Most big towns in Britain have both a university and a college of higher education. There are 91 universities and 47 colleges of higher education in Britain. They offer three- and four- year degree courses.

A degree is a qualification you get from university when you pass your final exams. You are then awarded a BA (Bachelor of Arts), BSc (Bachelor of Science) or BEd (Bachelor of Education). Undergraduates students who are studying for degrees go to large formal lectures, but most of the work takes place in tutorials: lessons in groups of ten or more when students discuss their work with the lecturer.

Only 25 per cent of the student population goes on to higher education. After finishing school students take exams where they get grades from A level (the highest) to E level (the lowest). Students usually need three A levels to go to university. They apply to universities some months before they take their A levels. The students are given a personal interview and the universities decide which students they want. The place which a student is offered depends on his or her A level results. The more popular a university, the higher grades must be. Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest universities in Britain and they have the highest academic reputation.

Most of British students choose to go to university a long way from their home town. They think going to university is time to be independent and to live away from home and develop new interests.

Until 1998, British students did not have to pay to go to university. Now they must pay about £ 1,000 a year as a tuition fee. They also need money to live away from home. Many students, whose parents do not earn a lot of money, are given a grant from the local education authority. If students do not get a grant, parents are expected to pay for their children. Some students borrow money from the bank, which must be paid back after they leave university. In theory, the grant pays for rent, food, books and transport. In fact the grant is not large enough. Students often work during their holidays to earn more money. About 38 per cent of the population under 24 years of age go on higher education.

Not all students study full-time at university or college. Many people combine their studies with work. Some companies release their staff for training one or two days a week or for two months a year. Large companies often have their own in-house training schemes.

The British government is very enthusiastic about such training schemes. It wants at least half the work force to have a formal professional qualification.



Ukraine is situated in south-eastern Europe. It is an independent, democratic, unitary state with single citizenship. Its population is about 52 million people. Ukraine has its own territory, constitution, government and the state symbols. It has its own armed forces and maintains diplomatic relations with foreign countries.

The Constitution of Ukraine was adopted on June 28, 1996. The Constitution is the Fundamental Law of the country, it establishes the states political system, assures rights, freedoms and duties of citizens.

The Constitution states that every person has the right to free development of his or her personality, and has certain obligations before the society. Citizens have equal constitutional rights and freedoms and they are equal before the law. There are no privileges or restrictions based upon colour of skin, political and other beliefs, ethnic and social origin, property, ownership, position, language, religion.

The articles of the Constitution guarantee the rights to life, personal inviolability and the inviolability of dwelling, non-interference in private and family life, free choice of residence, work, education, housing, health protection, medical care, legal assistance, a safe and healthy environment.

Defence of the Motherland, of its independence and territorial integrity, and respect for the states symbols are the duty of citizens. Citizens of Ukraine are also obliged to perform military service. Every person shall pay taxes in the order and amount determined by law. No person may damage the environment and cultural heritage.

The Constitution defines the territorial structure of Ukraine. It consists of 24 regions and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.



The Constitution states that the national symbols of Ukraine shall be the National Flag, the National Emblem, and the National Anthem.

The Ukrainian flag consists of two horizontal stripes of equal width. The top is blue, the bottom yellow. Blue and yellow, the colours of the sky, mountains, streams, and golden fields have symbolized Kyivan Rus long before the introduction of Christianity. With the acceptance of Christianity, blue and gold were incorporated into church symbolism. After the Mongol-Tatar invasion in the 1200s the use of blue/gold was interrupted, to be revived again in church ornaments and city crests some time later. The emblem of the city of Myrhorod, for example, was a gold trident over a blue background. Another city, Pryluky, used the head of an ox in gold over a blue background as its insignia. And in Lubny, the city emblem pictured a hand holding a golden mace over a blue background. The banners of the Cossacks (17th Century) were blue with gold stars, a gold cross, or with pictures of saints rendered in gold.


Trident (tryzub). The official coat of arms of Ukraine is a gold trident on an azure background. As a state emblem the trident dates back to Kievan Rus. When it was the coat of arms of the Riuryk dynasty. The oldest examples of the trident discovered by archaeologists on Ukrainian territory date back to the 1st century AD.

At that time the trident probably served as a symbol of power in one of the tribes that later became part of the Ukrainian people. The trident was stamped on the gold and silver coins issued by Prince Volodymyr the Great (980-1015), who perhaps inherited the symbol from his ancestors as a dynastic coat of arms and passed it on to his sons, Sviatopolk I (1015-19) and Yaroslav the Wise (1019-54).

On February 19 1992, after the restoration of Ukraines independence in 1991, the Supreme Council accepted the trident as the chief element in the state coat of arms.



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