Complete the sentences with words from Exercise 1. Translate them.

Complete the sentences with words from Exercise 1. Translate them.

a) It wont be necessary to develop new technology for this model. We can what we already have.

b) We need from the Board of Directors if we want to continue with this project.

c) Only models are produced in the clinic, not real cars.

d) The location of the plant has an impact on the pricing of the car.

e) It is necessary to the final design before the prototype is made.

f) Marketing factors (target groups, market share) are finalized after a clinic.


Put different types of questions to the sentences from Exercise 2.

Put the verb into the correct tense form (Simple Tenses). Translate the sentences.

1. Unfortunately, we (to have) trouble with the central heating system of the university building next month.

2. Designing often (to require) to consider the aesthetic and functional aspects. It (to demand) research, thought, modeling and re-design.

3. There (to be) a great demand for cars in many countries, so I hope that we (easily/to find) interesting, well-paid job.

4. Some parts of the structure (to crack) after the hot dry summer and rainy autumn. We (to repair) it in the nearest future.

5. Serious study of design (to demand) focus on the design process, which (to depend) on the object and the individuals participating in it.

6. As far as I know, the lorry (to arrive) on the 10th of May. It (to be) necessary to unload it immediately.

7. My father usually (to walk) a few blocks to his office, but my brothers (to prefer) driving.

8. In addition to the trouble with the engine there (to appear) some other problems with the transmission and lubricating systems.

9. Owing to the new system of regulations the number of accidents (to go) down and the driving (to become) safer.

10. Stop dreaming about this car! It (to be) extremely expensive. You (not to have) enough money to buy it.


5. Find one adjective in each group and make up sentences with them:

a) foreigner, faster, designer a) word, worse, world
b) larger, dinner, summer b) daughter, shorter, letter
c) better, farmer, paper c) cleverer, never, teacher
d) water, corner, higher d) lecture, structure, stronger

Put adjectives into the correct form (Degrees of Comparison).

a) The (long) I think of this car, the (much) I like it.

b) It is (good) to get there by the underground than by bus.

c) Automotive design is (interesting) subject at our university.

d) The (short) the lever, the (great) effort you need to lift the weight.

e) He is (good) student in our group. He managed to enter this university without any difficulty and passes all his exams easily.

f) The bus system is (reliable) in London than in Kyiv and the streets are (clean).

g) A design goal may range from solving (little) significant individual problem of (small) element to (influential) goals.

h) To achieve (elegant) and stylish look, a designer uses (expensive) materials.

i) Is this brand as (famous) as that one?

j) Do you have (much) or (little) free time now than you had last year? What is (interesting) thing that you like to do?


7. Some designers are discussing the constraints they work under. Read their comments and match them to the constraints:

Technical requirements, ergonomics, fuel consumption, laws, customer demands, brand identity, recycling, production requirements.

a) I cant design any grill I want it has to look the same on all our cars so people will recognize the brand.

b) I have to make sure that attractive seats are also comfortable and customers have enough legroom.

c) I have to take safety regulations into account, so I cant put a big metal part on the bonnet which may injure pedestrians.

d) I have to take the size of the engine and other technical parts into account.

e) I cant use any material I want, no matter how attractive. I have to know if we can use it again.

f) The car has to be as streamlined as possible, so it doesnt need so much fuel.

g) If the customers want cup holders inside the car, I have to put them in.

h) Sometimes I think of a really great shape for the bonnet and the production guys tell me the metal cant be formed like that.


Put the verb into the correct tense form (Simple or Continuous Tenses). Translate the sentences.

1. When I (to see) a loaded boat, it (to move) in the direction of the port and the manager (to be) there to meet it.

2. The car (to move) at full speed when the policeman (to stop) it.

3. Dont bother him! He (to work) on the design of a new motor car.

4. Stoppage of fuel supply (to cause) serious trouble in the engine last night, so I (to go) to the filling station.

5. Designers and engineers usually (to work) together to identify and fulfill needs, wants and expectations of the buyer.

6. As for me, I (to want) to solve the main problems of form and engineering of a car, so I (to enter) this university and (to choose) this profession.

7. My parents usually (to go) to work by bus, but now my elder brother (to drive) them there. They (to feel) very angry as the traffic (to move / hardly).

8. There (to be) a traffic jam in the street at the moment. Many people (to try) to get to their work. They all (to work) in the city but few of them (to live) there.

9. While my father (to repair) his car last morning, my brother and I (to improve) the interior of it. Everybody (to like) our work.

10. As far as I know, the top designer of our company (to deliver) a lecture about the connections between product and the user at 4p.m. tomorrow. Will you join me there?


9. Make up a short story of your own (7 10 sentences) to agree or disagree with one or two English proverbs. Try to find the Ukrainian equivalents to them:

ñ Better ask than go astray;

ñ The less haste, the more speed;

ñ Better late than never, but better never late;

ñ Better unborn than untaught;

ñ There are more ways to the wood than one;

ñ He laughs best who laughs last;

ñ In a long journey a straw weights;

ñ Great ship asks deep water;

ñ An early bird catches the worm.


Fill in the blanks with suitable words given below.

Passengers, departure lounge, flight, boot, delayed, ferry, galleys, deckchair, bonnet, mechanic, run out, train, garage, check.


Yesterday John was supposed to take a ________ from London to Paris. He got up very early, put his luggage into the ________ of his car and tried to start the engine. It didnt start. John lifted the ________ but he couldnt see what the matter could be. He called his local ________ to ask them to send a ________.

Fortunately, there was a man free. He quickly cleared out what the matter was.

Youre ________ of petrol, he said. John felt very foolish. Why didnt I ________ everything last night? he wondered.

Despite all this, he got to the airport, checked in quite early and then went straight through to the ________ to read a newspaper while he waited. Soon he heard an announcement Passengers on flight BA282 to Paris are informed that your flight is ________ because of a heavy snowfall.

If only I have decided to go by ________, John thought. It would probably have been quicker in the end and even if I sometimes feel sick on the ________ across the Channel, it can be quite pleasant sitting in a ________ on the deck, watching the seagulls and the other ________. The ________ on a ship seem to produce much better food than those on an aircraft too.


You are to give practical advice about travel in the form of eight rules. Choose three of eight headings you want to write about from those listed below. Prepare short report or presentation.

Money, packing, health, hand baggage, insurance, language, guidebook.

Example: Documents.

Make sure you have a valid passport (or travel document) and any necessary visas for the countries you are visiting. Dont leave it until the last minute, do it in advance. Check that youve got your tickets and any other travel documents in a safe but reasonably accessible place for use during the journey.

Text 1

Imagine you are producing a poster to help your elder brother choose a car. Write a short description of five cars. Add pictures, photos and titles. Present your leaflet to the class.

Text 2

1. Transport is a non-productive branch of economy, but it sometimes compared to veins in human body. Why is it so important? Are you able to find any synonyms for the verb to transport? Give five examples for your own activities which wouldnt be possible without using transport.

Which in your opinion is simple: transporting passengers or goods?


Introducing a new of automobile generally takes three to five years from inception to assembly. Ideas for new models are developed to respond to unmet public needs and preferences.

Trying to predict what the public will want to drive in five years is no small feat, yet automobile companies have successfully designed automobiles that public tastes. With the help of computer-aided equipment, develop basic concept drawings that help them visualize the proposed appearance of the ... Based on this simulation, they construct clay models that can be studied by styling experts familiar with what the public is likely to accept.

Aerodynamic also review the models, studying air flow parameters and doing feasibility studies on crash tests. Only after all models have been reviewed and excepted, tool designers permitted to begin building the tools that will the component parts of the new model.


5. Translate the following words and word combinations into Ukrainian:

Appearance, to some extent, road vehicles, automotive engineers, in this context, aesthetics of the vehicle, product concept, art background, exterior design, interior design, colour and trim design, proportions, shape and surfaces of the vehicle, ergonomics, to work closely with, to optimize, effectiveness, to assemble, workshop, factory, plant, machinery, raw materials, equipment, productivity, to produce, inventory control, quality control, to store, fashionable, concept car, prototype, to implement, sound engineering techniques, sound proofing.


6. Complete the text A handmade car with the following words.


Craftsmen, highly-skilled, skills, traditional, unique.


The Morgan is a ________ car: is made in Britain by a family-owned company and it is handmade. Each Morgan is made individually. Modern materials and up-to-date manufacturing technology are combined with 100-year-old ________.

There are no assembly lines because each stage of the manufacturing is done by ________ craftsmen. For example, the wooden frame is made in the same way as the first Morgan in 1909, upholsterers make the leather seats and sheet metalworkers make the panels by hand.

In contrast to all these ________ skills, Morgan engineers make precision mechanical components using modern Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machinery so Morgan driver has a state-of-the-art engine in a traditionally-made car.

It takes a long time to make a car by hand. The Morgan factory produces about 500 cars a year. Buyers put their name on a waiting list and then wait for the factory to tell them that their car is finished. The shortest wait is about two years and sometimes it is five years.

Like proud parents-to-be, people on the waiting list can visit the factory to see their car being made and to talk to the ________ doing the work.


Text 3

What model of car should a student have to impress his group mates? What model of car should a bridegroom have to impress his bride? What car should a film star have? What car do you or your parents have?


Have you ever thought about car names? Do they mean anything? For example, you may think Rover is just a name, in marketing. A rover is a wanderer someone who likes to travel around. So, the name suggests mobility, freedom, having fun and going wherever you want. These were important qualities when Rover cars first came on the market.

Marketing departments of car companies spend a lot of time and money thinking up names for cars. The names should be a reflection of the brand, product and target group. The car you drive tells the world about your status, how much money you have and the socio-economic group you belong to. Good car names are catchy and fit the product, such as the Beetle or the Mini. The name should also appeal to a global audience. At the very least, the name should not mean anything bad in another language. (This was why Rolls-Royce decided not to use the name Silver Mist for one model: mist means animal manure in German.)

American car makers like to give their SUVs names that remind people of the Wild West, full of adventure and danger. Did you know that Wrangler is another word for cowboy? Or that Maverick means an unbranded cow that has strayed from the herd? People who own SUVs seldom drive them off-road, but they enjoy the feeling of excitement that the name creates.

6. Answer these questions:

e) Have you ever thought about car names?

f) Should the name appeal to a global audience?

g) How important is the name of a car to you?

h) Can you think about other interesting car names?

Text 4

Have you ever visited any car factory? Where would you like to work after graduating from our university? How many factories are there in Ukraine, in Russia, in the USA? Would you like to work for any Ukrainian company or to go abroad?

3. Complete the text (A tour of a car factory) with the following words:

Clutch, combustion, crankshaft, cylinders, distribution, fuel, piston, spark plug, torque.

Now we come to the engine. The principle of the internal ________ engine has not changed in the last 100 years. The engine takes in ________ and air which is compressed in a combustion chamber. Then this mixture is ignited by a ________ to produce an explosion, which moves the ________ in the cylinder. The up and down motion of the piston in the cylinder is converted into rotational motion by the ________. The rotational force generated by the engine is known as ________. The size of the engine determines the power. The more ________ there are, the more powerful the engine. This power is transmitted through the ________, the gearbox, the propeller shaft (in rear-wheel and 4-wheel drive) and the axles to the wheels. The position of the engine can vary, but generally speaking it is mounted at the front. In some sports cars, the engine is mounted at the rear (e.g. Porsche) or in the middle (e.g. Ferrari or Lamborghini) because of weight ________. So, thats enough about the engine for the moment lets move on to the next stage

4. Complete the table:

Verb Noun Adjective
To power  
To   combustible
To ignition  
To   explosive
To rotation  
To transmission  


5. Now complete the sentences with the words from the table:

a) In the engine, linear motion is converted into ________ motion by the crankshaft.

b) The power of the engine is ________ through the clutch and the gearbox.

c) The spark plug ________ the air/fuel mixture and sets off an ________.

d) A 6-cylinder engine is more ________ than a 4-cylinder one.

e) Fuel and air is compressed in the ________ chamber.


6. Read and translate this extract:

Text 5

Do you agree that there will be no more switches, only voice control? Will the car be made of self-cleaning materials? Will the sensors in the car prevent accidents? Would you like to be able to do most of the tasks you usually do in your office in the car?


Navigation aids, telemetric equipment, audio system features and the standard instruments are all fighting for space on the instrument panel (IP). This creates a challenge for interior designers and engineers who need to keep the IP simple so that the driver is not distracted by too many buttons and instruments. Customers also equate a spacious interior with luxury another reason why the IP shouldnt look overcrowded.

Designers deal with the problem in various ways. They reduce the size of space-eaters such as heating and cooling systems, or even remove them completely from the IP by putting them under the seat or in the boot. They also put many functions, such as station pre-set buttons for audio systems, on touch screens, which save space on the IP. But there is still the danger of overcrowding the screen, which could distract the driver and thus cause an accident. Another problem is the position: the touch screen needs to be located high on the dashboard so that the driver can use it easily while driving. But if it is too high it can be hard to read because of reflections and the sun washing out the screen.

Some engineers see voice recognition as a way to get rid of many manual controls and to simplify the IP. But voice recognition can also be overused. There needs to be an optimal balance between visual displays and voice instructions, so that the driver can deal safely with all the information he or she receives.


3. Study the following information:



Automobile dashboard: the control panel of a car. Contains gauges used to measure speed, distance traveled, etc. It is generally located in front of the driver.

Rearview mirror: mirror used for looking backward.

Cigarette lighter: device used for lighting cigarette.

Vent: opening that allows air to circulate in the passenger compartment.

Glove compartment: storage compartment at the front of passenger compartment.

Radio controls: button used to control the radio.

Heating controls: button used to control the different heating systems of a car.

Steering column: set of mechanisms used for steering a car.

Turn signal level: control that operates the turn signals.

Windshield wiper controls: hand lever controlling the windshield wiper.

Instrument panel: set of dials and pictograms that give information on the state of a vehicle.

Sun visor: movable device that shields against the sun.


Text 6

1. Look through the adjectives used to describe cars. Can you add any more? Use them to write short descriptions of some well-known brands (Acura, BMW, Bugatti, Infinity, Lexus, Maserati, Audi, ).

Charming, unconventional, muscular, sleek, distinctive, unique, stylish, striking, bold, sporty, contemporary, spacious.

Work in groups of three to have a role-play meeting. You have to decide whether the tailgate of a new car should be made of steel or plastic. Take the parts of a controller (A), a member of the technical department (B) and a member of the production department (C). Try to reach a decision by the end of the meeting.

Text 7

1. Think and speak about the main disadvantages of going by car. Pay attention to the following:

hazardous emissions, traffic jams, road accidents,

expensive fuel and maintenance of the vehicle

it is difficult to find somewhere to park


Over the last years people have got used to the sight of very small cars parked in tiny parking spaces. Smart is one of the worlds youngest car makers and yet the Smart Fortwo is such a distinctive car that it has already been included as an exhibit in the Museum of Modern Art in New York one of only six cars to attain this distinction.

In April 1994, the Micro Compact Car AG was founded in Switzerland as a joint venture between Mercedes-Benz and Swatch. Nicolas Hayek, the inventor of the Swatch watch, brought his idea for an ultra-short small car and Mercedes-Benz contributed expertise and experience from more than a hundred years of building cars. Engineers devised a car which is not only extremely mobile and efficient, but also very economical. Its other key feature is safety, with its unique tridion cell.

After starting development, the Smart Fortwo celebrated its premiere at the Motor Show in 1997. Production in Hambach, France, started in 1998, and sales took off in other European countries. There is no doubt that it is a leader in urban mobility. All Smart vehicles embody the same brand values and have the same DNA: innovation, functionality and joie de vivre. They appeal to people who are sporty, independent and young at heart; people who love clever solutions and are open to new ideas.


3. Answer these questions:

a) What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Smart?

b) In which countries do you think small cars are most successful?

c) Do you think small cars will become more popular in the future? Why?

4. Complete the table:

The exterior The interior
Bonnet, front bumper,     Air vent, car seat (headrest),


Airbag, speedometer, headlight, petrol cap or flap, sunroof, sill, ashtray, wheel arch, cigarette lighter, dashboard, wheel trim, logo, windscreen wiper, wing, aerial, boot, gearstick, number plate, glove compartment, rear window, handbrake, horn, ignition, wing mirror, rear-view mirror, seat belt, rear light, steering wheel, sun visor, engine oil temperature gauge, fuel gauge.


mechanic   exterior design  
traffic warden   interior design  
corporate identity   cigarette lighter  
assembly line   ashtray  
technical requirements   bonnet (hood)  
fuel consumption   boot (trunk)  
customer demands   aerial  
technical inclination   head and rear lights  
streamlined look   cup holder  
body style / bodywork   sun visor  
four-wheel drive   glove compartment  
frame and chassis   sunroof  
floor pan   indicator (turn signal)  
model ranges   logo, badge, brand image  
colour and trim design   exhaust pipe  
sound proofing   number plate  
transmission   wing mirror  
muffler   spare wheel  
battery   mud flap, mudguard  
steering wheel   sill, grill(e)  
air vent   luxury-class off-road vehicle  
cockpit   washer nozzle  
windscreen (windshield) wiper   accelerator, brake pedal, clutch pedal  
semi-automatic   dashboard / instrument panel  
inlet and exhaust valves   to move backwards and forwards  
chassis frame   handbrake  
crankshaft   horn  
camshaft   ignition key  
cast iron   rear-view mirror  
alloy   petrol cap (flap), petrol tank  
piston, cylinder   to maintain  
piston rings   fuel gauge  
flywheel   spring  
boot lid   anti-lock braking system  
gearstick / gearbox   intake stroke  
airbag   compression  
shock absorber   power stroke  
warm-up period   exhaust stroke  
resale value   automated assembly process  
first gear   lubricating / oiling system  
reverse gear   internal combustion engine  
neutral gear   drum and disc brakes  
emery cloth   brake shoe  
to cause wearing   wheelbase  
propeller shaft   electrically operated pump  
cooling system   float chamber  
spark plug   needle valve  
pressure gauge   choke tube  
seat (safety) belt   throttle valve  
air and petrol mixture   jet  
driving shaft   roof-rack  
driven shaft   cab  
lay shaft   filling station  
gear   hubcap  
leaf spring   jack  
coil spring   license plate  
primary coil   parking lights  
secondary coil   screwdriver  
contract breaker   spanner  
rumble seat   service station  
rubbing / friction   trailer  
window roller      
British English American English  
accelerator (also) gas pedal    
aerial antenna    
aluminium aluminum    
bonnet hood    
boot trunk    
camper van recreational vehicle (RV)    
crossing intersection    
driving licence drivers license    
engine (also) motor    
estate car station wagon (SW)    
gear lever/stick gear shift / stick shift    
gearbox transmission    
glove compartment (also) glow box    
gudgeon pin piston pin    
indicator turn signal    
kerb weight curb weight    
lorry truck    
motorway highway, freeway    
number plate licence plate    
oil sump oil pan    
MPV (also) minivan    
people carrier MPV or minivan    
petrol cap (flap) gas tank lid    
petrol station gas station    
roundabout traffic circle    
saloon sedan    
side light parking light    
silencer muffler    
subway underpass    
swept volume piston displacement    
tyre tire    
windscreen windshield    
wing mirror side mirror    
wing fender    


Complete the sentences with words from Exercise 1. Translate them.

a) It wont be necessary to develop new technology for this model. We can what we already have.

b) We need from the Board of Directors if we want to continue with this project.

c) Only models are produced in the clinic, not real cars.

d) The location of the plant has an impact on the pricing of the car.

e) It is necessary to the final design before the prototype is made.

f) Marketing factors (target groups, market share) are finalized after a clinic.


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