Ex. 1. Read the words and translate them into Ukrainian.

The Senate, president, extraordinary, final appeal, legal, interpreting, facts, situation, immigration, municipal, local.


Ex. 2. Find the equivalents:

1) the responsibility a)
2) the final decision b)
3) violation of the Constitution c)
4) trial d)
5) justice of the peace e)
6) judicial independence f)
7) legal matters g)

Ex. 3. Translate the word-combinations into English using the following words.

1. Federal( , , , , ).

2. Final ( , ).

3. District ( , ).

4. Court ( , , , , , , ).

5. Proceeding ( , , ).

Ex. 4. Combine the words into word-combinations and translate them into Russian:

1) to make a) criminal and civil cases
2) to try b) a trial with the jury
3) to hold c) the president
4) to listen to d) the final decision
5) to consider e) testimony
6) to elect f) evidence
7) to safeguard g) judicial independence

Ex. 5. Change the verb phrases to noun phrases and translate them into Ukrainian.

To appoint the Senate, to violate the Constitution, to decide the facts of the case, to establish a court system, to govern the country.


Ex. 6. Add the sentences.

1. The present federal court system includes

2. The Supreme Court consists of

3. The main work of the Supreme Court is

4. The appeals court sits with

5. The courts of appeals review

6. The district courts try

7. The supreme court of each state deals with

Ex. 7. Practise using asked if / asked whether.

Model:Areyoumarried? (Peter) asked me if I am married.

1. Are you hungry?

2. Did you enjoy your vocation?

3. Do you need any help?

4. Have you ever been to London?

5. Do you think its going to rain?

6. Will you be at home tonight?

7. Can you hear me?

Ex. 8. Change the following sentences into Indirect speech as in the model:

Model:Where are you going?

She asked where I was going.

1. Do you work as a legal adviser or a prosecutor?

2. Has he presented the evidence?

3. Did he have a personal interest in the case?

4. What does the legislative process involve?

5. Where are the members of the House of Lords drawn from?

6. What are the chambers of the UK Parliament?

7. What is the highest court in the United Kingdom?

Ex. 9. Answer the following questions.

1. What is the third branch of the federal government?

2. What does the present federal court system include?

3. What is the highest level of the federal judiciary?

4. What is the structure of the Supreme Court?

5. What is the main work of the Supreme Court?

6. What is the second level of the federal judiciary?

7. What do the district courts try?

8. What is the structure of the state court system?



  Topic: Criminal law.
  Grammar: Compound and Complex sentences. The Conjunction.


Criminal law is the part of the law which is concerned with crimes. Criminal law may be definedby three basic elements. First, it prevents harm to society and its members. Second, it specifies what conduct is considered criminal. Third, it identifies prescribed sanctions for criminal conduct.

The first element, preventing harm, implies that a central purpose of criminal law is to protect society from various activities that might injure its members or social institutions. Vandalism, murder, assault, robbery, theft of personal property are examples of harms typically associated with violations of criminal law. Criminal law provides social control for society.

The second element, specification of what conduct, is criminal, refersto the particular act or acts defined as illegal. Criminal law provides that every outlawed act is separately detailed and described.

The third aspect of the definition of criminal law involves prescriptions for punishment. Criminal law presumes that one cannot be punished for committing a crime unless one has been convictedof violating a law.

Crime is conduct that society classifies as illegal, it is a violation of criminal law. To qualify as crime, behavior must be specifically defined in the law, be enforced by some political body and associated with prescribed penalties.

Usually, crimes are classified as either felonies or misdemeanors. Often, the distinctions between them are made on the basis of the length of sentence imposedfor the crime. Felonies are most serious crimes and carry lengthier sentences than misdemeanors, such as imprisonment in a state prison for several years. Misdemeanors are less serious crimes for which fines and shorter jail time may be imposed.


to be defined -
to prevent harm -
society - ,
to specify -
conduct -
to imply - ,
to injure - ,
assault - ,
robbery -
theft -
violation -
to refer to -
outlawed /illegal act - ,
punishment - ,
to be convicted of smth -
penalty - ,
felony - ,
misdemeanor - , ,
to impose sentence -
prison /jail - ,
imprisonment -


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