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The Purpose of Terrorist Activities.

The basic aims of the terror organisations are to make doubts about the political system in the minds of people, and to weaken the authority of the government. On the other hand, terrorism is used as a tool by some powers to get political and economic advantages when a group of people creates an atmosphere of fear in the society taken as a target to obtain a profit. As a political tool for struggle, terror is also used for state's weakening another state. The next source of terrorist activity is the difference in ethnic structures or religious beliefs. The leaders of some ethnic groups try to clash the groups of people who have different cultural backgrounds and points of views and use the techniques of terror to destroy unity and order of the society.

Terrorist acts are criminal in nature and constitute a serious threat to individuals' lives or freedom. The struggle against international terrorism is different from any other war. Units for Combating Terrorism all over the world and Interpol (182 member countries) fight terrorist networks and all those who support their efforts to spread fear, they use every instrument of power - diplomatic, economic, law enforcement, financial, information, intelligence, and military.

The National Strategy for Combating Terrorism focuses on the following tasks:

- to identify and locate terrorists and terrorist organisations (know your enemy);

- to isolate the spread of terrorism;

- to destroy the terrorist organisations;

- to create an international environment inhospitable to terrorists and all those who support them;

- to eliminate the capabilities for terrorists to exist and operate (leadership, control, material support and finances, communications);

- to prevent terrorists from acquiring the capability to use chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapons, or high-yield explosives.

Vocabulary

fear -
threat - ,
hostage -
hijack ( hijacking ) - ,
explosion -
explosive -
premeditated -
perpetrated -
noncombatant target - ',
minority -
intimidation -
to make doubts -
tool - ,
advantages/ disadvantages - /
profit - , ,
religious belief -
to clash -
to destroy -
destruction -
struggle/ combat -
terrorist networks -
to spread fear -
inhospitable - ,
capability - , ,
to eliminate -
to acquire - , ,
nuclear weapons -
high-yield -
explosive -  

Ex.1. Read and translate the following international words:

Atmosphere, resources, reaction, technique, structure, method, morality, strategy, region, technology, brigade, sabotage, fanatic, despotism, activity, to form, to demonstrate, to co-ordinate, to manufacture, to isolate, to focus on, to operate, neutral, opposite, racial, extreme, religious, global, ethnic, lethal, financial, brutal.

Ex. 2. Choose the synonyms from the box:

to get, to receive - struggle, combat -
to show, to display - fright, scare -
to produce, to make - purpose, goal -
to gain, to succeed - request, inquiry -  

 

Ex. 3. Define by the suffixes or endings to what part of speech the following words belong (where it is possible). Translate the words:

 

identity - identify - identical - identification

injure - injured - injury - injurious

recognition - recognisable - recognise

support - supporter - supportable - supporting - supportive promote - promoter - promotion

Ex. 4. Finish the sentences according to the text:

1. Terrorism is

2. The main meaning of the word terror is

3. Terrorists are

4. The basic aims of the terror organisations are

5. The terrorist actions are characterised by ...

6. Units for all over the world and fight terrorist networks.

7. The main tasks of Interpol and units for combating terrorism are to ... .

Ex. 5. Match the English and Ukrainian equivalents:

1. to achieve an aim 2. to obtain a profit 3. to create an atmosphere of fear 4. to destroy the unity of the society 5. to spread panic 6. to support groups 7. to deploy chemical weapon 8. to prevent a terrorist act 9. to use explosives a) b) c) d) e) g) h) i)

. 6. Match the term and its definition:

1. Terrorist a) an act of taking control of a vehicle (esp.an aircraft) in order

to force it to change the destination, to take hostages or to

steal its cargo.

2. Hostage b) an object or a place at which an attack is directed.

3. Target c) a large system of terrorist groups connected with one another

by common aims, rules and leadership.

4.Terrorist d) a person who uses threat or violence

networkwho is involved in terrorism.

5. Hijack e)a person who is kept as a captive by one or more others (who

threaten to keep, harm or kill him/her) so that other side will

do what they demand.

Ex. 7. Fill the gaps in the sentences using the words of the unit.

1. Terrorists never recognise any moral or humanistic factors and they usually choose civilians as their_________.

2. In December 1985 five _________of the Abu Nidal Group carried out the Egypt Air Flight 648 and fifty-six passengers were killed.

3. The terrorists kidnapped the children and held them as_________.

4. _________ accepted responsibility for the bomb blast which killed 21 people and wounded more 140 others.

5. The ______of Palestinian movements has an annual income of about $ 1.25 billion.

. 8. Make up the composition Terrorism as the central problem of modern world. Use the following words and word-combinations:

International terrorist groups, the use of violence, hijacking of passenger aircraft, bombings, political assassinations, kidnapping, to create public fear, to make attacks, a terrorist network, victims, to injure, to kill, to spread the sense of insecurity, to rule by terror, to commit a crime, drug trafficking, to take hostages, to achieve own aims, demands, profit; to support terrorist operations, to fight, psychological and ideological war.

. 9. Complete the first part of the phrasal verbs. Use each verb only once.

1. Mary and I want to (get, give, hurry, pick, stand, tidy, wake) smoking.

2. Could you (get, give, hurry, pick, stand, tidy, wake) me up at 7 oclock.

3. They must (get, give, hurry, pick, stand, tidy, wake) or they will miss the train.

4. Can you (get, give, hurry, pick, stand, tidy, wake) at the station?

5. When the teacher enters the class-room, the students have to (get, give, hurry, pick, stand, tidy, wake) up.

6. I usually have to (get, give, hurry, pick, stand, tidy, wake) at half past six.

7. Diana must (get, give, hurry, pick, stand, tidy, wake) up her room today.

. 10. Complete the sentences using a suitable phrasal verb from the box. Where necessary use the Past Tense of the verb. Use it/them/me with the verb.

look up turn down wake up shave off pick up cross out knock out try on

 

1. The radio is a bit loud. Can you it a bit, please?

2. There was a 50 $ note lying on the pavement, so I .

3. The children are asleep. Dont !

4. If you make a mistake, just .

5. I saw a suit which I liked in the shop. So I went in and to see if it fitted me.

6. There were a few words that I didnt understand, so I in my dictionary.

7. He had a beard for a long time but he got fed up with it. So he .

8. A stone fell on my head and I was unconscious for half an hour.

. 11. Change the underlined verb with the phrasal verb from the box.

keep on find out got away bumped into

 

1. The police followed the robbers, but they escaped.

..............................................................................................................

2. Im trying to discover whose car this is.

3. Most of the students said they wanted to continue studying.

4. I met an old friend of mine. What a surprise!

 

MODULE 6

UNIT 2

  Text: Drug trafficking.
  Grammar: Revision .

TYPES OF DRUGS

Drugs are probably as old as mankind. There have been drugs in practically all civilizations.

A distinction must be made between legal and illegal drugs, depending on the country and culture concerned. Alcohol, for instance, while popular in most parts of the world, is prohibitedin many Muslim countries.

Legal drugsin Ukraine - and most Western countries - are caffeine (coffee), nicotine (tobacco) and alcohol (beer, wine, spirits) as well as certain medical tablets which can be obtained without prescription. Certain glues and solvents are likewise misused as drugs, especially among 12 to 16-year-olds.

There are four large groups of illegal drugs,three of which are based on plants (hemp, poppy and coca), with the fourth group being synthetic drugs.

Hemp (cannabis) is the raw material for hashish and marihuana. These drugs are mainly smoked mixed with tobacco as joints. Consumptionproduces, among other things, hallucinations and mental disorders, and, like alcohol, impairs fitness to drive.

The opiumpoppy is the base for opium and heroin. Both drugs have been used as pain killers, but they are extremely addictive.

Opium is usually smoked while heroin is injected. Many heroin addicts contract AIDS because they share syringes. Long-term heroin abuse leads to physical breakdown and, eventually, death.

Cocaine is extracted from the leaves of the coca bush and is usually snorted. After a brief moment of euphoria, cocaine users suffer, among other things, from hallucinations, panic and persecution mania, which, in turn, often produce aggressiveness.

Crack (cocaine heated together with baking powder) causes addiction right from the beginning.

There are many synthetic drugs, like LSD and ecstasy, and nobody knows what drugs chemists will come up with next. The so-called designer drugs are specially designed variations of illegal drugs. The clandestine manufacturers seek to escape the provisions of the controlled substances acts in the consumers' countries.

Drug addicts who want to get clean often suffer from severe and painful withdrawal symptoms. This is why many rehabilitation schemes are not very successful. As drugs are extremely expensive, junkies often turn to crime like theft and burglary to finance their habit. Female addicts frequently earn the necessary money through prostitution.

 

REMEMBER

All drugs carry RISKS

The effects may be unexpected.

Many drugs sold on the street have been mixed with other substances, so users can never be sure what they are getting.

Users can become tolerant to some drugs. This means their bodies have become so used to the drug they need to take more to get the effect they want.

Users may overdose (take too much for their bodies to handle). With alcohol, heroin, gases, glues and aerosols, an overdose can prove fatal.

Vocabulary

drugs -  
for instance -  
prohibited -  
prescription -  
glues -  
solvents -  
hemp -  
joint -  
consumption -  
mental disorders -  
to impair fitness -  
poppy -  
addictive -  
addiction -  
addicts -  
syringe -  
abuse -  
to snort -  
to suffer -  
persecution mania -  
clandestine -   ,
withdrawal - symptoms  

 

. 1. Guess the meaning of the international words:

Civilization, narcotic, alcohol, popular, substance, legal, opium, synthetic, to inject, effect, dose, to concentrate, apathy, physical, rehabilitation, depression, mania, risk, tolerance, intensity, euphoria, normal, function, total, character, action, panic, medical, tablet, hallucination, aggressiveness, symptom.

Ex. 2. Read and translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Junkie, pain killer, Muslim countries, misuse, to snort, hallucinations and mental disorders, drug addict, the coca bush, hemp, manufacturer, the raw material, the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), synthetic drugs, to consumer, contract AIDS.

Ex. 3. Match the following adjectives with the nouns and translate the word-combinations:

medical material
raw drugs
clandstine tablets
synthetic manufacturers
illegal  

Ex. 4. Write out the words and expressions with the word "drug" from the text.

Ex. 5. Match English and Ukrainian equivalents:

aggressiveness
boredom
caffeine
curiosity
manufacturer
mental disorder
prescription
sociability
cannabis

Ex. 6. Group the following words and word- combinations into 4 logical groups:

 

Panic, caffeine, ecstasy, inject, heroin, smoke, persecution mania, opium, swallow, hashish, medical tablets, LSD, snort, aggressiveness, marihuana, hallucination, nicotine, mental disorder, alcohol.

legal drug illegal drug method of use drugs effect

Ex. 7. Give the English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations:

 

, , , , , , , , , , , .

. 8. Translate the words and word- combinations in the box and complete the following sentences:

, , , , ,

 

 


1. is natural product derived from the leaves of the coca plant.

2. The world's production of is concentrated in Peru, Colombia and Bolivia.

3. The vast majority of the world's supply of ... is processed from opium poppy.

4. The ... were between 20 and 30 years old and a strikingly large number of them were women.

5. Cooperation between the authorities is necessary for the successful of drug abuse.

6. Many thefts, frauds and other kinds of crimes against property are committed with a view to obtaining ... to buy drugs.

 

Ex. 9. Answer the following questions:

1. What kind of distinction should be made between legal and illegal drugs?

2. What drugs are legal in most Western countries?

3. What are four large groups of illegal drugs?

4. What is cannabis?

5. What is the base for opium and heroin?

6. Why do many heroin addicts contract AIDS?

7. What do many cocaine users suffer from?

8. What drug causes addiction right from the beginning?

9. What are the designer drugs?

10. Why are many rehabilitation schemes not successful?

11. Why do "junkies" often turn to crime?

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