?

2. Make up the dialogues to the following situations:

Mr. Klimov meets Mr. Black in his office. Mr. Black has brought catalogues and price-lists. He offers our representative their clothes. They discuss the time of shipment and the price. Mr. Klimov asks Mr. Black to reduce the price. Mr. Black cannot give his answer. He is going to contact his people.

Mr. Pospelov has come to the London office of "Henderson". Mr. White asks Mr. Pospelov about his trip. Mr. Pospelov lets Mr. White know that our firm is interested in the goods of the company. He asks Mr. White about the price-lists and catalogues. They speak about prices.

3. Role play. Pair work.

Student A is an exporter of male pig meat. Student is a meat (mporter. Student A tries to persuade student to buy, although this kind of import is banned. Follow the instruction on the role cards below.

Role A. Meat exporter

1.Introduce yourself and your company.

2. State the purpose of your visit.

3. State the advantages of buying male pig from your company.

4. Suggest a way of getting around the matter of restricted imports.

Role B. Meat importer

1. Introduce yourself.

2. Ask questions about the range of products exported by A.

3. Argue against A's intention to supply male pig meat.

4.Remind A of your country's regulations concerning the import of banned goods.

 

UNIT 2.5. MEANS OF COMMUNICATIONS

( . . )

: . . . . .

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, ( , ).

. Pre-reading stage:

1) What means of communication do you know?

2) What kinds of business letters do you know?

3) What is a typical structure of a business letter?

1. Study the following words & word-combinations:

1. a foreign counterpart -

2. to word a letter -

3. a letter of introduction - -

4. a prospecting letter - , 볺

5. afollow-up letter - -

6. a complaint letter -

7. a rejection letter - -

8. a collection letter -

9. memos - '

10. email -

11. precious metals -

12. searching out and cultivating new clients - 볺

13. letterhead -

14. opening -

15. contents -

16. closing -

II. While-reading stage:

Read and translate the text.

MEANS OF COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS

The main means of communication in business are letters, faxes, telephone conversations, cables (or telegrams), memos and emails. %

Business letters are particulary important in international commerce. Often it is the only representation of yourself and your company with a foreign counterpart. You make an impression by the tone of your letter, and by correct, tactful, and polite language.

As with small talk and phone calls, letter writing is rulled by formulas. Once you have learned a standard way of organizing and wording a letter, you will be able to write any letter.

There are such kinds of business letters as sales, introduction, follow-up, complaint, rejection, prospecting and collection.

The letter of introduction is a letter of presenting your company. The main parts of such a letter are an introduction, a body of the letter, and a conclusion.

The prospecting letter is a letter of recommendation. It may be also commercial or advertising. Although the language meaning of the word "prospecting" is exploring for precious metals or minerals, such as gold, the businessmen use this term in the meaning of searching out and cultivating new clients. The commercial information should be also included.

After the meeting or a business lunch you can write a follow-up letter to a person you've met. This sign of politeness may be a confirmed factor in commercial questions or receiving a job.

You'll have to write different kinds of business letters. Complaint, rejection and collection letters are among them. Usually it's very difficult to find the appropriate words while complaining or rejecting something. In a collection letter you will want to get your money without offending your client. So you have to be tactful in a choice of the way of claiming the money and, at the same time, you must insist on receiving payment.

The short forms of business letters are memos and emails.

Memo is short for memorandum. The memo is a great way of sending letters to staff members, associates, or people you are already doing business with.lt is used when you have to inform more than one person (usually several) of the same thing. Rather than write five, ten, or twenty letters, you write a memo to the people you need to inform, run off copies of the same page, and everyone gets one; in fact, it is a letter without the personalization and formalities.

Email is electronic mail. We send and receive this mail via our computers and phone lines (modems). This is fast becoming the most widely used form of communication. It is less expensive than a phone call to any place outside of one's local area, and especially overseas. An additional benefit is that one can skip the formalities of a regular letter. Expect to be sending email in the future.

The structure of the letter

The business letter consists of four parts:

1. Letterhead.

2. Opening.

3. Contents.

4. Closing.

Note the following points about letter-writing: 1. THE ADDRESS, e.g. 15, Preston Rd.,

"The Pines," Warrington,

St. George's Sq., Lancashire.

Hampstead, London, N.W.3.

Note the puctuation, e.g. the full stop after St. (short for Saint; it is also short for Street), after Rd. (short for Road) and after N.W. (short for North West) and at the end of an address, i.e. after 3 and Lancashire. Note the commas after "the Pines", (the name of the house) and 15, (the number of the house), after Square, Hampstead, and Warrington. 2.THE DATE. For this we generally use the ordinal numbers, lsl March; 3rd April, 21st May. We sometimes use the cardinal numbers, e.g. March 1,2004 (1 March 2004), April 3, 2004 (3 April, 2004). Use the cardinal numbers if you use figures only, e.g. 1.3.04 (or 1/3/04); or (with Roman figures) 22-XII-04.The date with figures only may cause misunderstanding as the use is not the same in England as it is in America. In England 6/10/04 means 6th October 2004; in the USA it means June 10lh 2004. So, any of the following forms is correct and unmistacable:

1. October 16th, 2004

2. 16th October, 2004

3. October 16, 2004

4. 16 October, 2004

3. THE GREETING:

Dear Sir, "Dear Sirs, Dear Madam, Gentlemen.

4. THE COMPLEMENTARY CLOSE:

Yours truly, Yours faithfully, Yours sincerely.

5. THE ADDRESS (for the envelop):

Mr. H. Chapman, G. Smith, Esq., Trish Green,

10, Northbank Rd., Byron House, 158 Orchard St.#l-B

Southport, High St., NY, NY.

Lancashire. Liverpool. 10002

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