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The use of the Passive Voice

The Passive Voice can be used :

a) without the doer of the action being mentioned (the doer is either unknown or unimportant)

e.g. The telegram was sent yesterday. ( .)

b) with the doer of the action being mentioned. This occurs only when the doer of the action is to some extent emphasized.

The noun or pronoun denoting the doer of the action is introduced by the preposition by.

e.g. This beautiful poem was written by Taras Shevchenko. ( .)

The formation of the Passive Voice.

The Passive Voice is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the required form and Participle II of the notional verb.

to be + Ved(III)

  Present Past Future
Indefinite It is written It was written It will be written
Continuous It is being written It was being written X
Perfect It has been written It had been written It will have been written

EXERCISES

Look at the newspaper story. Find examples of passive verbs in the following tenses: the Present Indefinite, the Past Indefinite, the Future Indefinite and the Present Perfect.

WHY WERENT WE WARNED?

Last night South-East England was hit by the worst storms since records were started. Twenty people were killed by the hurricane-force winds. In Dorset two firemen were killed and four were injured, when a tree fell on their fire engine.

Hundreds of houses were wrecked by winds of up to 110 mph. Roofs and chimneys were ripped off and windows were smashed. A woman was killed in a hotel in Windsor when a chimney fell through the roof.

Thousands of trees were blown down. At Kew Botanical Gardens in London many rare trees and plants some of them over two hundred years old have been destroyed. Many houses are without electricity now, because power lines were brought down. Thousands of people are without telephones, too. Many lines wont be repaired until next week. Two people were rescued when their car was found by Electricity Board workmen in Kent. They were taken to hospital with broken legs.

Roads and railway lines were blocked by trees and many cars were crushed. In London and the south of England schools, offices and shops have been closed today, because people cannot get to work. Dover Harbour was closed. Hundreds of small boats were smashed by huge waves, and the ferry, Hengist, was thrown onto the beach.

This morning angry MPs are asking: Why werent we warned? No warning was given by the Meteorological Office. The late night weather forecast is recorded early in the evening. At that time the storm wasnt expected to hit England. But about midnight it changed direction and moved north.

The strong winds have been followed by heavy rain and many parts of the south and west are flooded.

TOPIC

Topical Vocabulary

1.Remember the following words and word combinations:

single room

double room

suite [swi:t]

reception clerk

lobby

snack

to require

2.Read and translate paying attention to the active words and word combinations.

AT THE HOTEL

While travelling people often put up at a hotel. It is more convenient to book rooms in advance as hotels can be full up. As soon as you arrive at a hotel you go into a large entrance-hall. In many hotels the doorman calls one of the porters who takes your luggage and shows you the way to the reception desk. The reception clerk asks you to register. He gives you a registration form to fill in and sign (the form is filled in block letters).

The following information is required:

1.Name (in full). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

surname, first name, patronymic

2.Place of permanent residence. . . . . . . . . . . .

3.Passport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The clerk tells you which is your room, which floor it is on and then gives you the key.

After all formalities are over the porter takes your luggage up in the lift to your room. He unlocks the door and if you need nothing else he is dismissed.

Once you decide to stay at a hotel you are referred to as a guest. You will find notices everywhere reminding guests to leave their keys at the desk when going out. In the lobby you can usually find a newspaper stall and stalls where cigarettes, sweets and souvenirs are sold. Most hotels have snack bars and restaurants. At large hotels you may ask for any service by telephone. You tell the operator if you wish to be called at a certain time, you call room service when you want a meal or drinks sent up to your room, valet or maid service if you need something cleaned or pressed.

Many hotels have special weekly and monthly rates, so that it is cheaper to pay by the week, by the month than by the day. You will find rooms with and without bath, single rooms, double rooms and complete suites consisting of two and more rooms.

Guests are required to warn the clerk in advance about the day and date of their departure so that he can have the bill ready for them in time.

3.Reading Comprehension.

1.How often do you travel? Where?

2.Why do people usually put up at a hotel while travelling?

3.Why is it more convenient to book rooms in advance?

4.Who takes the visitors luggage and unlocks the room at a hotel?

5.What should a person fill in on arriving at a hotel?

6.There are different notices everywhere at a hotel. What do they remind us of? ( find the example in the text and think of your own).

7.What service may we ask for at large hotels by telephone? Why is it convenient?

8.What rooms are usually found at a hotel?

9.What are you required to do before the day of your departure? What for?

4.Find the English equivalents.

, , , , , ( ), , , , , (), , , .

5. Answer the following questions

1.Where do people usually stay when they arrive at a town in which they dont live? 2.Have you ever stayed at a hotel? 3.Would you prefer putting up at a hotel to staying at your friends? Why? 4.How many hotels are there in your town? Which of them are most popular with the guests? Is it difficult to get accomodation there? 5.What should you do to be certain to get a room at a hotel? 6.Why is it goodto reserve roomsin advance? 7.In what ways do people usually reserve rooms with hotels? 8.What are guests required to do first when they arrive at a hotel? 9.What information is required from those who are signing in at hotel? 10.What kinds of rooms can we book at a hotel? 11.What is the rate for a room per day? Is it the same for all kinds of room? Is it cheaper to pay by the day or by the week? 12.What services does a guest get at modern hotels? 13.Can meals be served in his room (at his wish)?

6.Have you ever put up at a hotel? Describe what it was like (you may invent your story).

READING

Text A. A Letter

1.Render in English

Newton Hotel, Manchester,

16th March 2002

Dear Paul,

I was very pleased to receive your letter and to hear that Frederick is coming to England. As I have been here now for some months I can probably give him a few tips about hotels here. In the first place, I advice him to book his room beforehand and not wait as I did until I arrived, only to find when I tried some of the more modestlooking hotels that every room was engaged the hotel was full up. I had a long and weary journey before managed to get a small and rather uncomfortable room on the fourth floor in a private hotel.

But I have learnt a lot since then. When you enter the hotel ask for the reception clerk, and he or she will tell you which is your room, what floor it is on, and will give you the key. You can then sign the registration book, stating your name, address, and nationality and give your luggage to the porter or boots, who will take it up in the lift to your room.

After washing and changing in my room, I like to explore the hotel, discover where the bathrooms, the lounge, the breakfast room, and the dining-room are. If I am staying some time at the hotel I have a word with the head waiter, and I then find I get very good attention. When I retire for the night I put my shoes outside the bedroom door so that the boot-boy can clean them.

I hope Frederick will find these few hints of use to him; Ill write again later. Best wishes.

Yours sincerely,

Martin.

Text B. A Bad Way To Begin A Marrige

1.Read and translate the text

I never thought it was going to be like this, John said. He was talking about his honeymoon and he looked very disappointed. He and Ann, his bride, were walking along the beach. It was drizzling and a strong wind was blowing. Although it was the middle of summer, it seemed like late autumn.

Everything was wrong. First of all, Bascome, the town they had come to, was not at all like the description they had read in the holiday brochure. It was an ugly seaside town on the East Coast. The beach was full of litter. The cafes and pubs in the town itself were all in the worst sort of modern style, with loud juke boxes and plastic flowers. Secondly, the weather had been dreadful all the five days they had been there. Thirdly, the hotel they were staying at was awful and in addition the food was disgusting. Their room was small, dark and cramped. Breakfast was a greasy fried egg and one thin slice of toast. Dinner was even worse; the meat was always tough and tasteless and the vegetables were overcooked and watery. Last but not least, the hotel was managed by a stout and terrifying lady with the voice and appearance of an army sergeant. Nobody ever dared complain to her. John and Anna had booked for two weeks.

On the sixth day they went for a long walk along the coast. At first, the sky was overcast as usual. But after a while it began to brighten up. The clouds cleared and suddenly the sun came out. About lunch time they got to a small very pleasant fishing village. There was a good old-fashioned pub on the quayside. It had a fine view of the harbour. They had some good beer and sandwiches there for lunch. They began to cheer up and started talking to the friendly landlord. Then they sat for a time outside the pub in the warm sunlight and watched the fishing boats sail past them. Suddenly Anna noticed a sign in the pub window. Bed and breakfast. Reasonable Prices. Then she said, Why dont we spend the second week here instead of that ghastly hotel in Bascome?

John began to think of excuses he could use with the terrifying woman back at the hotel. What, he wondered, would she do if he told her they were leaving early?

2.Choose the one best answer:

1.Bascome was . . . like the description in the holiday brochure: a)nothing; b)exactly; c)only a bit; d)more or less.

2.John and Anna went to a fishing village and: a)found a room there; b)decided they could not stay; c)had to leave early; d)wanted to spend the second week there.

3.Find the words that mean:

a)newly-married wife; b)things thrown on the ground and left lying there; c)so bad that it makes you thick to look at it; d)covered with clouds; e)part of the harbour where ships are loaded and unloaded.

TALKING POINTS

Basic Situation:You find out (from a friend of yours) which is the best hotel for you to stay in; registering at a hotel and then staying at it, you have a talk with the receptionist (desk-clerk, chambermaid and other personnel).

Topical Words:

guest; reception-clerk, desk-clerk, chambermaid, bell-boy, porter; accommodation: single (double) room with bath (shower), suite; to reserve, to book, to put up (at), to sign in (out), to recommend, to suit; arrival card: name, middle name, surname, nationality, date of birth, passport , signature.

Speech Patterns:

1.

Can you recommend a good hotel? I think you can stay (put up) at the Astoria. Its one of the best hotels in town.

What hotel can you recommend? I think you can stay at the Colonnade. Its one of the cheapest hotel I know.

2.

Arriving at a hotel a visitor should register.

Filling in the arrival card a visitor writes down some information about himself

Going out of the hotel the guest should leave his key with the desk-clerk.

3.

This hotel has a car park for thirty or forty cars.

The Colonnade Hotel has two restaurants and a bar.

The Europe Hotel has a swimming-pool and a dancing hall.

4.

Id like a single(double) room with a bath overlooking the garden (the sea).

1.Practise these substitution dialogues in pairs.

1.

-Good morning, sir.

-Good morning. Id like a quiet single room with telephone.

double room, double room with bath, single room with shower, room with a TVset

2.

-Whats the rate for a single room with bath?

-Its twenty-five hryvnas per night.

five pounds, ten dollars, 100 francs

3.

-How would you like to pay?

-Ill probably pay per day.

per week, fortnightly, when signing out, in advance

4.

-Excuse me, sir, but filling in the card, you failed to put down your permanent address.

-Oh, Im sorry. Ill put it down now Here you are.

First (Middle) Name, Date of Birth, Place of Birth, Surname, Signature, Passport

5.

-Will you tell me (please) where the Foreign Exchange Desk is?

-Its in the hall (lobby) of the Hotel, just on your right (left).

Managers Office, Information, News-stand, Service Bureau, Telegraph, Post Office

2.Read the dialogue and say for how long Mrs. Brown is going to stay, what kind of room she wants and why she is interested in the car park. Dramatize the dialogue.

Mrs Brown:Excuse me, Im looking for a hotel to stay at. What would you recommend?

Information Clerk: How long are you going to stay?

Mrs Brown:Two or three nights, I think. Could you, please, look for some hotel near the centre?

Information Clerk:Yes, madam, naturally. Is it a single room you want?

Mrs Brown:No, a double room, please. My husband is joining me.

Information Clerk:Would you like to have your own bathroom?

Mrs Brown:Yes, of course.

Information Clerk:Right. Now can I offer you New Barbican, Madam? It is a modern hotel, comfortably furnished. All rooms have radio, telephone and colour TV set.

Mrs Brown:You know, Im on tour here. Is the hotel far from the main sights of the city? Where exactly is it?

Information Clerk:In Central Street, Madam. It is not far from the Tower of London and Tower Bridge. You can easily walk to St. Pauls from it. It will take you 20 minutes to get to the heart of the City of London.

Mrs Brown:How much does it cost?

Information Clerk:It is 40 pounds per person per night.

Mrs Brown:Fine, fine that will do Oh, yes, one more thing. Is there a car park? My husband is bringing his car.

Information Clerk:Yes, the hotel has its own car park.

UNIT 8

Grammar:Passive Voice (Indefinite Tenses) Topic:Post Office Reading: Text A. Lost in the Post Text B. Post Cards Talking Points

GRAMMAR

PASSIVE VOICE

Indefinite Tenses

The Present Indefinite, the Past Indefinite and Future Indefinite Passive are formed by means of the Present Indefinite, the Past Indefinite or the Future Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle II of the notional verb.

The Present, Past and Future Indefinite Tenses in the Passive Voice as well as in the Active Voice express a single, permanent or repeated action in present, past or future.

Passive Voice

be + Ved(3)
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
am/is/are Ved(3) was/were Ved(3) shall/will be Ved(3)
English is spoken here. Grapes are not grown in the North. Is this food easily cooked? The door was closed. The letters were not posted yesterday. Were the keys found? The story will be finished soon. The information wont be received. Will the letter be answered?
  Modal Verb be Ved(3) Passive forms are often used with modal verbs can, must, should, have to, ought to
Difficult rules must be explained. Can such poems be easily memorized? These words dont have to be learnt by heart.

EXERCISES

1.Translate into Ukrainian.

1.Many books are published in Ukraine. 2.The machines are tested by the police. 3.The car is serviced at the garage down the road. 4.These gates arent painted every day. 5.A picnic is arranged once a month by our club. 6.Im not invited to my uncles every weekend. 7.Are you invited to Bills for tennis every Saturday? 8.Your pets are fed twice a day, arent they? 9.My bike was stolen last weekend. 10.The book was finished yesterday. 11.The programme will be broadcasted tomorrow night. 12.Will my room be cleaned tomorrow? 13.Why wasnt the work done yesterday? 14.When was Kyiv University founded? 15.When was your book published? 16.The exhibition will be opened next month.

2. Supply the missing auxiliary or modal verb.

1.The telegram . . . sent at five oclock yesterday. 2.I am sure, a lot of questions . . . be asked when he finishes speaking. 3.The shops . . . opened at 3 oclock in the morning. 4.When .. . this road made? 5.Its very cold. You . . . be warmly dressed. 6.This report . . . be sent at once.7.This work is easy. It . . . be done by a child, if you ask me. 8.The doctor . . . called early in the morning. 9.These questionswont. . . raised at tomorrows meeting. 10.The book . . . be enjoyed by a person of any age. 11.All his documents . . . lost during the war.12.The traffic rules . . . be always followed.

3.Make the following sentences interrogative and negative.

1.Bread is eaten every day. 2.The letter was received yesterday. 3.Nick will be sent to Kyiv tomorrow. 4.I was asked at the lesson yesterday. 5.These trees were planted last autumn. 6.Hockey is played in winter. 7.His new book will be finished in two months. 8.Many houses were burnt during the Great Fire of London. 9.Flowers are sold in shops and in the streets. 10.Your luggage will be brought up in the lift.

4. Ask the questions indicated in the brackets.

1.Such books are sold in special shops.(In what shops?) 2.These magazines must be returned in an hour.(When?) 3.The picture was spoilt by fire. (How?) 4.This work can be done in two days. (In how many days?) 5.The money will be spent on food (On what?) 6.Such questions are often raised by students. (By whom?) 7.Hot meals are served in this restaurant till 10 p.m. (Till what time?) 8.Umbrellas and coats must be left in the cloakroom. (What?)

5.Write sentences from the given words.

1.the office / clean / every / day The office is cleaned every day.

2.these rooms / clean / every day ?

3.glass / make / from sand

4.this room / not / use / very often

5.the office / clean / yesterday

6.three people / injure / in the accident / last night

7.when / this bridge / build?

8.how / these windows / break?

6. Answer the following questions according to the model

M O D E L: Arent you going to send him a letter? (tomorrow)

It will be sent tomorrow.

1.Arent you going to paint your country house this year? (only last year) 2.Arent you going to raise this question? (at the next meeting) 3.Arent you going to call a doctor? (early in the morning) 4.Arent you going to throw away the old newspapers? (at the end of the year) 5.Arent you going to prepare his room for his arrival? (yesterday) 6.When are you going to decide this question? (after the examination)

7.Open the brackets using the correct form in the Passive Voice

1.This book (write) many years ago, but it still (read) with great interest. 2.By whom this film (make)? 3.This house (paint) two years ago, I dont know when it (paint) again. 4.What factory (show) to the visitors tomorrow? 5.Library books must not (keep) longer than fortnight. 6.These facts (not mention) in this report. 7.When the advertisement (place) in the newspaper? 8.This museum (visit) by thousands of people every year. 9.I am afraid our holidays (spoil) by bad weather. 10.When the windows (wash) last?

8.Complete the sentences. Use the passive (present or past) of these verbs:

clean damage find give invite make(2) show steal take

1. The room is cleaned every day.

1.I saw an accident yesterday. Two people ______ to hospital.

2.Paper ______ from wood.

3.There was a fire at the hotel last week. Two of the rooms ______

4.Where did you get this picture? It _____ to me by a friend of mine.

5.Many American programmes ______ on British television.

6.Did Jim and Sue go to the wedding? No. They ______ but they didnt go.

7.How old is this film? It ______ in 1965.

8.My car ______ last week but the next day it ______ by the police.

9.Express the same using passive.

A:1.We must discuss the contents of the novel. 2.The actors ought to impress the audience. 3.You should stop these chatterboxes. 4.We must introduce the members of the team to each other. 5.People have to transport these boxes as soon as possible. 6.They must translate the speech when the time comes.

B:1.English borrowed a lot of words. 2.A postman brings them a lot of periodicals. 3. Mr Williams secretary will send this telex tomorrow. 4.They didnt find the origin of the adjective big. 5.People easily memorize such words. 6.Somebody bought a bronze candlestick and three green candles.

10.Translate into English.

1. . 2. . 3. .4. . 5. ? 6. ? 7. . 8. . 9. . 10. .11. . 12. .

TOPIC

Topical Vocabulary

1.Remember the following words and word combinations:

 

postal order letter-box (pillar-box) registered letter Post Restante book-post parcel-post addressee envelope stamped letter mail counter to deliver General Delivery parcel to weigh to subscribe to ()

 

2.Read and translate paying attention to the active words and word combinations.

POST OFFICE

Anybody who wants to buy stamps or envelopes, to send a telegram or to get a postal order, or a money order, must go to the post office. There is a post office in every town and nearly every village in the country; the large towns of course, have more than one. If you only want to post an already stamped letter, you neednt go to the post office; ask for the nearest letter-box, or pillar-box, anybody will tell you.

Let us drop in at the Post Office and see what the inside of it looks like.

There is generally a separate counter, or window, for each department: one for Postal Orders, one for Stamps, one for Telegrams, One for Letters to Be Called For, one for Registered Letters, and so on.

On this side of the counter, you see several customers; on the other side the clerks. Customers are standing at various windows buying stamps, envelopes, postcards, registering letters; some are sending postal orders, others are cashing theirs; one is collecting the mail from his P.O. Box; a number of people are inquiring if there are any letters for them at the Post Restante, or Callers Letters (the post-office maintains this service for those who prefer to pick up their mail in person). You can also see people writing telegrams, or sending books by book-post and parcels by parcel-post.

When you send a letter of particular value you should have it registered. The advantage of this service is that registered letters are not left with the ordinary mail in the letter-box, but delivered personally ( the addressee has to sign for them). The sender is given a receipt at the post-office, so he can always trace the letter.

If you want to buy or send, or receive something you must go to the right counter; if you go to the wrong one, youll only waste your time.

If you want to get the letters but dont want to give your address you can get them from a counter with a sign: General Delivery. You decided to send a letter by airmail, you simply write airmail on the envelope and stick the stamps. Then you drop the letter into a letter-box. If you want to send a parcel, you go to the parcel counter, where a clerk weighs your parcel on scales and you have to pay according to the weight.

If you want to have got newspapers at home, you can subscribe to them and to the magazines at the post office.

I think the post office is very useful.

3.Answer the questions:

1. What do people need the post office for?

2. Is it necessary to go to the post office if you have an already stamped letter?

3. What counters are there at the post office?

4. What is usually going on at the post office?

5. What do we usually register the letters for?

6. The registered letters are usually left with the ordinary mail, arent they?

7. Do you often go to the post office?

4.Speak about your last visit to the post office.

READING

Text A. Lost in the Post

1.Read and translate.

Ainsley, a post-office sorter, turned the envelope over and over in his hands. The letter was addressed to his wife and had an Australian stamp.

Ainsley knew that the sender was Dicky Soames, his wifes cousin. It was the second letter Ainsley received after Dickys departure. The first letter had come six months before, he didnt read it and threw it into the fire. No man ever had less reason for jealousy than Ainsley. His wife was frank as the day, a splendid housekeeper, a very good mother to their two children. He knew that Dicky Soames had been fond of Adela and the fact that Dicky Soames had years back gone away to join his and Adelas uncle made no difference to him. He was afraid that some day Dicky would return and take Adela from him.

Ainsley didnt take the letter when he was at work as his fellow-workers could see him do it. So when the working hours were over he went out of the post-office together with his fellow-workers, then he returned to take the letter addressed to his wife. As the door of the post-office was locked, he had to get in through a window. When he was getting out of the window the postmaster saw him. He got angry and dismissed Ainsley. So another man was hired and Ainsley became unemployed. Their life became hard, they had to borrow money from their friends.

Several months had passed. One afternoon when Ainsley came home he saw the familiar face of Dicky Soames. So he had turned up, Ainsley thought to himself.

Dicky Soames said he was delighted to see Ainsley. I have missed all of you so much, he added with a friendly smile.

Ainsley looked at his wife. Uncle Tom has died, she explained, and Dicky has come into his money. Congratulation, said Ainsley, you are lucky.

Adela turned to Dicky. Tell Arthur the rest, she said quietly. Well, you see, said Dicky, Uncle Tom had something over sixty thousand and he wished Adela to have half. But he got angry with you because Adela never answered the two letters I wrote to her for him. Then he changed his will and left his money to hospitals. I asked him not to do it, but he wouldnt listen to me!.

Ainsley turned pale. So those two letters were worth reading after all, he thought to himself. For some time everybody kept silence. Then Dicky Soames broke the silence, Its strange about those two letters. Ive often wondered why you didnt answer them? Adela got up, came up to her husband and said, taking him by the hand. The letters were evidently lost. At that moment Ainsley realised that she knew everything.

Do the following:

1. Give a character sketch of

Ainsley

Adela

Dickey Soames

2. Why do you think:

Adelas uncle changed his will?

Ainsley didnt give Adela Dickys letters?

Adela guessed everything what had happened?

3. What do you think about reading letters addressed not to you but someone else? What do you think about hiding letters from someone?

Text B. Post Cards

1.Read and say what new things youve learned from the text.

In the mid-19th century, Henry Cole was a well-known museum director. Every year he sent short notes to his friends at Christmas, wishing them a happy holiday season. But in 1843 he had no time for letter writing, so he asked an artist, John C. Horsley, to design a card with a printed message that would substitute for his annual greeting. His request eventually inspired a billion-dollar industry and added a tradition to the holiday season. He invented the Christmas card.

Nowadays people send thousands of Christmas cards. A typical Christmas card has a sentimental picture of a snowy country scene or a warm fireside in an old-fashioned drawing-room. Many pictures shows animals or birds. Inside the card, the traditional greeting is Wishing you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year. Or a piece of simple, sentimental verse may be printed, such as: To wish you in a special way. A very happy Christmas Day!

To other popular times for sending greeting cards are on Mothers Day and Farhers Day. But of all the personal occasions in the year, the most popular for sending cards is a persons birthday. The shops have a very wide range of birthday cards permanently on sale, with all kinds of pictures and words printed on them. For children, for example, there are cards with their age in the front: Today you are TEN!, while for those celebrating their eighteenth or twenty-first birthday there are special coming of age cards. Many birthday cards have the relationship of the person printed on them. You may see Happy Birthday, Son! on the front, or For the Worlds Best Mum.

There are cards for other family occasions, too, such as a wedding anniversary or the birth of a baby. If someone is ill, you can send him or her a get well card. A specially English type of card is the Valentine card. Traditionally, Valentine cards are sent anonymously the sender doesnt sign his or her name. Such cards may have standard wording, such as To someone I am very fond of, or contain a simple rhyme, such as Come rain, come shine, Youll always be mine. But many people like to send Valentine cards with comical or witty words. For example, on the front of the card you can see the words I hate you , and inside is the rest of the sentence: being so far away when I want to be near you! Another card will start, in large capital letters, LOTS N LOTS , and inside will be OF LUV FROM ME TO YOU!.

2.Read the post cards and write a congratulation post card to your friend.

Congratulations on your Silver Wedding! Twenty-five years together! I was nearly surprised to hear it. You dont look old enough to have a silver wedding! Very best wishes. Gladys

 

 

It was very nice to hear about your wedding. I expect your parents are sorry to lose daughter but happy to gain a son! My best wishes to you and your husband. Sara Roberts

 

 

BEST WISHES to Your 21 st Birthday! Youve been born 21 before Now youve got the key of the door, Its really great to be 21. Now you are a man, my son! Love, Dad

 

 

to Linda & David, We were delighted to hear about the twins! Its lovely to have two at the same timedouble happiness (and double the work!) Were willing to help at any time. Dont hesitate to ask. Lots of love, Alison & Kevin

TALKING POINTS

1.Read, translate and dramatise the following dialogues:

1.

Customer: Where can I cash this postal order?

Clerk: Right here, sir. Please sign your name at the bottom. Here is the money.

C: Thank you.

Cl: Thank you.

2.

C: I would like to register the letter. What is the postage?

Cl: Is it for the Continent?

C: No, its an inland one.

Cl: Let me have it weighted. It will come to 3.5 dollars.

C: And whats the postage on ordinary letters for the Continent?

Cl: Twopence-halfpenny.

C: And on postcards?

Cl: Three halfpenny.

C: And if I want to send them by air mail?

Cl: Its 6 dollars for letters and 4 dollars for postcards.

3.

C: I want to send a telegram, where can I get a form?

Cl: You will find telegram forms over there; fill one up in ink and hand it in at the next counter.

C: How much will it cost me to send this telegram to Germany?

Cl: Let me see, how many words Sixteen words at 3 dollars a word.

C: And I want the telegram to reach the addressee by tonight.

Cl: It will, dont worry. Here is the receipt.

C: Thank you.

4.

C: I should like to send a money order. When will the payee get it, if I send it right away?

Cl: Tomorrow by afternoon delivery, about 2 p.m.

C: Will he be able to cash it the same day?

Cl: Certainly, provided the mail finds him at home. In case he is too busy, he can do it by proxy, giving someone a letter of attorney with his signature properly witnessed.

5.

T: Good morning.

C: Good morning, sir. What can I do for you?

T: I want to send this parcel.

C: Put it on the scales, please. Thatll be 25 pence.

T: Right. And I want three five-penny stamps, please. And how much do I have to put on a postcard to Denmark?

C: Its three pence for a postcard to the Continent.

T: Thank you. Ill take two threepenny stamps, please.

C: That comes to forty-six pence, sir.

T: O.K. Heres a pound note. Im sorry I havent anything smaller.

C: Thats all right, sir. Fifty-four pence change.

T: Thank you. Oh, I forgot. I want a postal order for eighty pence.

C: Right, sir.

6.

T: Six fivepenny stamps, please, and a large registered envelope.

C: Will this size do?

T: Yes, thank you, thats just right. Would you mind telling me what the postage on this letter will be?

C: Five pence by ordinary post, or ten pence, if you want to register it.

7.

- There must be a letter for me Here is my passport.

- There are two letters for you. Here they are. Here is your passport.

- Thank you.

8.

- There is a money order for you.

- Here is my passport. Shall I fill in a form?

- Yes, please. Dont forget to sign the form.

- I wont.

2.Make up your own dialogues, using the dialogues above and the topical vocabulary below.

 

- How much is the postage for a letter to? - Id like to send this letter by special delivery air mail - I want to insure (register) this letter. - For how much do you want it insured? - Where can I drop the letter? - Where is the nearest pillar-box?   - Where is the general delivery window? - Are there any letters for me, please? - What identity paper have you got? - Will you, please, fill in the form for me - Make it an urgent telegram a high letter telegram (AmE) a regular telegram - ...? - - ( ) - ?   - ? - ? - ? - , , . - ?   - , , - ³ ...

UNIT 9

Grammar:Peculiarities of Using the Passive Voice Topic:At the Doctor Reading:Text. At the Dentists Talking Points

GRAMMAR

1.Passive Voice with Verbs which have Two Objects

Somebody gaveTom an apple. 1.Tomwas givenan apple.2.An applewas given toTom. .
Other verbs with two objects:give, send, tell, show, pay, promise, offer, allow, lend, refuse, ask, etc.

1.1.Give sentences with both passive constructions according to the model, translate them into Ukrainian.

M O D E L : They gave him an apple.

a)He was given an apple.

b)An apple was given (to) him.

1.They showed us the way to the station. 2.He will give me the money for my holiday. 3.Did you send him a letter? 4.They promised the boy a bicycle. 5.They cant tell her the truth. 6.They told him the truth. 7.They gave us no explanation. 8.After graduation they offered him a good job.

1.2. Put questions to the parts in bold type.

1.He was given two days to think the matter over. 2.We were shown a new film. 3.The instructions were given to everybody. 4.The new method will be shown to the young specialist today. 5.He was told that she had finished school the year before.

1.3.Give English equivalents to these word combinations and make up true sentences with them.

M O D E L: I was shown the new edition of William Shakespeares sonnets.

1) 6)

2) 7)

3) 8)

4) 9)

5) 10)

1.4.Translate the following sentences (give two variants where possible)

1.³ . 2. . 3. . 4. 50 . 5. ? 6. . 7. , .

2.Passive Voice with Verbs which Have a Prepositional Object

to look after to be looked after to laugh at to be laughed at to look for to be looked for to send for to be sent for to speak to to be spoken to to speak of/about to be spoken of/about
He ismuch spoken about. . She wasnever laughed at. . Willhe be spoken to? ?

2.1. Use the Passive Voice in the following sentences according to the model, translate them into Ukrainian.

M O D E L: They looked at the picture with admiration.

The picture was looked at with admiration.

1.They listened to his lectures with great interest. 2.He throws away all his old note-books at the end of the school year. 3.You must think the matter over. 4.They spoke to the Dean on the subject. 5.We must send for the doctor immediately. 6.People talk much about this film. 7.People always laughed at his jokes. 8.They argued about the incident for a long time. 9.We cant speak of such important matters lightly. 10.She likes when people talk about her.

2.2 . Supply the missing prepositions.

1.They read all the books that are much talked . . . . 2.She always felt uncomfortable when she was looked . . .. 3.When will the old newspapers be thrown . . . ? 4.He is spoken . . . with warmth. 5.The question was not to be argued . . . .6.The tickets must be paid . . . immediately. 7.Each word he spoke was listened . . . 8.The matter was argued . . . for days.

2.3.Complete the table to practise passive structures.

Active Passive
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2.They will look after the children. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.We sent for the cab. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.The film is much spoken about. 2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.The little girl was laughed at. 4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.His speech wont be listened to. 6.The students will be spoken to tomorrow.

2.4.Translate the following sentences.

1. . 2. . 3. , . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. .

TOPIC

Topical Vocabulary

1.Remember the following words and word combinations:

to be in a good health to fall ill to examine smb to catch a cold to feel unwell to cough flu to take ones temperature to complain of splitting headache stuffed up nose to breathe in a pain in the chest to strip to the waist to check the pulse to be allergic to to write out the prescription to keep to a diet recovery to suffer from the best remedy for to keep ones (to) bed to be running a temperature to be (fall) ill with to have a complication on after to be subject to cold to die of / from

2.Read and translate paying attention to the active words and word combinations.

AT THE DOCTORS

Good health is a great blessing. Everyone should do all to stay healthy. Being in a good health means having both body and mind in a good working state free from disease and pain. As a proverb says: A sound mind is in a sound body.

In my opinion theres nothing more unpleasant than being ill. I can say that I enjoy a good health. But if sometimes I happen to fall ill, I either go to a doctor or a doctor is called to examine me.

It was an early spring when I caught a severe cold last time. I was caught in the rain unawares and got soaked to the skin. I had not got even a dry stitch on. At home my mummy told me to take a hot bath immediately and drink three cups of strong tea with a lemon and raspberry jam. I did everything but it didnt do.

At night I felt myself quite unwell. I began coughing and could not sleep. I was cold. Then I understood that it was either a cold or the flu. In the morning when I took my temperature it was very high-39.5.

My mother called a doctor immediately. When he came he asked me what had happened with me. I began complaining of aching all over. I had a fever and a splitting headache. My nose was stuffed up. It was very difficult for me to breathe in deeply. I felt a pain in my chest. To make the matter worse, I could not swallow freely. I was coughing and sneezing all the time. I felt more dead than alive. The doctor seemed concerned and asked me to sit in bed and strip to the waist. Then he listened to my heart and lungs, checked my pulse and had a thorough look at my throat.

He concluded that it was a severe cold. But I could recover soon if followed his instructions.

He was interested if I was allergic to antibiotics or any other drugs. But I could not tell him a definite yes. For, some years ago I had some allergic complications after taking aspirin.

Then, the doctor told me to stay in bed and wrote out the prescription for the new half-natural pressed tablets called Coldstop. They were approved and recommended by the International Association of Medical professionals. He explained that Coldstop was considered to work faster and be more effective.

Id to take 2 tablets 4 times a day washed down by 1-2 cups of warm tea. In between taking these tablets I was advised to drink a lot of hot milk with honey and butter. Keeping to a diet of salads and fruits that is called the healthy eating is the next and the most preferable way to soon recovery. An apple a day keeps a doctor away.

The doctor promised me full recovery in 10 days in case I followed his recommendations. I was an obedient patient; I did everything he prescribed me. In 2 or 3 days my temperature became normal and the cough disappeared gradually. And in 2 weeks I was as fit as a fiddle.

After my successful recovery I decided to change my way of life. Whats pleasure in being ill and taking different tablets. It is never late to start going in for sports. Im sure all sorts of physical exercises are so helpful. They make our bodies strong as well as keep us well mentally.

So, if we want to keep ourselves fit, we ought to go in for sports. Our health is in our hands.

3.Answer the questions:

1. What happened to the narrator?

2. How did he feel?

3. How did the doctor examine him?

4. What remedy did the doctor write out for the patient?

5. How did the narrator try to recover?

6. The narrator was an obedient patient, wasnt he?

7. How do you usually behave when you fall ill?

4.Explain how you understand the proverbs:

ü Health is not valued till sickness comes.

ü A sound mind is in a sound body.

ü An apple a day keeps a doctor away.

ü Good health is above wealth.

ü One hours sleep before midnight is worth two after.

ü Prevention is better than cure.

ü Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

ü What cant be cured must be endured.

Memory work:

For every evil under the sky

There is a remedy, or there is none.

If there be one, try to find it,

If there be none never mind it.

5.Make up a story illustrating the following proverbs:

Health is not valued till sickness comes.

Health is better than wealth.

Prevention is better than cure.

6. Insert prepositions or post-verbal adverbs where necessary.

1.Take these tablets . . . your cough or you may fall ill . . . flu. 2.He is ill . . . quinzy. He has been keeping . . . his bed . . . a week already and is sure to stay . . . bed . . . another one. 3.He has a very serious complication . . . his heart . . . quinsy. 4.As you are subject . . . colds you must start hardening yourself. It is the best remedy . . . it. 5.I see you are constantly suffering . . . your liver. 6.Many people died either . . . starvation or . . . wounds . . . the war. 7.If you complain . . . an earache, go and have this prescription made up . . . the chemists. 8.I feel I am aching all . . . and running a temperature. I think we must call . . . a doctor.

7. Answer the following questions:

1.When were you ill last time? Did you have to keep your bed? How long did you have to keep your bed? 2.Did you call a doctor when you fell ill? What did you complain of? Did a doctor give you a sick-note? 3.How did the doctor examine you? What treatment did he prescribe? How long did it take you to get well? 4.What disease did you have in your childhood? Are you subject to cold now? 5.What do you usually take from headache? 6.Is flu an infectious disease? What other infectious diseases do you know? 7.What do we do with the doctors prescription? How often did you take the medicine when you were ill? Did you follow the doctors advice? 8.Have you ever had a complication after a disease? When was it? Are you still suffering from it?

8. Translate into English.

1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8.³ . 9. . 10. , .

9.Speak about your last visit to the doctor.

10.a)Make a list of arguments against bad habits. Consult the table. b)Which arguments against bad habits seem most convincing to you? Place them in order of importance. Which of the arguments will you use to convince your friends or parents not to smoke or drink too much alcohol?

BAD HABITS

smoking make(s)

drinking alcohol teeth yellow

taking drugsskin unhealthy

hair smell

clothes smell

speech unclear

brain centres sleep

cause(s)measures

a cough to put into prison for

a headache to sack from school for

pneumonia to take money for

cancer to ban

blood disease affect(s)

heart disease the whole family

brain disease the people around

slow reactions your knowledge

loss of memory your social controls

11.Discuss the following information.

Less Coffee, Fewer Heart Attacks

A person drinking coffee five or more cups a day has more than twice the risk of having heart problems than one who drinks no coffee at all.

Over 1000 men were surveyed at five-year intervals for up to 25 years on their coffee use. One major finding was that even when other factors smoking, blood pressure, cholesterol level, and age are taken into account, there is still a greater risk of heart trouble among coffee drinkers.

In order to lessen that risk, doctors advise that coffee drinkers besides quitting smoking and having their cholesterol levels checked, should be prudent in their coffee intake.

READING

Text. AT THE DENTISTS

1.Read about a visit to the dentist.

Once I had had a toothache for several days, but I couldnt pluck up courage to go to the dentist. As a matter of fact I went twice, but just as I got on his doorstep and was going to ring the bell the toothache seemed to have gone away, so I went home again. But at last I had to go back, and this time I rang the bell and was shown into the waiting-room.

There were a number of magazines there, and I had just got in the middle of an exciting story when the maid came in to say Mr. Puller was ready to see me - Ill have to wait for the next toothache to finish the story.

Well, I went into the surgery (the room where a doctor or dentist gives advice or treatment) and he told me to sit in a chair that he could move up and down, backwards and forwards, and then he had a look at the inside of my mouth. He put a little mirror on a long handle inside my mouth and poked about for a while, then he looked serious and said, Yes, Im afraid we cant save that one, it will have to come out. I asked him to give me an injection. He filled a syringe with a liquid called cocaineso.

My mouth felt rather dead. Then he took a pair of forceps, gripped the tooth, gave a twist, then a pull, and the tooth was out. I could see it and hear it but I couldnt feel it. Then he said, Its all over. Spit in there and then wash your mouth out with this disinfectant.

2.Do you remember your last visit t the dentist. Say a few words about it.

TALKING POINTS

1.Read. Complete the dialogue.

Patient: Good__________, Doctor.

Doctor: Good morning, what________ I do for you?

Patient: I dont___________ very well. Ive got a_______ and a__________.

Doctor: Hmm. Let me __________ a look. Open your_________, please. Say Aah.

Patient: Aaah.

Doctor: Your________ a bit red. Is it __________?

Patient: Yes. I feel all _________ and cold, too.

Doctor: Ill just ___________ your temperature. Can you put thisunder your____________. Hmm, a hundred and one. Yes, youve got a__________.

Patient: What is it, then, doctor?

Doctor: Youve got_____________. Ill give you a ________ for some___________. Take one spoonful every four__________.

Patient: Should I_________ in bed?

Doctor: No, but you__________ stay at home and keep warm. Come back________ a week.

Patient: Thank you, Doctor. Goodbye.

Doctor: Goodbye.

2.Put this conversation in the correct order.

Patient: Yesterday. I fell over while I was playing football.

Patient: Should I go today?

Doctor: Goodbye.

Doctor: Hmm. I think youve only sprained it. But youll need an X-ray. Ill put a bandage on it for now. But you should go to hospital for an X-ray.

Patient: Yes, but it hurts.

Patient: Ive hurt my ankle.

Patient: Thank you, doctor. Goodbye.

Doctor: Can you just take your shoe off? Hmm, yes. Can you move your foot?

Doctor: Yes. Take this letter with you.

Doctor: When did it happen?

Doctor: Hello. Whats the problem?

3.Complete these expressions.

a headache. toothache. a sore throat. a temperature. I ______ flu. earache stomach ache. a rash. a cold. ankle. leg. Ive _______arm. hand. face. foot.  

4.Do you know what to say when you come to the dentists? Then learn the following dialogue.

AT THE DENTISTS

S.: Good morning, doctor. One of my front teeth is working loose, and there is a tooth at the back that wants treatment.

D.: I am very sorry, but Im afraid youll have to have the front tooth out. Has the other one been very troublesome?

S.: Yes, on and off for the last few weeks, but today the pain seems to be easier.

D.: Does this tooth pain you when I touch it like that?

S.: No, it doesnt.

D.: Then you must have the bad tooth stooped before the nerve gets exposed.

5.Learn how to make an appointment to see a doctor:

Patient: Hello. Can I make an appointment to see the doctor?

Receptionist: Sure. Your name?

Patient: Shirley Baker.

Receptionist: Please fill out this form, with your name, address, and phone number. Do you have health insurance?

Patient: No, will that be a problem?

Receptionist: I dont think so. Stay here. Dr. Lang will be right with you.

Dr. Lang: What seems to be the problem?

Patient: Well, I cut myself with a sharp knife the other day and now my hand is swollen. It seems to be infected.

Dr. Lang: Could you role up your sleeve? Does it hurt when I press here?

Patient: A little bit.

Dr. Lang: Have you been taking any medication?

Patient: No.

Dr. Lang. Do you have a fever?

Patient: No, I dont think so.

Dr. Lang: Ill give you a prescription thatll get rid of the infection quickly.

Patient: Thank you, doctor.

6.Complete the dialogue. Work in pairs.

AT THE DOCTORS

Doctor: Good morning, Mr. Thompson. Whats the trouble?

Mr. Thompson.:__________.

D: Any pain?

Mr.Th.____________.

D.: Please strip to the waist and lie down on the examination couch. I shall examine you.

Mr. Th._____________.

D.: Im afraid its pneumonia and you must have injections. Go straight home and Ill send you a nurse immediately.

Mr. Th.: _____________.

D.: Certainly, for at least a week or ten days. Theres a prescription. Take a spoonful of this medicine three times a day.

Mr. Th.______________.

D.: Oh, dont mention it, please. Make sure to follow my instructions. Goodbye.

UNIT 10

Grammar:Passive Voice (Continuous Tenses) Topic:Computer. Internet. Reading: Text. The Founder of the Microsoft Talking Points

GRAMMAR

PASSIVE VOICE

Continuous Tenses

The Present Continuous and the Past Continuous Passive are formed by means of the Present Continuous and the Past Continuous of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle II of the notional verb.

The Present and Past Continuous in the Passive Voice as well as in the Active Voice express an action going on at the present moment or at a definite moment in the past.

Present Continuous Passive Past Continuous Passive
am being is being + Ved(3) are being was being + Ved(3) were being
+
Where are the letters? They are being written at the moment. I entered the room and saw that the letter was being written.
-
The article is not being translated. When I telephoned she told me that the article was not being translated.
?
Arethe magazines being looked through? Werethe magazines being looked through when the mail arrived?

!The Future Continuous, the Present Perfect C

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