Ex. 3. Translate the word-combinations into English using the following words.

1. Case ( , , ).

2. Law ( , , , , ).

3. Court ( , , , , , , ).

Ex. 4. Put the necessary words into the sentences.

1. There is no single in Britain.

2. In England there are two main classes of trial courts:

3. Magistrates Courts try ... without a jury.

4. The Crown Courts hear from Magistrates Courts and try with a jury.

5. The Crown Court for London is called

Ex. 5. Find the wrong word in the group of the following words. Translate them into Ukrainian.


1. Common law statute article act civil law criminal law legislative body.

2. Rights wrongs obligations duties freedoms.

3. Judge jury the clerk of the court defendant policeman.


Ex. 6. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian and define the voice of the verbs.

1. Acts of Parliament and unwritten law are based on judicial precedent.

2. Magistrates try less serious offences in the Magistrates Courts without a jury.

3. The legal principles and rules of English law are also called "judge-made law".

4. The most serious criminal offences and appeals from Magistrates Courts are tried in the Crown Courts.

5. The Court of Criminal Appeal hears appeals from the Crown Courts and the House of Lords.


Ex. 7. Rewrite sentences as in the model:

Model: I am very busy. (Frank)

Frank said he was very busy.

1. The rule of law protects citizens from the state (the legislator).

2. We are going to settle the dispute (Philip).

3. John is suspected of murder (Alfred).

4. Legal decisions are always based on firm cases (the lawyer).

5. They went to the Prosecutors Office (Jerry).

6. He was giving evidence that moment (Frank).

7. They work as notaries (Kelly).

Ex. 8. Put the following statements into Indirect speech.

Model: My colleague said: "I study the fingerprints of that man".

My colleague said that he studied the fingerprints of that man.


1. The police officer said: "I will tell you this information tomorrow".

2. The accused said: "I can not afford to have an attorney".

3. My friend said: "I have to finish the investigation".

4. The judge said: "We have no sufficient evidence".

5. The man said: "I saw that woman in the crime scene".

Ex. 9. Turn these into Indirect speech, beginning I didnt know:

Model: There is no written constitution in the UK.

I didnt know that there was no written constitution in the UK.


1. Laws in the UK can be passed by a simple majority.

2. The English legal system is based on common law.

3. Great Britain has been a nation that holds on tight to its traditions.

4. The Queen is responsible for appointing Bishops to the Church.

5. The Prime Ministers power is based on the loyalty of his party.

6. This famous barrister will represent James in court.

7. The main feature of common law has always been its foundation on case law.

Ex.10. Answer the following questions.

1. Is there a single code in England?

2. What do the sources of law include?

3. What are the main classes of trial courts in England?

4. What do Magistrates Courts try? Who sits for the trial there?

5. What courts are also called courts of summary jurisdiction?

6. What courts have a double function? What do they try?

7. Who sits for the trial in the Crown Court?

8. What is the Crown Court for London?

9. What is the supreme court of appeal in criminal matters?



  Text: The United States Court System.
  Grammar: Indirect speech.


The third branch of the federal government, the judiciary, consists of a system of courts throughout the country, headed by the Supreme Court of the United States. The whole country is divided into districts, each having a federal court. The present federal court system includes the Supreme Court, 11 courts of appeals, 91 district courts and 5 courts of special jurisdiction.

The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices who are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. The responsibility and power of these nine people are extraordinary. The Supreme Court is the court of final appeal, its main work is to make the final decision in legal cases in which a charge of violation of the Constitution is made. Supreme Court decisions can affect the lives of all Americans and can change society significantly.

The second highest level of the federal judiciary is made up of the courts of appeals. The United States is divided into eleven judicial circuits, each served by a court of appeals. As a rule, the court of appeals sits with three judges on the bench. They review the district courts decisions within their areas.

The district courts are the lowest ones in the federal court system. These courts try most of the criminal and civil cases. They are the only federal courts where trials are held with the jury. Decisions of the district courts may be appealed in one of the eleven courts of appeals and in the Supreme Court.

In addition to the federal courts of general jurisdiction it has been necessary to set up courts for special purposes. There are separate military courts for members of the armed forces and other specialised courts to handle matters ranging from tax questions to immigration violations.

Besides, each state has established a system of courts, including a state supreme court, to deal with civil, criminal and appellate proceedings. There are also county and city courts. Even the smallest villages have a local judge, called a "justice of the peace", who handles minor legal matters.

The constitution safeguards judicial independence by providing that federal judges shall hold office until they die, retire or resign, although a judge who commits an offence while in office may be impeached in the same way as the president or other officials of the federal government.



Judiciary - ; ;
chief justice -
associate justice -
judicial circuit -
violation -
violence - ,
justice of the peace -
minor - , ,
to handle to resign - , ;
to hold office -

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