I. The Use of Perfect Tenses.

v The Present Perfect is used:

1) to express an action which took place before the present moment, when the speakers aim is to emphasize the present result of this action;

e.g. My friend hasnt come yet. ̳ .

2) to express an action which began before the present moment and continued up to it. In this case the preposition formostly used to indicate the period of duration. The starting point of the action is indicated by means of the word since.

e.g. I have known her for 10 years. .

v The Past Perfect Tense is used:

1) to express an action which took place before another past action or before a definite moment in the past indicated by such expressions as by 5 oclock, by that time, by Saturday, by the 15th of December, by the end of the year

e.g. I had done my work by 8 oclock. 8 .

2) to express an action which began before a definite moment in the past and continued up to that moment.

e.g. I had not received the telegram , when he arrived .

. .

v The Future Perfect Tense is used:

to express an action completed before a definite future moment or before the beginning of another future action.

e.g. Hell have read the story by the ³ time you come back ,

. .

II. The Formation of Perfect Tenses.

The Perfect Tenses are formed by means of the auxiliary verb to have in the Present, Past or Future Indefinite Tense and Participle IIof the main verb.

Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect
just, yet, already, ever, never, lately, recently, today, this week (month) 1) by oclock, by the summer, by that time 2) after , before, when
Shave / has Ved(3) Shad Ved(3) S shall/will have Ved(3)
He has already come. Hehad finishedit by three. Nickwill have finishedthis work before you leave.  
S havent/hasnt Ved(3) S hadnt Ved(3) Sshant / wont have Ved(3)
They havent done it yet. We hadnt cleaned the room before Daddy came. Im sure John wont have writtenthe report by the end of the week.
Have/HasS Ved(3)? Had S Ved(3)? Shall/WillShave Ved(3) ?
Have you seen him? Hadshe leftwhen you came? WillNick have finishedthis work before you leave?


1.Translate into Ukrainian.

1.I have never heard about this story from my father. 2.My mother hasnt come home yet. 3.It is cold today. The weather hasnt changed since yesterday. 4.Have you turned off the gas? 5.We had already built this plant by the end of 1997. 6.I had already written my exercise by half past six. 7.They had returned home before I rang them up. 8. We had finished all preparations by the time the guests came. 9.She will have left the house before you return. 10.She will have forgotten all about him by the time he returns. 11. He will have passed his exams only by the end of this week. 12. I wont have translated his article before he comes back.

2.Make the following interrogative and negative.

1.Mary has switched on the light. 2.My relatives have received the parcel. 3.Weve already seen your pastures, fields and hot-houses. 4.The students had translated the text before the bell rang. 5.The farmers had done all the work in the fields before the first frost. 6.We had reached the village before the sunset. 7.They will have built the new barn by the beginning of winter. 8.I shall have passed all my exams by next Monday. 9.They will have built the new school by the first of September. 10.They will have finished making hay before it starts raining.

3.Complete these sentences using the verbs in brackets. You went back to your home town after many years and you found that many things were different.

M O D E L: Most of my friends were no longer there. They had left (leave).

1.My best friend, Kevin, was no longer there. He ______ (go away).

2.The local cinema was no longer open. It ______ (close down).

3.Mr Johnson was no longer alive. He _____ (die).

4.I didnt recognise Mrs Johnson. She _____ (change) a lot.

5.Bill no longer had his car. He ______ (sell) it.

6.Our neighbours next door didnt live in their house any longer. They ______ (move).

4.Put the verb into the correct form, Past Perfect or Past Simple.

M O D E L: Was Tom there when you arrived? No, he had gone (go) home.

Was Tom there when you arrived?

Yes, but he went (go) home soon afterwards.

1.The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody ______ (go) to bed.

2.I felt very tired when I got home, so I ______ (go) straight to bed.

3.Sorry, Im late. The car ______ (break) down on my way here.

4.There was a car by the side of the road. It _______ (break) down and the driver was trying to repair it. So we _____ (stop) to see if we could help.

5.Complete the following sentences, using

a)the Past Perfect Tense

1.He told her that he (buy a TV set the year before). 2.The man at the station said that the train (leave already). 3.Mary told me that she (not get a letter from her son yet). She said that she (not hear from him for some weeks). 4.He understood that he (get off at the wrong station). 5.I saw that the child (catch a cold). 6.We were sure that she (tell the truth).

b)the Future Perfect Tense

1.By the time he arrives they (leave). 2.She is ill now. By the first of April she (be in hospital for three weeks). 3.He has bought this TV set on credit. He (pay all the money by the 21st of August). 4.How long has she stayed with your family? - By the end of the month she (go). 5.He is still a schoolboy, but by this time next year he (leave school).

6.Open the brackets to make the sentences complete (Present Perfect or Past Perfect).

1.a)I phoned Mr Williams to find out if Pat (go) away. He was not sure. b) Wait, Ill go and see if she (go) out. 2.a) Look at this house. I (live) here for 12 years and Im moving to another one next week. b) I (live) in a small cottage for 12 years before my family moved to town. 3.a) Jack (play) tennis three times this week. b)He said he (not, play) tennis a week before. 4.Alan (see) Alexandra a lot recently. 5.I often (wonder) how he earns his living. 6.She told me she (work) in England before. 7.When I arrived at the country house I realised I (lose) the keys. 8.John (telephone) yet? she asked entering the house, but her brother said he didnt know if John (telephone).

7.Make one sentence instead of two using whenor after.

1.Joe did all the shopping. Then he went to the cafe for a cup of coffee. 2.Max looked through three dictionaries he had. Then he found the word he was looking for. 3.Ron wrote three letters. Then he posted them. 4.Jane told her granny about everything. Then she felt much happier. 5.Bill finished learning the sonnet by heart. Then he watched television for an hour or so. 6.Edward bought Christmas presents for everyone in his family. Then he bought a camera for himself as well.

8.Translate into English.

1. . 2. ? ³ . 3. ? - . ? . 4. . 5. , . 6. . 7. . , . 8. , . . 9. , . 10. , , , . 11. , . 12. , . 13. , . 14. . , .


Topical Vocabulary

1.Remember the following words and word combinations:

means of transport to be at smbs disposal altitude to cover the distance non-stop flight to refuel to book a ticket a single ticket business class to delay the flight to announce the plane check in desk to pay excess airfield to take off to fasten the seat belts ()

2.Read and translate paying attention to the active words and word combinations.


There are various means of transport at the disposal of those who travel either for pleasure or on business. Travelling by air is very popular nowadays, as it is the fastest way of travelling. High-speed airliners have shrunk the world. We no longer compare distances in numbers of kilometres, but in hours of flying time. A lot of comfortable modern airliners are offered to fans of air travel. Passenger planes fly at a speed of over 300 km per hour and are equipped for flying at all altitudes. Distances under 2,000 km can now be covered by modern passenger planes on non-stop flights without landing to re-fuel.

Last Wednesday I had to go to New York. The journey was urgent and I went by air. I went to the airport and booked one single business class ticket on a plane to New York. The flight was delayed for an hour and I sat in the waiting room. When the plane was announced, I went to the check in desk. I had my luggage weighed. I didnt have to pay excess. The check-in clerk gave me my boarding card. On the airfield I saw a large plane waiting for its passengers. I got on the liner, found my seat and very soon it took off. The stewardess asked the passengers to fasten the seat belts. It wasnt long before we arrived at our destination. The pilot made a perfect landing and we got out of the plane. I enjoyed my journey very much. In three days I had to return home, and though I was not in a hurry, I decided to fly by the airplane again.

3.Answer the questions:

1.For what reasons do people usually travel?

2.Why is it very popular nowadays to travel by air?

3.At what speed do the passenger planes fly nowadays?

4.Why did the narrator go to New York by air?

5What ticket did he book?

6.Where did he go when the plane was announced?

7.He paid the excess, didnt he?

8.Who gave the narrator his boarding card?

9.What did the stewardess ask the passengers to do in the plane?

10. Did the narrator enjoy his journey? Yes/No? Why?

4.Fill in the blanks:

1.Travelling by a is very convenient, because the speed of the planes is very h.. 2.We no longer compare d.. in numbers of kilometers. 3.Nowadays people can c. distances under 2,000 km by modern p.. planes without landing to re.. 4.I booked a s.. t.. 5.Very often the flights are d because of bad weather. 6.Your luggage is overweight. Youll have to pay e.. 7.There are a lot of planes on the a..d. 8.F.. your s.. b.. . The plane is ting off.

5.Are you for or against travelling by plane? Think of more arguments:


1)The speed is very high.

2)You can see beautiful clouds in the sky.

3) . . . . . . . . . .


1)If the weather is very cloudy you can sit in the airport and wait for your plane for hours.

2)It takes you a lot of time to get to the airport.

3) . . . . . . . . . . .

6.Tell about your last (imaginary) travel by air.


Text A. A Tragedy in the Air.

1.Read and translate.

The plane had taken off from the air-field in London, and the journey to South Africa, to Johannesburg to be exact, had started.

It was just after the war, and it was not a jet, as is the case nowadays, but it was a big plane with four engines, and four propellers, of course.

When a few minutes later we were crossing the Channel, one of the engines went wrong, but the stewardess (a smashing blonde) said there were three engines left and passengers were quite safe.

However, when the plane reached the Mediterranean Sea, the second engine broke down, but the stewardess told us there was nothing to worry about because two engines were quite enough to keep us in air.

As we got near to the shores of Africa, the rumour spread that only one propeller was working. The stewardess kept her mouth shut, this time, but we came to the conclusion the plane must have developed engine trouble and so it had.

Presently we were flying over the jungle in Central Africa and my fellow travellers were terribly upset. Women were holding their children tighter and tighter and men were drinking more and more heavily I too was terribly frustrated, and as I looked down at the bush, I could not help thinking of cannibalism, death and things of the kind.

At that moment, the loud-speaker was switched on, and the captains voice was heard: Ladies and gentlemen, I have tragic news for you.

The faces of all the passengers turned pale. Some burst into tears. My heart sank into my boots

The captain continued in a gloomy voice: It is my sad duty to inform you that England has lost her last football match against Scotland.


a smashing blonde

the plane developed engine trouble

one of the engines went wrong

2.Make up a few dialogues between the passengers of the plane. What they might have been talking about when: a)one of the engines went wrong; b)the second engine broke down; c)just before the captains announcement.

3.Retell the story, thinking of another way to finish it.

Text B.

1.Read, translate and put the paragraphs into the correct order, think of a suitable headline for the story. Finally, give the paragraph outline.


The captain was showing Danny the different controls and dials when suddenly the cockpit door burst open. A tall man with a scar on his left cheek, who was carrying a gun, grabbed Danny and yelled at the captain. This is a hijack. Im in control now. Without thinking of the danger Danny bit the mans hand as hard as he could. The hijacker screamed in pain. Quickly the co-pilot grabbed the gun while the captain knocked the hijacker unconscious.


Danny looked excitedly out of the window as the aeroplane was taking off into the bright sky. Then he smiled happily at his dad who was holding his soft hand tightly.


This is going to be the best Christmas ever, thought Danny. I cant wait to tell Granddad about what I did. When the plane landed Danny was given a heros welcome. As a reward the airline gave Danny and his family free flights for the rest of their lives.


They had been flying for an hour when Dannys father disappeared for a few minutes. He came back followed by a friendly looking stewardess in a blue and red uniform. Would you like to see the cockpit, Danny? she asked. Danny couldnt believe it. This is a dream come true, he thought as he followed the stewardess to the front of the plane.

2.Find English equivalents to the following words and write their transcription:

, , , , , , , (), , , ( ), , , , , .

Find the sentences with these words in the text and translate them.

3.Say what the main characters of this story are. How do you imagine each of them? (describe their clothes and character). What do you think about Danny?

4.Stage the play assuming as a basis Text B.

5.A travel magazine is running a competition for the best story about the incident in the air. Write a story for the competition.


Basic situation: You are flying to London; you talk with the stewardess and your fellow-travellers on the plane; you speak to the customs officer at the airport.

1.Read and translate the topical words:

jet-plane, flight, seat-belt; pilot, stewardess, customs officer; to announce, to register, to declare, to pay, to serve; to go through the customs; to give smb. a lift; on board a plane

2.Read and translate the speech patterns:


What time does the plane leave for Kyiv?

When does the plane land in London (Paris, Rome)?

The plane leaves every Tuesday. The only plane flies on Tuesday.

The plane takes off in forty-five minutes.

You land in London at 9.30 p.m.

The bus leaves for the airport every twenty minutes.

Do I pay for my luggage? Do I pay the customs?


Passengers are requested to walk to the plane (to register, to fasten their seat belts).

Passengers are not allowed to smoke, the plane is taking off.


How long will it take us to get to London? Whats the flying time? I think about three and a half hour.

How long will it take us to get to the centre of London by taxi? I think about 40 minutes. It depends on the traffic.


Would you care for some sweets (some mineral water) madam? Yes, please.


Shall I open my suit-case? No, you neednt. Thank you.

Shall I give you a lift to* the hotel? Yes, please, if you can.

Shall I help you with your luggage, sir? Yes, please. Take it to the taxi-stand. Thank you.

* ...

3.Read, translate and practise the dialogues in pairs, changing the text.

The Plane Is Taking off

Stewardess: Ladies and gentlemen, British Airways welcome you aboard this Boeing 747 and hope you have a pleasant flight. As we are about to take off, you are requested to fasten your seat belts and kindly refrain from smoking. Thank you.

Passenger: Excuse me, miss. When do we land in London and at what altitude shall we be flying?

Stewardess: The plane lands in London at 11 a.m., and well be flying at an altitude of about 27 thousand feet or 9 thousand metres.

Passenger: Thank you. Excuse me, I have another question. Whats the weather like in London?

Stewardess: The weather was fine and warm yesterday.

Passenger: Thank you. I have still one more question. Will any meals be served on the plane?

Stewardess: Yes, of course. Youll have lunch in half an hour.

On the Plane

- I say, are you feeling all right?

- Not quite, Im afraid. Im a little air-sick.

- So sorry. Is there anything I can do for you? Shall I ring for the stewardess?

- Yes, please, and would you mind lowering the back of my seat a little Thank you. Its better now.

- Would you care for a cup of coffee or a glass of water?

- A little later, please.

The First Steps on Land

- Oh, how nice to be on land again. The air is so fresh!

- Yes, it is. Thank you for the pleasure of your company, Miss Bell. I was very glad to meet you.

- Oh, its me who should thank you. Youve been so kind.

- Not at all. I hope to see you sometime.

- That would be nice. But look here. Im being met by my father. We can give you a lift if you like.

- Thank you. Itsreally very kind of you.

At the Customs

Customs Officer: Good afternoon, sir. Is this your suit-case?

Petrenko: No, it isnt. Mine is the brown one.

Customs Officer: Oh, I see. Have you anything to declare?

Petrenko: No, I havent. There are only personal belongings in my suit-case. Shall I open it?

Customs Officer: No, thank you, sir. You neednt. Its all right. You may go through Passport Control now. Straight on, please.

Petrenko: Thank you, Officer. Good afternoon.

At a Taxi- Stand

Petrenko: Hey! Taxi!

Driver: Yes, sir. Let me help you with the luggage. Where to?

Petrenko: The Europe Hotel, please.

Driner: Thats in Cromwell Road, isnt it?

Petrenko: Thats right. How long will it take us to get there?

Driver: I think well be there in about thirty minutes.

4.Answer your friends questions.

1.Do you like travelling by air? Yes/No. Why? (If you have never travelled by air, can you say that you would like to do it? Yes/No. Why?) 2.What do you think is the flying time from Kyiv to London? 3.How long does it usually take us to get to an airport from the centre of Kyiv? 4.What are the duties of the stewardess? 5.Are meals served on board the plane? 6.When are passengers requested to fasten their seat belts? 7.What do passengers talk about on the plane? 8. What is the first thing you do before starting on a trip? 9.Do you get air-sick when on a plane? 10.Is it easy or difficult to go through the customs? 11.What does the customs officer usually say to those who have just arrived in the country?

5.Say it in English.

1. . , . 2., , , . . . 3. , . 4. 20 , . 5. , . 6.̳ . . 7., , . , . 8. ³, , . . . , .

6.Study this problem situation. Discuss and dramatise it.

You are on a plane going to London. Its your first trip to England. You have no practical knowledge of London, its transport, hotels and so on. A man beside you happens to be a Londoner. He iskind and ready to give you any information you need. You start a conversation.

7.Ask questions so that the sentences given below were the answers:

1.The airport doesnt take planes because of the weather.

2.The flight is put back because the plane from Odessa hasnt arrived yet.

3.You have to pay 17 hryvnas extra for your luggage.

4.No, you cant have this bag with you, you must have it registered.

5.The announcer has called flight 451.

6.We are flying at a speed of 800 kilometres.

7.No, I wasnt airsick, though the flight was rather rough.

8.Smoking wasnt allowed.

9.The flight is being delayed because of bad weather.

10.Yes, this flight is often cancelled.

8.What do you do or say when:

1.the announcer calls your flight; 2.your luggage weighs more than one is allowed to take free of charge; 3.you cant leave on the day your flight is booked; 4.you want to know the altitude and speed your plane is flying at; 5.you want to know when the bus reaches the airport for your flight; 6.you would like to know what airport formalities one has to complete before flying.

9.Memorise the following:

- Where is the information office? the ticket office - When does the plane to Kyiv take off? - Is this a direct flight/non-stop flight? - How much is a ticket to London? first class business class economy class - What days and what time do planes leave for N? - I should like a ticket on a plane to England, flight 115 for tomorrow. - night flight - to book tickets in advance   - to reserve tickets - one-way ticket/a single ticket - a return ticket -a round trip ticket - Where is the check in? - Your luggage is overweight. - Youll have to pay excess. - Go to gate 2. - departure, arrival - departure gate -departure lounge - crew - captain - Give me an air sick pill air sick bag air time table schedule - ? - ? - ?   - ? - - - - ...? - 볿, 115 . - - - - - - - ? - . - . - . - , - - - - - 㳺

9.Look at the following conversation. Number the parts in the correct order.

-Heres a label for your hand baggage. Do you want smoking or non- smoking?

-Heres your boarding card. Boarding will be at 10.45. at departure gate number 22. Have a nice flight.

-Yes. Can I have your ticket and your passport, please?

-Im sorry. All the window seats are taken. Do you want an aisle seat?

-Just that one. This one is hand baggage.

-Hello. Do I check in here for Miami?

-Thank you. How many pieces of baggage are you checking in?

-Yes, all right.

-Thank you.

-Here you are.

-Non-smoking, please. Id like a window seat, if youve got one.

Listen and check your order. Learn this dialogue.


Grammar:Perfect Continuous Tenses (Active Voice) Topic:Travelling by Car Reading: Text A. Cars Driving Us Crazy? Text B. Driving Tests Talking Points



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