Ex. 1. Read and translate the following words.

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

Ex. 2. Put the necessary words into the sentences.

1. A court is an institution that

2. Disputes come to the court when

3. Courts decide what

4. Courts play an important ...

5. The lawyers' task is to bring out ...

6. The lawyers represent interests of ...

7. The lawyers are prepared to furnish ...

8. The lawyers serve a variety of ...

9. The firm represents clients' interests in ...

10.10. Our firm has extensive experience in

Ex. 3. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to using of sequence of tenses of the verbs.

1. He says that he lived in Kiev.

2. He said that he lived in Kiev.

3. He said that he had lived in Kiev.

4. The students knew what they would prepare for examinations.

5. The teacher knows that all the students are present at the lesson.

6. The teacher knew that everybody was at the English lesson.

7. He thought that his friend would work the following week.

Ex. 4. Choose the right form of the verb. Pay attention to using of sequence of tenses of the verbs.


1. They thought that the trial (held, had held, would be held) the following week.

2. Police officers were sure that they (arrested, had arrested, would arrest) all the members of that criminal band the previous month.

3. The driver was sure that he (went, had gone, would go) the right side of the road in London.

4. The man didnt know that the pick-pocket (stole, had stolen, would steal) his purse in the crowded bus.

5. The policeman knew that the teenagers (met, had met, would meet) in that place to buy drugs.

Ex. 5. Answer the following questions.

1. What are the main types of courts in the Ukrainian court system?

2. What does legal procedure system consist of?

3. What functions do regional and district courts carry out?

4. What is a court?

5. What institution settles disputes through a legal process?

6. What role does a court play in the life of society?

7. Are the judges of the Supreme Court elected or appointed?

8. Are the judges of District Courts appointed in Ukraine?




  Text: British Judicial System.
  Grammar: Sequence of Tences. Direct and Indirect speech.


There is no single body of law in Britain and there are differences between the separate systems, especially between Scotland and the rest of the country. However, some featuresare common to all systems: the sources of law, the distinction between criminal law, which is concerned with wrongsagainst the whole community, and civil law concerned with the rights, duties and obligations of individuals between themselves.

The English criminal law has never been reducedto a single code. The sources of law include statutes (Acts of Parliament) and unwritten or common law, based on judicial precedent. In this system, court decisions establish legal principles and rules of law. They also call the common law case law or judge-made law.

In England there are two main classes of trial courts: the Magistrates Court and the Crown Court. Magistrates Courts are lower courts of trial in which less serious offences are tried before magistrates without a jury. More serious cases are also brought before Magistrates Courts, but the proceedings then do not amount to a trial, they are only a preliminary investigation. Magistrates Courts, sometimes called police courts, try the majority of criminal cases and some civil cases. They are courts of summary jurisdiction.

The Crown Courts sit in various circuitcentres for the trial of serious criminal offences before a judge and jury. The courts are presided over by a High Court judge or by a Circuit judge. The Crown Courts have a double function. Sitting without a jury they hear appeals from Magistrates Courts. The Crown Court for London is called the Central Criminal Court. Trials in this court are presided over either by a High Court judge or by one of the special judges, such as the Recorder of the City of London.

The High Court hears those civil cases that cannot be decided by County courts. The Court of Criminal Appeal hears appeals from the Crown Courts and the House of Lords is the supreme court of appeal in criminal matters.


Judicial -
source of law -
distinction - ; ;
wrong - ; ; ;
court - (.) ,
case - ; ,
case law (judge-made law) -
judge - ; (.) ;
to try - ; ();
trial - , ;
feature - ,
magistratescourt - ,
jury - ;
to bring a case before the court -
proceeding(s) - ;
summary jurisdiction - ,
circuit -
High Court (of Justice) - ()
appeal - ,
Recorder (of London) - ,
county court - ;
court of appeal (court of appellate jurisdiction) -    
to concern - ,
to be concerned with (syn. to deal with) - ,  
to reduce - ;  

Ex. 1. Read the following words and translate them into Ukrainian.

Define the parts of the speech.

Separate, system, criminal, individual, civil, statute, act, precedent, legal, principle, class, serious, jury, police, jurisdiction, centre, function, central, special, appeal.


Ex. 2. Find the equivalents:

1) the sources of law a)
2) wrongs against community b)
3) a single code c)
4) court decisions d)
5) a preliminary investigation e)
6) the court of appeals f)
7) a single body of law g)


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