Ex. 9. Answer the following questions.

1. What kind of police agencies exist in the USA?

2. What kind of forces are there at the federal level? What are they responsible for?

3. What is state bureau of identification concerned with?

4. What are investigative units charged with?

5. What kind of police is there at the local level?

6. What kind of training should a recruit undergo?

7. What do police academies deal with?

Ex. 10. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the usage of Participle I, Participle II. Underline them.

1.Runnung into the road, the young man stopped a taxi. 2. She went out, leaving the door open. 3. Coming to the cinema, she saw the movie had already begun. 4. Looking out of the window, he saw the detective questioning the witnesses. 5. The man standing near the bank is a former criminal. 6. Hearing the coming steps, she stopped talking. 7. Everyone looked at the dancing lady. 8. Patrolling the highways, the constable detained the suspect. 9. She watched the children playing in the yard. 10. Looking for evidence, the policeman found the fingerprints of a murder. 11. The Queen is the living symbol of the unity of the nation. 12. The suspect confessed in committing the crime, when questioned closely. 13. Having found pack of documents, Jack brought it to the police station.

Ex. 11. Open the brackets, choosing the proper Participle.

1. The boy (writing, written) on the blackboard is our best student.

2. Everything (writing, written) here is quite right.

3. Read the (translating, translated) sentences once more.

4. When we came nearer, we saw two stranges (coming, came) towards us.

5. The (losing, lost) child was found at last.

6. Here is the letter (receiving, receives) by a Chief Constable yesterday.

7. (Taking, taken) the girl by the hand, Mary helped her to cross the street.

8. I picked up the pistol (lying, lain) on the ground.

9. Name some places (visiting, visited) by you last year.

10. She was reading the book (buying, bought) the day before yesterday.


Ex. 12. Find the Participle, the Gerund and the Infinitive. Translate the sentences.

1. I was pleased to have the opportunity to do something for my friends. 2. Not knowing what to do, he applied to me for advice. 3. To start with, I forgot what the conversation was about. 4. It was too cold to hold the conference outside. 5. What I would like to do is to see him and convince to start the job of investigating this crime. 6. He waited for a moment before answering this question. 7. Not having found my key in its usual place, I went on searching for it around the flat.




  Text: Judiciary of Ukraine.
  Grammar: Sequence of Tenses.


The sphere in which the law operates is quite extensive. It embraces our life and work, determines the legal status of every citizen. That's why it is very important to know all peculiarities of the judicial system of the country.

97 per cent of all criminal cases and 99 per cent of all civil casesare examined in the principal link of Ukrainian judicial system - the people's courts of districts and towns. The most serious offences ere examined by the courts of regions. The Supreme Court of Ukraine only examines cases of particular complexity or of special public significance, and does so either upon its own decision, or upon the initiative of the Procuratorof Ukraine.

The judicial system of Ukraine consists of district (town) People's Courts, regional and territorial courts, the Supreme Court, military tribunals (for servicemen). All the country's judicial bodies are elected. The population elects judges and people's assessors.

The legality of the court's activities is controlled by the Procurator's Office which has the right of protest in a higher court. However, the procurator himself has no right to cancela verdict.

The Procurator's Office exercises general supervision over the observance of laws on the part of executive organs, officials and individual citizens.

The Procurator-General of Ukraine is appointed by Verkhovna Rada (the Ukrainian Parliament).

The legislation of Ukraine makes it binding on the court, the procurator and investigator to ensure all-round, complete and fairexamination of all the circumstancesof the case. In most criminal cases the court hearing is preceded by the complicated work of collecting and investigating evidence. According to Ukrainian procedural law this stage is called preliminary investigation. The conclusions arrived at by the investigator and procurator regarding the guilt of a person have preliminary character. The court alone decides on penalty to be applied to the person guilty of a crime.

In cases provided for by the law, the court alone has the right to decide which of the parties has violated the law. The Judges hand down decisions only in keeping with their internal conviction, with the law and in conformity with the circumstances of the case. No person can regard guilty or subjected to legal punishment until sentence has been passed by a court of law. All citizens of Ukraine are equal before the law.


extensive -
to embrace - ,
peculiarity -
criminal case -
civil case -
to examine - ,
significance - , ,
procurator - ,
the Procurator's Office -
judge -
assessor -
observance - , ()
to ensure - ,
fair - ,
circumstances - ,
to precede -
evidence - ,
preliminary -
conclusion - ,
Guilt - ,
guilty - ,
penalty - ,
to violate - ,
conviction -
conformity -
punishment - ,
sentence - ,

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