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I. The Use of Continuous Tenses.

v The Present Continuous is used to express:

1) an action going on at the present moment, at the time of speaking;

e.g. Why areyou crying? ?

2) an action in its progress going on at the present period of time not necessarily at the time of speaking;

e.g. Im studyingat the University. .

3) a continuous action going on at the same time with another action referring to the present time;

e.g. Imonly happy when Im ,

working..

4) a planned future action mostly with verbs denoting motion.

e.g. We are flyingto Paris

in the morning. .

v The Past Continuous is used to express:

1) an action going on at a definite moment in the past;

e.g. He was working at his ³

English at that time. a

.

2) an action in its progress going on at a definite period of time in the past;

e.g. In the spring of the year 1881 1881 he was visitinghis old

school-fellow. .

3) in object clauses after the verb of the principal clause in the past tense

e.g. She said she was coming ,

to see you after supper. .

v The Future Continuous is used to express:

an action going on at a definite moment or during a definite period of time in the future.

e.g. Well be playingall morning.

.

II. The Formation of Continuous Tenses.

The Continuous Tenses are formed by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the Present, Past or Future Indefinite Tense and Present Participleof the main verb.

 

Present Past Future
  now, at the moment at oclock, from to/till , the whole evening, when , while
+ / -
I am/am not Ving We are/arent Ving He/she/it is/isnt Ving You/they are/arent Ving was/wasnt Ving were/werent Ving was/wasnt Ving were/werent Ving will (shall) be/wont (shant) be Ving
will be/wont be Ving
?
AmI Ving Arewe, you, they Ving Ishe, she, it Ving WasI, he, she, it Ving Werewe, you, they Ving Will(Shall)I,we be Ving Willhe, she, it you, they be Ving
       

EXERCISES

1.Put the verb into the appropriate form.

1.I (not to drink) coffee now. I (to write) an English exercise. 2.Your friend (to do) his homework now? 3.Look! The baby (to sleep). 4.My father (not to sleep) now. He (to work) in the garden. 5.What your sister (to do) now? She (to wash) her face and hands. 6.My mother (not to play) the piano now. 7.I (not to write) a letter now. 8.They (to play) in the yard now. 9.They (not to play) in the street now. 10.They (to play) in the room now? 11.I (not to read) now. 12.She (not to eat) sweets now. 13.The children (to eat) soup now. 14.I (to write) a composition now. 15.You (to play)chess now.

2.Put a tick (Ö ) if the sentence is right and a cross ( X ) if it is wrong. Correct the mistakes.

1.He smokes ten cigarettes a day.

2.I am liking black coffee.

3.Mary is in the kitchen. She cooks dinner.

4.What are you thinking of London?

5.She is speaking four languages.

6.Joe is having a flat in Kyiv.

7.I am working now.

3.Choose the right variant.

1.What do you do now? / What are you doing now?

2.He wants to see my mother. / He is wanting to see my mother.

3.I am reading a good article on sports now. / I read a good article on sports now.

4.We always go to the sea-side. / We are always going to the sea-side.

5.Look!The birds are flying in the sky. / Look! The birds fly in the sky.

4.Open the brackets, using either the Past Indefinite or the Past Continuous Tense according to the sense.

1.When we got off the train it (rain) heavily. 2.The summer that year was cold. It often (rain). 3.The weather was foggy. Cars and buses (move) slowly. 4.While I (pack) my things, he (ring) up for a taxi to take me to the station. 5.The house was quiet. The boys (play) chess and Mary (read) a book. 6.When you (see) him last? 7.I (buy) the guide book in London. It (catch) my eye when I (pass) a shop window. I (return), (enter) the shop and (buy) it. 8.In 1972 Peter (be) in Siberia, he (build) a railway together with his friends. Later he (write) a book about it. 9.Who (speak) over the telephone at five yesterday? The line (be) busy for an hour at least. 10.The whole family (watch) a detective film on TV when I (come) into the room.

5.Write questions. Use was/were+ Ving

1.(what / Tim / do / when you saw him ?) What was Tim doing when you saw him ?

2.(what / you do / at 11 oclock ?) What_______________________?

3.(what / she / wear / yesterday ?) ____________________________?

4.(it / rain / when you went out ?)____________________________?

5.(where / you / live / from 1981 to 1985?)_____________________?

6.Put the verb into the appropriate form.

1.I (to write) an English exercise now.

2.I (to write) an English exercise at this time yesterday.

3.My little sister (to sleep) now.

4.My little sister (to sleep) at this time yesterday.

5.My friends (not to do) their homework at 7 oclock yesterday. They (to play) volley-ball.

6.You (to eat) ice-cream now ?

7.You (to eat) ice-cream when I rang you yesterday ?

8.What your father (to do) now ?

9.What your father (to do) from 8 till 9 yesterday ?

10.Why she (to cry)?

7.Put the verb into the appropriate form.

1.I (to have a walk) at six oclock tomorrow.2.When I come home tomorrow, my family (to have) supper. 3.When you come to my place tomorrow, I (to read) your book. 4.Dont come to my place tomorrow. I (to write) a composition the whole evening. 5.I (not to go) to the cinema tomorrow. I (to watch) TV the whole evening. 6.What you (to do) at eight oclock tomorrow? 7.Tomorrow he (to begin) doing his work as soon as he comes from school.

8.Answer the following questions, using the continuous tenses forms (Present, Past or Future).

1.What is the weather like? (rain a little). 2.Why didnt you go to the country yesterday? (rain). 3.What will the weather be like tomorrow? (the radio, give the weather forecast in a few minutes). 4.Why did the policeman stop him? (walk across the street in the wrong place). 5.Why dont you want to go to the cinema tonight? (finish a book which I must give back tomorrow). 6.Where is Mother? (work in the garden). 7.Why didnt he hear the bell? (play football). 8.Why cant we speak to him now? (write business letters). 9.What is the noise about? (watch a football match). 10.Why do you think you wont get much sleep tonight? (travel all night).

9.Translate into English.

1. . 2. . 3. ? - . 4.. . 5. ? - ³ . 6. . 7. . . 8. . . 9. , . 10. ? , . - . 11. , . 12. , ? - . 13. , . ? 14. . 15. 5 7 ? 16. ? 17. ? 30 . . 18. 10. 19. . 20. .

TOPIC

Topical Vocabulary

1.Remember the following words and word combinations:

compartment carriage obvious to board a train to stand in a queue to settle ones business to book tickets in advance ,

2.Read and translate paying attention to the active words and word combinations.


TRAVELLING BY TRAIN

The first railway in our country was opened in 1837 and since that time people have covered millions of kilometers travelling from one part of the country to another by train.

Trains carry people in passenger trains, goods are carried in goods trains and mail trains carry passengers and mail. In Britain and America there are also special coaches attached to some trains, called Travelling Post Offices.

Longdistance trains are fast trains. Local trains make stops, and you can get on or off a train at a very small station, even if it is only a platform. If you are going to a distant place, a sleeping compartment is very comfortable, but local trains have carriages with wooden berths as passengers make only short trips.

To be on the safe side and to spare yourself the trouble of standing long hours in a queue, youd better book tickets in advance. Before getting off you make your preparations; you visit your relatives and friends and settle your business. On the eve of your departure you pack your luggage, and when the day of your departure comes you call a taxi and go to the railway station.

When the loudspeaker announces that your train is in, the passengers are asked to take their seats. The carriage and compartment are appointed in your ticket and you find them easily. And now it is time for you to find your berth. It may be lower berth, which is more convenient, or an upper one, a corner seat or a seat facing the engine or back to engine one. After finding your seat you put your luggage into a special box under the lower berth. Soon the train starts off. You sit in a cosy compartment and marvel at the country you are travelling through. Its much more convenient to travel by express train for it takes you less time to get to your destination.

There is no denying the fact that travelling by train is slower than by plane, but it has its advantages. Modern trains have very comfortable seats in all passenger carriages and there are sleeping-cars and dining cars that make even the longest journey enjoyable.

3.Answer the questions.

1.What kinds of trains do you know?

2.Which compartment is the most suitable for travelling for long distances?

3.Why is it convenient to book tickets in advance?

4.What do you do on the eve of your departure?

5.What are the advantages of travelling by train?

6.Is it cheap or expensive to travel by train?

4.Match the words in A with the equivalents from B.

A. B.

a)mail 1)carriage

b)distant 2)probably

c)coach 3)evident

d)obvious 4)to solve

e)there is no doubt 5)beforehand

f)to be most likely 6)to fix

g)in advance 7)far

h)to settle 8)to refuse

i)to deny 9)without doubt

j)to appoint 10)post

5.Fill in the appropriate word.

The first railway in our country was opened in 1837 and since that time people have millions of kilometres. People travel in trains. We often get tired of the same and daily routine and want to have a rest. We go to a place where we never been before .We can the tickets in advance and get to the station by a taxi. The train is not the way of travelling but it gives us a to admire the scenery around. Modern trains have very comfortable seats in all passenger trains and there are sleeping-cars and dining cars that make even the longest enjoyable.

(journey; covered; surroundings; passenger; have; chance; book; railway; fastest)

6.Read and say what kinds of tickets there are in Great Britain.

Going by Train in Britain.

A singleis a one-way ticket. If you ask for a return ticket, the clerk may ask you when you are coming back. This is because there are at least two types of return tickets: an ordinary return the more expensive and valid ticket on any train for a period of three months; a cheap day return valid only on the day you buy it, and usually only after a certain time in the morning.

If you are staying in a town near London, you may be able to buy a rail ticket which is also valid in the London Underground.

Always keep your ticket until the end of your journey, when your ticket may be collected at the barrier.

7.Speak on your last (imaginable) travelling by train.

READING

Text. Mistaken Identity.

1.Read and translate using the dictionary.

Years ago I arrived one day at Salamanca, New York, where I was to change trains and take the sleeper. There were crowds of people on the platform, and they were all trying to get into the long sleeper train which was already packed. I asked the young man in the booking-office if I could have a sleeping-berth and he answered: No. I went off and asked another local official if I could have some poor little corner somewhere in a sleeping-car, but he interrupted me angrily saying, No, you cant, every corner is full. Now, dont bother me any more, and he turned his back and walked off. I felt so hurt that I said to my companion, If these people knew who I was, they But my companion stopped me there. Dont talk such nonsense, well have to put up with this, he said, If they knew who you were, do you think it would help you to get a vacant seat in a train which has no vacant seats in it?

This did not improve my condition at all, but just then I noticed that the porter of a sleeping-car had his eye on me. I saw the expression of his face suddenly change. He whispered to the uniformed conductor, pointing to me, and I realized I was being talked about. Then the conductor came forward, his face all politeness.

Can I be of any service to you? he asked. Do you want a place in a sleeping-car?

Yes, I said, Ill be grateful to you if you can give me a place, anything will do.

We have nothing left except the big family compartment, he continued, with two berths and a couple of armchairs in it, but it is entirely at your disposal. Here, Tom, take these suitcases aboard!

Then he touched his hat, and we moved along. I was eager to say a few words to my companion, but I changed my mind. The porter made us comfortable in the compartment, and then said, with many bows and smiles:

Now, is there anything you want, sir? Because you can have just anything you want.

Can I have some hot water? I asked.

Yes, sir, Ill get it myself.

Good! Now, that lamp is hung too high above the berth. Can I have a better lamp fixed just at the head of my bed below the luggage rack, so that I can read comfortably?

Yes, sir. The lamp you want is just being fixed in the next compartment. Ill get it from there and fix it here. Itll burn all night. Yes, sir, you can ask for anything you want, the whole railroad will be turned inside out to please you. And he disappeared.

I smiled at my companion, and said:

Well, what do you say now? Didnt their attitude change the moment they understood I was Mark Twain? You see the result, dont you? My companion did not answer. So I added, Dont you like the way you are being served? And all for the same fare.

As I was saying this, the porters smiling face appeared in the doorway and this speech followed:

Oh, sir, I recognized you the minute I set my eyes on you. I told the conductor so.

Is that so, my boy? I said handing him a good tip. Who am I?

Mr. McClellan, Mayor of New York, he said and disappeared again.

2.Answer the questions.

1. What was Mark Twain to do at Salamanca, New York?

2. What were all the people doing on the platform?

3. Who did Mark Twain speak to about getting a place in a sleeper?

4. Why was Mark Twain hurt by the officials answer?

5. Why did Mark Twains companion advise him to put up with things?

6. What Mark Twains companion said didnt improve the writers condition, did it?

7. What did Mark Twain notice just then?

8. What did the uniformed conductor say to Mark Twain?

9. Why did Mark Twain say that any place would do?

10. What kind of compartment did the conductor put at Mark Twains disposal?

11. What did the conductor tell Tom to do with the gentlemens suitcases?

12. In what way did the porter make the gentlemen comfortable there?

13. What did Mark Twain say about the conductors and the porters attitude to them?

14. Did Mark Twains companion like the way they were being served? Why?

15. Was the conductors attitude to Mark Twain a result of respect for the writer?

3.Substitute words and word combinations from the text for the italicized parts.

1. I went off and asked another local official if I could have some poor little corner somewhere in a car with sleeping berths.

2. His answer made me so sad and uncomfortable that I said to my companion

3. But my companion stopped me there, Dont talk nonsense, well have to accept what weve got.

4. This did not make things better.

5. We have nothing left but the big family compartment where two can sleep, but you can use it in any way you wish.

6. Here, Tom, take these suit-cases into the compartment.

7. Can I have a better lamp put just at the head of my bed under the shelf for the luggage?

8. Didnt they start acting differently the moment they understand I was Mark Twain?

9. Dont you like the way they are doing things for you?

4.Find English equivalents for the following.

; ; ?; ; ; ?; ; ; -?; ?; ; , ; ?; , ?; ; .

5.Retell the text.

TALKING POINTS

1.Remember the following speech patterns.

At the Enquiry Office

Whens the next train to (Bournemouth), please?

Is there anything a bit later/earlier, please?

Is there a train to (Oxford) at about (9 oclock), please?

Is it the same service on Sundays?

What time does it get to (Edinburgh), please?

Is there a buffet/restaurant car on the 7.15, please?

Which platform does the 8.13 go from, please?

Buying a ticket

A day return to London, please.

A single to Birmingham, please.

Two day returns to Oxford, please.

An ordinary return to Cambridge, please.

And which platform is it , please?

Speaking to another passenger

Remember! If you speak to a stranger, you usually begin with Excuse me

Is this seat taken?

Are these two taken?

Do you mind if I move your bag, please?

Could you keep an eye on my things for a moment, please?

Do you mind if I close/open the window, please?

Is this (York) were coming to?

Do you know if theres a buffet car on the train?

2.Read, learn and act.

Dialogue A.

-Third class return to Exmouth, please.

-Here you are, sir.

-Thank you. Which platform for the Exmouth train?

-Platform 3. Youll have to hurry up. It goes at nine oclock.

Dialogue B.

-One first to Glasgow, please.

-Single or return?

-SingleDo I have to change anywhere?

-No, no change. Its a through train.

-Thank you.

Dialogue C.

-Excuse me, dont you think it is very stuffy in the compartment?

-Yes, rather.

-What about having the window open?

-I dont mind. Can you manage it?

-Ill try to Is that all right?

-Yes, fine.

-Our train is going very well. Will it keep the same speed all the way?

-It will slow down on the railway bridge while crossing the river.

-Oh, you know the route very well, dont you?

-I travel this way once a month on an average.

-No one travels that often for pleasure.

-You have said it. Im going on business.

3.Put the dialogue between the passenger and ticket clerk in the correct order.

Single, please.

Thatwill be 18 pounds.

Thank you.

If you get there 10.54 train, youll get to London at 14.14.

London, please.

What time will I arrive in London?

Single or return?

Role play the dialogue with your partner.

4. Make up your own dialogues:

-buying a ticket at the booking-office;

-a talk in the compartment.

UNIT 3

Grammar:Perfect Tenses (Active Voice) Topic:Travelling by Air Reading:Text A. A Tragedy in the Air Text B. Talking Points

GRAMMAR

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