The United States of America is a federative republic. The independence of the USA was declared in 1776, and thirteen states entered the federation. From 1959 the federation comprises 50 states. The federal district of Columbia with the capital of the country, Washington, is an independent territorial unit.

The United States Constitution, written in 1787, established a government of three branches legislative, executive and judicial. The president carries out many duties as the head of the executive branch of the government. He is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the USA. The president and vice-president are elected for a term of four years. No person can be elected to the office of the president more than twice. The White House is the presidents official residence.

The Congress is the legislative body of the United States. It consists of theSenate and the House of Representatives. Members of the House of Representatives, 435 in number, are chosen every second year. Senators are elected for a term of six years, two senators from each state. One-third of the Senate is renewed every two years.

The Constitution guarantees rights, freedom and justice to all. It consists of a Preamble, seven articles and twenty six amendments. The first ten of them are called the Bill of Rights. Because of the Bill of Rights, police cannot stop and search or arrest a person without good reason, nor can they search anyones home without clear causeand the permission of a court.

The states have legislative and executive bodies of their own. Their structure, function and competence are determined by the constitution of each state. But state laws must not conflict with the Constitution of the country.

There are two main parties in the United States: the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. They have no permanent membership, nor their programs differ greatly. Membership is determined by election vote.


federal -
federative -
federation -
unit - , ,
district - , ,
office - ,
Senate -
House of Representatives -
to renew - ,
to guarantee -
Preamble - , ,
amendment - ( ),
to search - ,
cause -
reason - , ,
to permit - ;
permission -
court -
to determine - ,
permanent - ,


Ex. 1. Read and translate the words into Ukrainian.

Republic, declaration, federation, territory, vice-president, army, person, residence, congress, senator, preamble, bill, police, arrest, structure, function, competence, conflict.


Ex. 2. Translate into Ukrainian. Define the parts of the speech.

Independence, federative, territorial, legislation, judicial, government, election, permission, law, membership, federation, legislative, member, police, court, independent.

Ex. 3. Translate the word-combinations into Ukrainian.

The independence of the USA, the capital of the country, a government of three branches, the legislative branch of the government, the duties of the president, the elections of the vice-president, the Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the USA, the office of president, the official residence of the president, the House of Representatives, the executive body of the USA, a term of four years, the Constitution of the USA, arrest of a person, permission of a court.

Ex. 4. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the right forms. Define the voice of the verbs.

1. The independence of the USA (to declare) in 1776.

2. The federation (to include) 50 states.

3. The Constitution of the USA (to write) in 1787.

4. The President (to carry out) many duties as head of the executive branch of the government.

5. The senators (to elect) for a term of six years.

6. The Constitution (to guarantee) the rights, freedom and justice to all.

7. The Congress (to consist ) of the Senate and the House of Representatives.


Ex. 5. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the usage of the Passive Voice.

1. The work of the government is carried out through the various government departments.

2. The government decisions are being discussed in the press and broadcasting systems.

3. The government will have been formed by the beginning of Parliament vocations.

4. The English criminal law has never been reduced to a single code.

5. The State Budget had been adopted by the end of last year.

6. The House of Commons is presided over by the Speaker.

7. You have the right to call a lawyer and to have one present while you are being questioned.

8. The man was convicted for what he had not done.

9. That house was being built when we came here.


Ex. 6. Make the following interrogative and negative. Translate them.

1. The Criminal Law has been codified since the Criminal Act of New Zealand 1893.

2. The Parliament had passed the important law before going on holiday.

3. The investigation will have been finished successfully by the end of the week.

4. The criminal has been caught at last.

5. The Common Law offences had been codified by 1986.

Ex. 7. Change the following sentences into Passive.

1. Modern scientists have made many wonderful discoveries.

2. They will have published this document by the end of the year.

3. He has done very little work recently.

4. By Saturday he had found all the necessary material.

5. She had finished her work by this time yesterday.

6. The students had translated the text before the bell rang.

7. The Government will have taken a number of bills by the end of the year.

Ex. 8. Answer the following questions.

1. What kind of state is the USA? What is the capital of the USA?

2. What are the branches of the US government?

3. Who is the head of the country? What are his duties?

4. What term is he elected for?

5. What is the legislative body of the USA? What is its structure?

6. What does the Constitution of the USA guarantee? What is the structure of the Constitution?

7. What are the main parties of the USA?

Ex. 9. Speak on the following topics.

1. Political system of the USA.

2. The president and his functions.

3. The Congress and its structure.



  Topic: Militia of Ukraine.
  Grammar: Imperative Mood. Subjunctive Mood.



The Law of Ukraine On Militia was approved on the 20th of December, 1990. In accordance with the Ukrainian legislation the militia is the state armed agency of the executive power.

Militia is aimed to protect a person, his life, dignity, honour, property, rights and freedoms, interests and environment.

The most important among the forms and methods of the Ukrainian militia are:

securing human right;

preventing violent crimes;

combatingorganized crime and banditry;

counteractingcriminal clements;

guarding property against criminal and administrative encroachments;

protecting business activities and creating favorable conditions to attract foreign investments into the state economy.

Dealers of the criminal world consider the territory of Ukraine to be a profitable ground for distribution of drugs and firearms, criminal money laundering. In order to counteract these phenomena Ukraine has integrated into the Interpol structures, joined a number of European Conventions on criminal court proceedings. All the above contributes to prestige of the State and gives the Ukrainian militia other opportunities to combat international criminal gangs.

The militia of Ukraine structurally is a part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine. Militia is composed of the following subdivisions:

Criminal Militia;

Militia of Public Safety;

Transport Militia;

State Traffic Inspection;

State Guard Service;

Specialized Militia Service.

The characteristic feature of militia in Ukraine is the centralized structural organization of its departments which corresponds to three levels of management in the Internal Affairs agencies, namely:

general state level the corresponding departments in the MIA;

regional level Militia Departments of the Crimean Autonomous Republic within the MIA of Ukraine, Regional Departments of Internal Affairs and in such cities as Kyiv and Sevastopol; and on transport;

local level militia subdivisions in districts, city departments of Internal Affairs and transport militia units.

The staff of militia is composed of personnel serving in militia who has special militia ranks. Recruitment to militia is done on a voluntary basis. It enrollspersons over 18 years of age who by their qualities, education and state of health are able to perform the duties vested in them.


in accordance with -
armed agency -
to be aimed -
dignity and honour -
environment -
to combat banditry -
to counteract -
encroachments - ,
favorable conditions -
profitable ground -
distribution of drugs/ firearmes - /
to launder money -
phenomenon (pl.phenomena) - ,
court proceeding -
criminal gang - ()
staff - , ,
militia rank -
recruitment -
on a voluntary basis -
to enroll - ,
quality - ,

Ex. 1. Translate the following words into Ukrainian:

Independent state, legislative, safety, staff, legal, executive, security, prevention, crime, gang, distribution, firearms, proceeding, opportunity, phenomenon, criminal world, division, dealer, voluntary basis, recruitment.


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