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If you had eaten proper food you would be healthy and happy now.

EXERCISES

1.Translate into Ukrainian.

1.If my mother buys a cake, we shall have a very nice tea-party. 2. If we receive a telegram from him, we shall not worry. 3. If you dont work systematically, you will fail at the examination. 4.The students will plant the seeds if they receive the new instructions. 5. They will show you the files if you come in time. 6. If you feed your cows with the good food you will get a lot of milk.7. If you put some sugar in the tea it will taste better.

2.Put the verb in the appropriate form.

M O D E L: If you (to be) free, I shall come to see you.

If you are free, I shall come to see you.

1.If you (to be) busy, I shall leave you alone. 2.If he (to live) in Moscow, he will visit the Tretyakov Gallery. 3. If we (to get) the tickets, we shall go to the Philarmonic. 4.If I (to live) near a wood, Ill gather a lot of mushrooms. 5. If my father (to return) early, well watch TV together. 6.If she (to know) English, shell try to enter the university. 7.If my friend (to come) to see me, Ill be very glad.

3.Translate into English.

1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , . 7. - , .

4.Change the first-type conditional sentences into the second-type conditional sentences.

M O D E L: If I am not too busy, I shall go to the concert. - If I were not busy, I should go to the concert.

1.If no one comes to help, we shall be obliged to do the work ourselves. 2.If you put on your glasses, you will see better. 3.What shall we do if they are late? 4.Will you be very angry if we dont come? 5.Will he be very displeased if I dont ring him up? 6.They will all be surprised if I make such a mistake. 7. If he doesnt come in time, shall we have to wait for him?

5. Open the brackets putting the verbs into the required form of the third conditional.

M O D E L:If it (to rain) we would have stayed at home. - If it had rained we should have stayed at home.

1.If he (to work) hard, he would have achieved great progress. 2.I (to write) the composition long ago if you had not disturbed me.3.If you (to give) me your address I would have written you a letter.4. If my sister hadnt gone to the South, we (to spend) the summer together.5.If you hadnt been so careless about your health, you (to consult) the doctor. 6.If she ( to ask ) me yesterday, I would certainly have told her all about it. 7.If I (not to be ) present at the lesson, I would not have understood this difficult rule. 8.If they (to know) it before they would have taken measures. 9.If you had really loved music, you (to go) to the concert. 10. If you (not to miss) the train, you would have arrived in time. 11.You would have understood the rule if you (not to miss) the teachers explanation. 12.If you had written the test-paper successfully, you (not to get ) a two.

6.Translate into Ukrainian.

1.If he hadnt been very busy, he would have agreed to go to the museum with us. 2.If he had read fifty pages his vocabulary would have increased greatly. 3.If I had bought a computer I would have been very happy. 4.You wouldnt have missed the teachers explanation if you had arrived in time. 5.If she had come to our house yesterday, she would have met his friend. 6.He wouldnt have had a certificate if he hadnt passed the examinations. 7.If only you had let me know, I would have gone there immediately.

7.Translate into English.

1. , . 2. , . 3.ij , . 4. , . 5.³ , . 6. , . 7.³ , .

8.Choose the correct form of the verbs.

1.If I miss/Ill miss the bus this afternoon, Ill get a taxi instead.

2.Well have to go without John if he doesnt arrive / wont arrive soon.

3.They wont refund / didnt refund your money if you dont keep your receipt.

4.Will you send me a postcard when you reach / youll reach Mexico?

5.If I make some coffee, do you cut / will you cut the cake?

6.Did you work / Would you work harder if you were better paid?

7.If you dont complain / didnt complain so much, you might be more popular.

8.Werent my friends / Wouldnt my friends be envious if they could only see me now!

9.Fill in the gaps, using the words given in brackets.

1.If I had more money, would you marry (you / marry) me?

2.He wouldnt help you if ________ (he /not /like) you.

3._________ (you /find) the machine quite simple to operate if you look at the manual.

4._________ (your parents /not /be) proud if they could see you now?

5.If ________ (I /not /revise) thoroughly, I may fail my test.

6.If you wanted to buy someone a really good present, what sort of thing _____ (you /look for)?

7.How ______ (you /feel) if you were in my position?

8.Would you change your job if ______ (you /can) ?

10.Complete the questions in the conversations.

1.- I dont know whats happened to my dictionary. Ive looked everywhere for it.

- What will you do if you dont find it?

- I suppose Ill have to buy a new one.

2.- Im thinking of applying for the managers job.

- Really? How _______ if _______ ?

- Oh, about $2,000 a year more than now, I suppose.

3.- I dont know what Im going to do about money. I cant even pay this weeks rent.

- ______ if ______ ?

- Well, it would help, of course. But I cant borrow from you.

- Dont be silly. How much do you want?

4.- This room is so dark and dull.

- What ______ if ______ ?

- White, I think. And Id have white curtains.

- Youd spend a lot of time cleaning it.

- But at least Id be able to see!

5.- I dont think Im going to pass my driving test next week.

- What _____ if _____ ?

- I wont be able to get the job I want at the warehouse. They said I must be able to drive.

11.Lisa is talking to her tutor about what she might do when she leaves college. Use the words given to make sentences.

-Do you have any plans for next year?

-Well, (1) I /travel /if I /afford it.

-(2)If you /find /a job abroad /you /take it?

-(3)If it /be /somewhere I want to go / I /certainly /consider it carefully.

-What about working as an au pair? you /not /be so mean?

-(4)I /only /consider /that if I /be / sure about the family.

-(5)If they /not / treat/ me well, / I / be very miserable.

-Yes.(6) You /have to be sure to use a reputable agency.

-We have a list in the office, (7) I / get / you one if you / be interested.

-Yes, I am. Um, (8) if I / decide / to apply/ you/ give/ me a reference?

-Of course. Well, I hope you succeed, whatever you decide to do.

-Thank you very much. Ill let you know.

-Yes, Id like that. Goodbye.

-Goodbye.

12.Make up the conditional sentences using the information. (Dont forget about mixed types).

1.He is not a first-class sportsman now because he did not train enough last. If 2. The students were active because they wanted to understand this difficult material. If 3.The students did not understand the homework because they were inattentive. If 4.She wont try to enter the foreign languages department because she is not good at foreign languages. If 5.I shall go to the dentist because I have a toothache. If 6.He is groaning with pain now because he did not take any treatment. If 7.He will not go to see the play as he was present at the dress rehearsal. If

TOPIC

Topical Vocabulary

1.Remember the following words and word combinations:

to be founded struggle landowner settlement the museum of fine arts the museum of applied arts craftsman the Theatre for Young Spectators pump ,

2.Read and translate paying attention to the active words and word combinations.

MY NATIVE TOWN.

Sumy was founded on the 25th of June, 1655. The founder of the town was the Ukrainian cossack Gerasim Kondratyev. When the Ukrainians struggled against the Polish landowners they had to leave their villages in the West and asked the Russian tsar to allow them to live and build the new villages on the left bank of the river Dnieper. At that very time Kondratyev headed 100 Ukrainian families. They came to the bank of the river Psel and built a settlement which they called the Soumin town.

Now Sumy is an administrative, economic, cultural and industrial center of the Sumy region. There are many places of interest here. In my town we have some museums: the museum of the local history, of fine arts, Chekhovs museum and the museum of applied arts. In front of the museum of the local history there is a summer-house which was built without nails about 100 years ago by an unknown craftsman. It was the place where the musicians played music and ladies with gentlemen walked listening to it. In winter there was a skating-rink there. Now it is the landmark of our town and one of the most favourite meeting places of its inhabitants. To the left of the summer-house the museum of fine arts is situated. There are about 15000 exhibits there. You can admire the beauty of the paintings by Repin, Shyshkin, Levitan, etc. There were 12 churches in Sumy but now we have only 6. There are two theatres in our city: Shchepkin Drama and Musical Comedy Theatre and the Theatre for Young Spectators.

Sumy is a highly-developed industrial town. There are many enterprises in our town. They are: the machine building plant, the chemical plant, the pump plant, the tube plant, the steel plant, the porcelain factory, the microscope plant and some food enterprises.

Sumy is also an educational centre. It is the city of secondary comprehensive schools, grammar schools, colleges and vocational schools. There is also Musical College, Medical College, College training educators in culture. Sumy is also the city of higher education. There are 5 higher educational institutions in Sumy: Sumy National Agrarian University, Sumy State University, Sumy State Pedagogical University, Military Institute of Artillery, the Academy of Banking.

I love my town very much and consider it to be the most beautiful town in the world.

3.Answer the questions:

1.When and by whom was Sumy founded?

2.On the bank of what river did the Ukrainians from the West build Sumy settlement?

3.How many museums are there in Sumy? What are they?

4.What is situated in front of the museum of the local history?

5.What attracts visitors in the museum of fine arts?

6.What industrial enterprises are there in Sumy?

7.What can be said about Sumy as an educational centre?

8.What do you like/dislike about Sumy? What would you change in it?

9.Do you have any favourite places in Sumy? What do you like about them?

4.Find English equivalents to the following words. Find sentences with these words in the text and translate them. Write your own sentences with these words.

, , , , , , , , , , , , (), , , , , , , , , - , , , , .

5.Rearrange the following lines into the right order to read about the Ukrainian city of Sumy. Three sentences have been done for you.

Sumy

_1_ --3-- ---10- -5--- --22-- -4--- --9-- ---25- 19---- ---11- ----23 -13- 18---- ---16- -2--- --6-- -17--- -14--- -20--- -12--- -21--- 8---- -15--- -24--- -26- The city of Sumy is situated on the banks of the River Psyol and fortress and 1780 grew into a town. Because it was on the trade in the 18th century, and after 1861, when serfdom was abolished greatly from various invaders. So the fortifications were Slobozhanschyna. The Slobodsky Cossack regiment which B.Hrynchenko and V. Korolenko, and the composer Petr crossroads, the population of this peaceful little town suffered dislocated there. Trade and industries started to flourish in Sumy are Transfiguration Cathedral built in 1776 and Resurrection famous Ukrainian philosopher and educationalist Hryhory in Russia, there was a growth of industrial development in Sumy Tchaikovsky visited the city on numerous occasions. There are enterprises in Sumy. Today the city is a big industrial centre outstanding people of Ukraine are connected with Sumy. The industries include sugar refining and other food processing, its tributaries Sumka and Strilka. It was founded in 1652 as a strengthened and in 1656-58, Sumy was the mightiest fortress in clothing and footwear production. The life and work of many which produces machinery for the chemical industry, electron Skovoroda visited Sumy several times, and the prominent poet region. Before the first World War there were about 40 industrial Taras Shevchenko lived in Sumy in 1859. The writers showed its courage in the battles with Turks in 1677-78 was microscopes, pumps and fertilizers and various chemicals. Light quite a number of sights in Sumy, the most remarkable of them Church in 1703.

6.Can you say that you like everything in the city/village you live in? What, in your opinion, could be done to make it look better?

7. Speak about your native town (village).

READING

Text A. Kalynivka.

1.Read and translate the following text.

Kalynivka is a big and beautiful village. There is a cattle-farm, a pig-farm, a chicken-farm and a big garden in this village. There are many fruit trees in the garden.

In the centre of the village you can see a new club, a cinema, a school, a big hospital and many shops. The houses in the village are not high, but they are very nice. Near the houses you can see many trees and flowers. In the streets of the village there are buses and cars. There is a small river in this village too.

Kalynivka is a very nice village. I like living there, though its not easy to live in the country. My parents have to get up at 5 a.m. to milk the cows. Also they make most of our food - they make butter and cheese, we grow our own vegetables and my granny bakes our own bread. Its great! Everything is fresh! The thing I like most about living in the village is the change of seasons. You can see them all come and go, and each one is completely different. In the city you cant tell the difference. The air is clean in Kalynivka, because there is not much heavy traffic. You never have to queue in shops or banks. The village is clean - the people look after it and dont throw their rubbish in the streets. People are friendly in Kalynivka, they help each other. One problem is that people gossip. Some of them are not worth knowing at all. Take, for example, my neighbour. She sits with her nose pressed to the window all day spying on everyone If you say Hello to a girl in my village, it will get around to everyone in about 2 hours thanks to my neighbour, and the next day someone will come up and ask you when you are going to get married. But I still love my Kalynivka. I prefer village life to life in a big city.

2.Find English equivalents to:

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (), , .

3.Tell what is good (bad) about living in Kalynivka.

4.Tell about the village you (your grandparents) live in.

5.Have you ever had any problems because of the gossip in the village? Tell your story to your group-mates.

Text B. The Brave Village.

1. Read and translate using the vocabulary.

George Viccars was a tailor in the Derbyshire village of Eyam. One day in September 1665 he received a parcel from London. The cloth in the parcel was damp, so George Viccars hung it in front of the fire. The next day Viccars was very ill and a few days later he died. There were large purple rings on his face and his body.

In London, thousands of people were dying from the plague. Now the terrible disease was outside the city, too. Nowhere was safe.

When they heard the news a few rich people left Eyam, but the other people stayed. Everybody must stay in the village, said the local vicar William Mompesson. In the next 13 months nobody left Eyam and 262 of the 350 villagers died. But the disease did not spread to other places.

People from other villages brought food, clothes and medicine to places near Eyam. The people from Eyam collected the things and left money there. They left the money in small holes full of vinegar. One girl from Eyam, Emmott Sydall, had a sweetheart in the next village. When the plague started, they couldnt meet each other. Every evening they came to a place between their villages and called to each other. Then one evening in spring 1666 Rowland waited and waited, but Emmott did not arrive. Rowland came back to the place every evening, but he never saw Emmott again. She, her father, brother and three sisters were dead.

The vicar of Eyam and his wife, Katherine, helped the villagers when their relatives died. One evening in August 1666, Mompesson and his wife were walking in the fields. Katherine said she could smell something sweet. This was the first sign of the plague. A few days later Katherine died. Mompesson, himself, lived for another 44 years.

2.Answer the questions.

1.What is the name of the village?

2.What happened there in 1665?

3.What did the villagers do?

4.How many people died?

3.Find three facts about each of these people.

1.George Viccars

2.William Mompesson

3.Emmot Sydall

4.Katherine Mompesson

4.Retell the text.

TALKING POINTS

1. Read, learn and act.

-Oh, why are we moving to this place ? I want to stay in Manchester. All my friends are there.

-You can make some new friends here, dear. Go and talk to those young people over there.

-Hi , Im Jackie-Jackie Wright. My parents want to buy the house in your town. Is there much to do round here?

-Its a great place. Theres a cinema in town. And there are two good cafes and a park round the corner. And theres a really great leisure centre. I go there a lot.

-Are you doing anything at the moment?

-Im going to the shop. Do you want to come? I can show you around.

2.Make up your own dialogues about your new place of living.

UNIT 15

Grammar:Subjunctive II in Object Clauses Topic:Ukrainian Holidays Reading:Text A. Customs and Traditions in Ukraine Text B. Easter Talking Points

GRAMMAR

Subjunctive II in Object Clauses

Wish-sentences

Subjunctive II is used to represent an action as contrary to reality in object clauses when the predicate of the main clause is the verb to wish.

The Present Subjunctive II is used if the action of the subordinate clause is simultaneous with that of the main clause; the Past Subjunctive II is used if the action of the subordinate clause precedes that of the main clause.

The True Situation Expressing a Wish
1.I dont havea computer. He cannot speak French. I have to takea bus to the University. It is cold today. I wish Ihada computer. He wishes he could speakFrench. I wish I didnt have to take it. I wish it were notcold today.
Comments When a speaker expresses a wish about the present/future situation, he uses Ved(II)
The True Situation Expressing a Regret
2.I didnt callmy friend last night. He watchedTV all evening. I wish I had calledmy friend. He wishes he hadnt watchedTV all evening.
Comments When a speaker expresses a wish or regret about a past situation, the form had Ved (III) is used.

EXERCISES

1.Read what the true situation is and complete the sentences expressing a wish.

M O D E L: My younger brother doesnt have a bicycle. He wishes he had a bicycle.

1.I dont have a camera. 2.Anns younger sister doesnt know English. 3.My friend doesnt have a good library. 4.We dont have much time. 5.I cant go to the movie tonight. 6.Im not a good cook. 7.He always makes mistakes. 8.He often misses classes. I wish She wishes He wishes We wish I wish I wish He wishes He wishes

2.Read what the true situation is and express a wish or regret.

1.We didnt go camping with our group-mates.

2.They didnt visit the picture gallery when they were in the city.

3.He didnt help his younger brother with his math.

4.She did not wash the dishes just after breakfast.

5.He didnt catch much fish.

6.They didnt take pictures when they visited the ancient place.

3.Paraphrase the following sentences.

M O D E L : Its a pity she is so indifferent to music. - I wish she were not so indifferent to music..

Unfortunately, I did not see him there. - I wish I had seen him there.

1.Its a pity he is not at school now. 2.Its a pity you are so absent-minded. 3.I am sorry I havent read that article. 4.Its a pity she went there yesterday. 5. What a pity you are leaving our school.6. Its a pity she is so shy. 6. I am sorry I said this in his presence.7. Unfortunately, the night was very dark.

4.Act out the following dialogues expressing a wish (or regret).

M O D E L: Did you go to the party last nigt? Yes, I did, but I wish I hadnt. It was boring.

1.Did you go to the movie last night? (Yes, but I wish)

2.Is it hard to learn a foreign language? (Yes )

3.Did you travel by bus? (Yes )

4.Can you play a musical instrument? (No )

5.Is there an art museum in your district? (No )

5.Open the brackets.

1.I wish I(to know) Spanish. 2.I wish I (not to drink) so much coffee in the evening: I could not sleep half the night. 3.I wish you (to read) more in the future. 4.I wish I never (to suggest) this idea. 5.I wish I (to be) at yesterdays party: it must have been very merry. 6.I wish we (to meet) again next summer. 7.Dont you wish you (to see) that performance before? 8.I love sunny weather. I wish it (to be) warm and fine all the year round. 9.I wish I (not to lend) Nick my watch: he has broken it. 10.I wish you (to go) skiing with me yesterday: I had such a good time!

6.Complete the conversations with a sentence using wish.

M O D E L: -My mothers really angry with me.

-Why?

-Because she found out I had left my job.

-Oh, yes. I told her that.

-Well, I wish you hadnt told her. Its none of your business.

-Im sorry.

1.

-Have you seen Jamess new jacket? I bet it was expensive.

-He told me it cost $500.

-I ____________________

-Well, you may not be rich, but youre much better looking than James.

-Am I?

2.

-You seem to enjoy dancing with Lionel.

-Yes, I do. Hes a very good dancer.

-I _________________ when I was young.

-You could learn now.

-Oh, Id feel stupid in a dancing class at my age.

3.

-I went to Norway last month.

-Really? My brothers living in Oslo now.

-I ________________ I couldve visited him.

-Yes, its a pity. You must tell me if you have to go there again.

4.

-My parents moved to New York last month.

-How do they like it?

-My mother likes it, but my father misses their old home. He ________ .

-Perhaps hell get used to it.

-I doubt it.

5.

-My brothers are digging a swimming-pool.

-That sounds like hard work!

-It is. Actually, I suspect they wish __________. But they cant stop now. Theres great big hole in the middle of the garden.

-Yes, I see what you mean.

7.Translate into English.

1., . 2. ! 3., . 4.³ , . 5. , . 6. . 7. , . 8., . 9., . 10., . 11., . 12., 쳺 . 13., . 14., .

TOPIC

Topical Vocabulary

1.Remember the following words and word combinations:

to look forward to

to have nothing to do

to be of great importance

sovereing

to commemorate ,

to observe

2.Read and translate paying attention to the active words and word combinations.

HOLIDAYS IN UKRAINE

Very often we look forward to holidays to enjoy ourselves. As you know the word holidays comes from the words holy day. The point is that all the holidays were first religious festivals, but nowadays many of them have nothing to do with religion. Each country has holidays honouring important events in its history. Many historical events are of great importance for all peoples and countries throughout the world.

The 24-th of August 1991 Ukraine became a sovereign state. That is why Ukrainian people celebrate this day as the greatest national holiday. This holiday commemorates the freedom of the Ukrainian people.

The New Year Holiday is widely observed in Ukraine too. The most common type of celebration is the New Year party.This holiday is the holiday of expectations. People decorate the New Year tree with toys and coloured lights. When the clock strikes 12, everybody drinks champagne and says to each other: Happy New Year!

Christmas Day is observed on the 7-th of January. Most people go to church and have a tasty dinner.

On the 8th of March we celebrate the Womens Day. It is a nice spring holiday when men give presents and flowers to their wives, sweethearts, girl-friends, sisters and daughters.

The Shevchenko Days are also very popular in Ukraine. They are celebrated in March every year.

Another great national holiday is Easter, the holiday of celebrating Christs rising from the death. It is a time of giving or receiving presents which traditionally take the form of an Easter egg.

April Fools day named from the custom of playing practical jokes or sending on fools errands is on April the 1st. People enjoy joking and laughing on this holiday.

The 9th of May is the Day of Victory over fascist invaders in 1941-1945. People lay flowers to the war memorials, to the tombs of the people who died in the war. There is a salute and fireworks in the evening.

The 28th of June is the Constitution Day of Ukraine. On this day the Ukrainian Constitution was adopted.

3.Answer the questions.

1.Why do we like holidays?

2.What holiday do the Ukrainian people celebrate on January, 1?

3.The New Year is one of the most lovely holidays for us, isnt it?

4.Are Christmas and Easter celebrated in Ukraine? In what way?

5.What is the 9th of May devoted to?

4.Match the words in A with the equivalents from B.

A. B.

1)custom a)get

2)celebrate b)capture

3)receive c)tradition

4)great d)commemorate

5)church e)big

6)memorial f)lover

7)invade g)delicious

8)sweetheart h)cathedral

9)tasty i)monument

5.Fill in the appropriate word.

Everybody holidays because its the time to enjoy ourselves. Many historical are of great importance for all peoples and countries. As we live in Ukraine we have our own ... . One of the most important dates in our country is the 24-th of August when Ukraine was a sovereign state.The dear holiday is also the New Year. A lot of people the New Year tree. Christmas Day and Easter are the birthday of Christ and his Reserrection. On this day people go to the . The 9th of May is Victory Day, the holiday of victory over fascist . But except serious religious holidays the Ukrainian people have such days as a day of jokes and tricks - the 1st of April. People joking and laughing on this day.

_________________________________________

devoted to; proclaimed; looks forward to; decorate; enjoy; events; invaders; customs; churches

6.Speak how you celebrate your lovely holiday.

READING

Text A. Customs and Traditions in Ukraine

1.Read the following text.

Speaking about modern Ukrainian customs and traditions it is necessary to stress that the hardworking Ukrainians proudly maintain their colourful folk culture, with music and art playing an important role, and their distinctive literary traditions. Ukrainians in general are kind, open, generous, easygoing and hospitable. They love good food and drink and have a hearty zest for life.

A modern average Ukrainian family has two working parents and usually one or two children. Children tend to live with their parents long after they finish school to an unspecified point when they are regarded as independent and are able to provide for themselves and their families. Sometimes children even have to rely on their aged parents in financial matters as the unemployment rate among the young is very high. A newly married couple often lives with either of their parents because they have no money to buy a house or flat of their own.

At the same time there is a growing number of one-parent families usually headed by a woman rearing a child. While the marriage rate gradually declines, the divorce rate slowly grows. Like in many other European countries there are quite a lot of young unmarried people living together and sharing a household. Bringing up a child in Ukraine is very costly now, and many couples decide to have only one child, or no children at all, if they are not well established in life. This leads to a definite decline of the birth rate.

In the village the families are usually larger, and the whole family works on the farm (or a patch of land they have) together. Most parents who live in the country want their children to get a higher education, so they send them to study to big cities and towns. After 5 years of studies, the children get used to the city way of life and seldom go home. In this way the number of the city dwellers increases all the time while the number of rural workers gradually declines.

Within families people become less dependent on each other, they spend less time together. In their struggle for survival, they forget about each others feelings and bring home their irritation and despair. Still parents think it important to teach their children daily skills and basic values of life. The most important values are honesty, common sense, purpose, responsibility, good manners and obedience to parents.

Teenagers of today are different in their minds from their parents when they were the same age. They grow up too fast, and they are very independent. They face many problems, much cruelty and many stresses. Today they should be brought up to expect that they will have to struggle to succeed. They want to go their own way which their parents do not always understand. Sometimes parents realize that their children can be good teachers for grown-ups, because teenagers can adjust to the new conditions of life quicker and more easily. When this happens, parents and children create a family microworld where they live in respect, love and harmony.

Most of Ukrainian middle-class and lower class urban families live in flats in multi-storied houses, only rather rich people can afford to build cottages either inside or outside the city boundaries. Many families have small country houses where they grow fruit and vegetables which are usually canned in seasons to be used in winter. Few people can afford to have a full-time rest during their holidays and to go to the sea-side or travel abroad. Most people have two or more jobs to be able to provide for their families.

Like most other people Ukrainians like holidays and merrymaking. They usually try to cook many tasty dishes and invite a lot of friends and relatives to their homes, or go to the country and have picnics in the woods or somewhere near the water when the weather is fine.

2.Match the following English words with their Ukrainian equivalents.

1) behaviour a)

2) unemployment b)

3) influence c)

4) attitude d)

5) adults e)

6) divorce rate f)

7) birth rate g)

8) generation h)

9) on average i)

10) zest for life j)

11) survival k)

12) irritation l)

13) despair m)

14) common sense n)

15) obedience o)

16) responsibility p)

17) household q)

18) a patch of land r)

19) city dwellers s)

20) canning t)

21) ambition u)

22) country house v)

23) teenagers w)

24) values of life x)

3.Answer the questions.

1.Has the way of life in your family changed since 1991? How?

2.How many of your group-mates live with two parents and how many in one-parent families? What conclusions can you make?

3.What is your opinion about unmarried couples living together? What do your parents and grandparents think about it?

4.Do you have relatives in the country? Compare their way of life with yours. Who has to work harder?

5.Does your family have a country house? How often do you go there? What do you do there? Do you have to help your mother to do the canning in summer?

6.Do you know any unemployed people among your friends and acquaintances? What do they do for a living? Do they get any compensation money from the government?

7.Have you ever tried to find a temporary job for yourself? If yes, was it easy? What was it like?

8.What is the usual way of celebrating holidays in your family?

9.What kind of traditions, if any, does your family keep?

Text B. Easter

Read and translate the text with the help of dictionary.

Easter is the most important festival in the Christian calendar and it holds the key to understanding Christianity. Easter has a very important religious meaning for Christians. The events that happened to Jesus Christ and his followers in the days before and during Easter 2000 years ago remain in the centre of Christian belief. Every religious holiday in Ukraine is marked by the ringing of church bells. But on Velykden the bells sound particularly majestically. Theyannounce to the whole world glad news: Christ is risen! Why is it so important? Resurrection of Christ proclaims immortality of soul. Christ rises from the dead. Resurrection gives us hope. Resurrection is a victory over death.

The date of Easter changes each year. It falls on the first Sunday following the first full moon after March 21. The preparations for Easter begin 40 days before it, on Shrove Tuesday. This marks the beginning of a period of fasting, called Lent.

The main Easter celebrations take place during Holy week, which begins on Palm Sunday (the Sunday before Easter). Maundy Thursday (the Thursday before Easter) is traditionally the day when Christians do good acts. Good Friday is the most solemn day of Easter because this is the day when Christians remember Christs crucifixion. On Easter Saturday churches are closed to symbolise Christ lying in the tomb. But Sunday the day of Christs Resurrection is a joyful occasion and many Christians prepare for it with an overnight church service, or vigils.

TALKING POINTS

1.Read, learn and act out.

Dialogue A.

-Hi! Lucy? Its Robert. Yeah. How are you? Feeling better?

-Thank you, Robert. I am well.

-What about our going to watch a salute in the evening?

-Sure. Last year on May 9th we watched it. It was unforgettable. Lets meet at 9 at the stadium.

-Fine. Ill be there in time.

Dialogue B.

-What a nice dress you are wearing!

-Its my dads present on March, 8th. He has brought it from Poland.

-Do the Polish celebrate the Womens Day?

-I think they do. But it doesnt matter. The fact is that the Ukrainians celebrate this holiday. And every year my father buys me presents. So I love this holiday dearly.

2.Work in pairs. Speak with your friend about the way you celebrated last New Years Day (Christmas etc.)

UNIT 16

Grammar: The Subjunctive Mood in adverbial clauses of purpose, time, place. Topic:At the Map of Great Britain. Reading:Text A. The State System of Great Britain Text B. Agriculture of Great Britain Talking Points

GRAMMAR

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD IN COMPLEX SENTENCES.

1.Adverbial clauses of purpose.

When a clause of purpose is introduced by the conjunctions that, so that, in order that we find the analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary can/may if the principal clause refers to the present or future; could/might if the main clause refers to the past. Occasionally the mood auxiliary should is used.

e.g. She opens( will open) the window ()

that she may get a breath of ,

fresh air . .

She opened the window that she ,

might get a breath of fresh air. .

If a clause of purpose is introduced by the conjunction lest we use the Present Suppositional or Subjunctive I in it. Lest has a negative meaning ( ) and the verb in the subordinate clause is used in the affirmative form.

e.g. She closed the window lest she , (should) catch a cold. .

2.Adverbial clauses of time and place

The Subjunctive Mood is used in adverbial clauses of time and place after the conjunctions whenever and wherever.

e.g. Whenever you may (might) come, , you are welcome. .

Wherever you may (might) look , you see the green fields. .

lest (should) V
that / so that / in order that may / can V might / could V should V
wherever / whenever may / might

EXERCISES

1. Translate into Ukrainian.

A.

1.You may be at the door tomorrow evening, rather earlier than is absolutely necessary, in order that we may be in good time. 2. Mr. Micawber impressed the names of streets upon me that I might find my way back easily. 3. He got up, cautiously, so that he might not wake the sleeping boy. 4. I made notes of all that she said, however, so that there should be no possibility of a mistake. 5. She opens the window lest it should be stuffy in the room. 6. She looked steadily at her coffee lest she also should begin to cry, as Ann was doing already.

B.

1.Wherever she may live, she will always find friends. 2. Of course, I shall come for your marriage, whenever that may be fixed. 3.He always reads articles in biology wherever he may stay. 4.You will find him in the garden in summer whenever you may come to see him. 5.Wherever Miss Bartley may arrive she finds the wonders of the nature. 6.Wherever the students might stay they make a lot of noise and fun.

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