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Persuasive, brave, creative, patient, intelligent, polite, accurate, fair, friendly

1.Salespeople need to be to get people to buy their products.

2.A scientist has to be in order to understand complex theories.

3.Receptionists should be in order to make people feel welcome.

4.Surgeons must be very as they should not make mistakes in their work.

5.A shop assistant has to be even when dealing with a rude customer.

6.Lifeguards have to be as they often find themselves in dangerous situations.

7.Teachers need to be very as students sometimes take a long time to learn things.

8.Judges should be and give all the evidence equal consideration.

9.Fashion designers should be very so that they can come up with new designs.

What personal qualities are necessary for your future profession?

5.Answer the following questionnaire yourself and ask your friend to answer it.

1.Who helped you in choosing your future profession?

a) nobody b) my parents

c) my friends d) other

2.What is in your opinion the most important thing in your future profession?

a) good money b) much contact with people

c)regular promotions d)an ideal combination of a job and a hobby e) other

3.What skills are most important for your future profession?

a) people skills b) computer skills

c) managing skills d) observation skills

e) other

4.What attracts you in your future profession?

a) challenge b) risk and danger

c) regular work hours d) prestige

e) wages f) other

5.How much do you agree to study to get well-qualified in your profession?

a) as little as possible b) I got enough knowledge at school

c) as much as my boss requires d) all my life

6.Speak on the following questions.

1.Who influenced you in choosing your future profession?

2.Why did you decide to be a specialist in food technologies / in stock keeping?

3.What attracts you most in your future profession?

4.What do you know about technological processes in food industry / livestock breeding?

READING

Text. Living by the Sword.

1.Read and translate the following text.

When Cristina Sanchez told her parents she wanted to become a bullfighter instead of a hairdresser, they werent too pleased. But when she was eighteen her parents realised that she was serious and sent her to a bullfighting school in Madrid, where she trained with professionals.

Since last July, Sanchez has been the most successful novice in Spain and is very popular with the crowds. After brilliant performances in Latin America and Spain earlier this year, Sanchez has decided that she is ready to take the test to become a matador de toros. Out of the ring, Sanchez doesnt look like a matador. She is casually elegant, very feminine and wears her long blond hair loose. She seems to move much more like a dancer than an athlete, but in the ring she is all power.

When she was fourteen, Sanchezs father warned her that the world of bullfighting was hard enough for a man and even harder for a woman. It seems he is right. It is really a tough world for a woman, says Sanchez. You start with the door shut in your face. A man has to prove himself only once, whereas I have had to do it ten times just to get my foot in the door.

In perhaps the worlds most masculine profession, it would seem strange if Sanchez had not met problems. But even though Spanish women won the legal right to fight bulls on equal terms with men in 1974, there are still matadors like Jesulin de Ubrique who refuse to fight in the same ring as her.

Sanchez lives with her family in Parla, south of Madrid. Her family is everything to her and is the main support in her life. My sisters dont like bullfighting, they dont even watch it on TV, and my mother would be the happiest person in the world if I gave it up. But we get on well. Mums like my best friend.

When Sanchez is not fighting she has a tough fitness routine running, working out in the gym and practising with her father in the afternoon. By nine she is home for supper, and by eleven she is in bed. She doesnt drink, smoke or socialise. You have to give up a lot, says Sanchez. Its difficult to meet people, but it doesnt worry me love doesnt arrive because you look for it.

Sanchez spends most of the year travelling: in summer to Spanish and French bullfights and in winter to Latin America. Her mother dislikes watching Sanchez fight, but goes to the ring when she can. If not, she waits at home next to the telephone. Her husband has had to ring three times to say that their daughter had been injured, twice lightly in the leg and once seriously in the stomach. After she has been wounded, the only thing Sanchez thinks about is how quickly she can get back to the ring. It damages your confidence, she says but it also makes you mature. Its just unprofessional to be injured. You cannot let it happen. Sanchez is managed by Simon Casas, who says, At the moment there is no limit to where she can go. She has a champions mentality, as well as courage and technique.

2.Fill in the gaps.

Cristina Sanchez went to bullfighting school in Madrid. Then she trained with _____. Sanchez is very popular with the _____. Sanchez is elegant and moves more like a ______ than an athlete. Bullfighting is a tough world for a _____. Although Spanish women won the right to fight bulls with men in ______, some men still refuse to fight in the same ring as them. Sanchezs family lives in _____. She has a tough fitness routine running, working out in the _____ and practising with her father. Cristina doesnt drink, _____ or socialise but she travels a lot in order to fight. She has been injured in the legand the _____ but thishasnt kept her away from the ring. Her manager, Simon Casas, says she has a _____ mentality.

TALKING POINTS

1.Read the dialogue.

What Does She Do?

(S c e n e: an old lady in an armchair. Her grandson is running into the room.)

PHILIP: Hello, grandmother.

GRANDMOTHER: What?

PHILIP: I said hello. Ive got a girl friend coming to dinner.

GRANDMOTHER: What have you brought for dinner?

PHILIP: Oh God, nothing. I said I had got a girl friend coming for dinner.

GRANDMOTHER: A girl friend? Whats her name?

PHILIP: Her names Olga. Shes charming.

GRANDMOTHER: Shes what?

PHILIP: Granny, I said she was charming. Youll like her.

GRANDMOTHER: Ill what?

PHILIP: I said youd like her. Shes a very interesting girl, too.

GRANDMOTHER: What is she?

PHILIP: Interesting. She trains animals in the circus.

GRANDMOTHER: What does she do?

PHILIP: I said she trained animals in the circus.

GRANDMOTHER: Good heavens! A girl training animals. Other peoples grandsons meet lovely teachers, nurses, dressmakers, actresses, secretaries And my grandson meets an animal trainer! Of all people!

PHILIP: Granny, I am sure youll like her. I told you she was a very interesting person. Shes just returned from India.

GRANDMOTHER: Where did you say she had just returned from?

PHILIP: From India.

GRANDMOTHER: What animals does she train?

PHILIP: Shes got bears and an elephant.

GRANDMOTHER: Bears and a what?

PHILIP: And an elephant.

GRANDMOTHER: Lets hope shes not bringing her pets to dinner too.

PHILIP: She is in a way.

GRANDMOTHER: What?

PHILIP: I said she was in a way. Theyll all be on the TV programme today. Well watch them.

GRANDMOTHER: Well what dear?

PHILIP: Oh God! Never mind, grandmother, shell be here in a minute.

2.Learn the dialogue and dramatize it.

3.Your are going to invite your girlfriend (boyfriend) for dinner with your family. Your parents are interested in her (his) occupation. Role play the conversation.

UNIT 22

Grammar: Revision. Topic:Agricultural Enterprises of Ukraine. Reading: Text A. Agrarian Policy of Ukraine. Text B. Ownership and Management in the British Agriculture Talking Points

GRAMMAR

REVISION

EXERCISES

1.Use the correct tense forms of the verbs given in brackets and retell the stories.

A.

A young housewife (to be) very fond of window-shopping. When her husband (to leave) for his office she (to run) to the neighbouring department store, and (to visit) every department of it, but (to take) care not to spend a single penny.

One day the salesman of a department (to ask) her: You (to shop) here, madam? Certainly, I (to be), the young woman (to answer) angrily. What else you (to think) I (to do) here? Well, madam, I (to think) you (to take) an inventory.

B.

A railroad ticket collector who (to retire) after forty-fife years of service (to talk) to his neighbours about the bright side of his work. He decidedly (to enjoy) everything: his fellow workers, the management, the work itself. There (to be) only one unpleasant thing in all of it. And when the neighbours (to be) curious to know what the unpleasant thing (to be), he (to say), Oh, the passengers, certainly the passengers.

C.

Once a mother and her two daughters (to visit) London. They (to do) sightseeing for some time when they (to find) themselves opposite a notice board with National Picture Gallery on it. The girl (to say) they (to want) to go in for they never (to be) in any picture gallery. They (to be sure) it (to be) worth seeing. But the mother (not to think) so. She (to visit) a picture gallery in her childhoodand (to know) what it (to be) like. She (to explain) to the girls that they (not to see) there any real pictures (movies) but paintings, only paintings.

2.Use the following in the Reported Speech and reproduce the jokes.

A.

- When do you intend to pay me back the money you have borrowed, sir?

- Oh, presently, dear uncle! I will do it directly I get the money from the publishing house.

- When will you get it, I would like to know?

- I will certainly get it as soon as the publisher accepts my novel.

- Do you think he will accept your novel, young man?

- No doubt he will when I finish it.

- Are you going to finish it soon, my boy?

- Of course I am. I will begin to write it the moment I have found a suitable subject and the necessary inspiration.

B.

The Bidwells are giving a party. Mrs. Bidwell wants to introduce Mr. Irving, a young film producer, to her friend, an exceptionally nice-looking young girl.

Mrs. Bidwell: May I introduce Mr. Irving to you, Nelly?

Mr. Irving: How do you do. Glad to meet you.

Nelly: How do you do.

Mrs. Bidwell: Mr. Irving has just come back from Vienna film festival. He will tell you a lot about it.

Nelly: So, you have been to Vienna. You saw there the most beautiful women in the world, I am sure.

Mr. Irving: I thought so yesterday, but I have just changed my mind.

3.Use the verbs in the following sentences in the Passive Voice.

1.The English people always eat Christmas pudding on Christmas Day. 2.On holiday eves people usually remember their friends and relatives and send cards to them. 3.Mr. Harris is going to sing a comic song now, said the hostess. 4.They first played table tennis about in 1880. 5.At the beginning of the nineteenth century people considered the creation of more universities to be either necessary or desirable. 6.Shakespeare in his works made full use of the great resources of the English literature. 7.Shakespeares poetry has long delighted and will delight lovers of literature of the whole world. 8.People still know and sing some of the songs composed by Henry VIII.

4.Use the correct tense and voice forms of the verbs given in brackets.

1.Many famous pictures (to leave) to our galleries at various times. 2.She (to tell) me what she (to see) at the village fair that afternoon. 3.The National Gallery inLondon (to erect) between 1832 and 1838. 4.The custom of giving postmen Christmas boxes (to die) now but (not to disappear). 5.The size of the collection of the museum (to increase) recently by generous gifts. 6.While Tom (to ride) the horse, his hat ( to blow off). 7.They never (to hear) such strange and beautiful language and very (to astonish). 8.The doctor (to say) she (to be) still very weak, because she (to lose) much blood, but he (to hope) that she (to be) well in a few days. 9. I (to sit) at the window and (to tell) you what (to happen) outside? asked Michael. 10.Christmas Day (to celebrate) at the hotel with suitable ceremonies, but it (to look upon) as no more than a rehearsal for New Year.

5.Underline the correct verb form.

1.If I (see/ will see) Mike I (will tell/tell) him everything.

2.If she (changed/would change) her job she (earned/would earn) more.

3.If Jane (had studied/studied) more she (passed/would have passed) her exams.

4.If Mike (receives/has received) the telegram I am sure he (phones/will phone) you tomorrow.

5.If you (worked/had worked) more, you (were/would be) a student now.

6.If I (lived/would live) in Spain I (did/would do) a lot of sunbathing.

7.If I (met/had met) you earlier I (didnt marry/wouldnt have married) Betty.

8.If you (phone/will phone) me I (pick/will pick) you up.

9.If I (stay/will stay) late I always (get/will get) a taxi home.

10.If she (loved/had loved) him she (stayed/would have stayed) with Bob.

6.Change the sentences using I wish.

1.She couldnt be there. ___________________

2.I did not wash up yesterday. ___________________

3.He doesnt have enough time to study. ___________________

4.They didnt come to the party. ___________________

5.You didnt go to Disneyland when you were in Paris. _________________

6.You spent much money shopping yesterday.___________________

7.Lucy cannot speak Spanish. ____________________

8.Bert couldnt visit Bess on Tuesday. ____________________

9.You missed the bus. ____________________

10.Jane doesnt like Peter. ____________________

TOPIC

Topical Vocabulary

1.Remember the following words and word combinations:

to reorient decree to incur losses profit allotment ownership hired labour wage workers property battery farm ,

2.Read and translate the text paying attention to the active words and word combinations.

AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES OF UKRAINE

Due to favourable climatic conditions Ukraine is traditionally an agricultural area. It grows wheat, maize, buckwheat and other corn, different kinds of fruit and vegetables. The great part of land here is used for cattle raising and dairy farming.

Our Ukrainian village is reoriented towards the market economy. Great changes have taken place in our agriculture. In December 1999 a new presidential decree was adopted to support agriculture. According to the State Statistics Committee 86 per cent of Ukraines collective farms incurred great losses and only 15 per cent of them posted profits. Thats why the decree called for reorganizing collective farms into private agricultural enterprises. The workers could use their allotments to organize private farms or agricultural cooperatives.

According to the form of ownership there are the following types of agricultural enterprises in Ukraine.

An individual enterprise is based on the private ownership and labour of its founder. The hired labour is not used here.

Family enterprise is based on the ownership and labour of the members of the family that live together. In agriculture the family enterprise functions in the form of farms.

Private enterprise is based on the ownership of one or more citizens of Ukraine and has the right to hire wage workers. Most of all such enterprises have been spread in the sphere of food processing and food production.

Collective enterprises are based on the ownership and labour of the collective of the enterprise. Economic companies are spread in Ukraine most of all. They include joint-stock companies, Ltd companies, companies with additional responsibility, full companies.

Combined enterprises are based on joining up (association) of property of different owners and organised with the help of foreign investments together with foreign companies.

Any agricultural enterprise can be described as an area of land with the buildings (farms) on it, which are used for keeping different kinds of livestock and poultry. The name of the farm depends on the class of livestock or poultry kept on it. There are different kinds of farms. For example:

A pig farm is a farm where a large number of piglets and sows are kept in huts or pens.

A cattle farm is a farm where a large number of cows and bulls are kept for milk and meat. Barnyards, paddocks and open pens provide places for animals to exercise and secure fresh air. Animals are fed from suitable racks preventing wasting the feed.

A battery farm is a farm where hens, chickens, ducks, turkeys, geese are kept in batteries.

Poultry farm is a farm where different kinds of poultry are kept in yards.

3.Answer the questions:

1.What is grown in our country?

2.What changes took place in the agriculture of Ukraine in 1999?

3.How can the agricultural enterprises be subdivided according to the form of ownership?

4.What agricultural enterprise has the right to hire wage workers?

5.What agricultural enterprise doesnt use the hired labour?

6.What agricultural enterprises are organised with the help of foreign investments?

7.What kinds of farms do you know?

4.Match two parts to make true sentences.

  An individual enterprise Family enterprise Collective enterprise Private enterprise Combined enterprise   is based on the ownership and labour of the members of the family that live together. is based on joining up (association) of property of different owners and organised with the help of foreign investments together with foreign companies. is based on the ownership of one or more citizens of Ukraine and has the right to hire wage workers. is based on the private ownership and labour of its founder. is based on the ownership and labour of the collective of the enterprise.

5.Speak about the types of agricultural enterprises in Ukraine.

READING

Text A. The Agrarian Policy in Ukraine.

1.Read and translate the following text.

According to the data of expert and analytical agencies the reform in agriculture is the essential condition of overcoming the crisis in the Ukrainian economy. Describing the situation we may say that today the agriculture of Ukraine and the national economy on the whole are in a lamentable condition. Virtually the present-day agricultural complex of Ukraine presents a rather depressing picture. There are a lot of high-flown words about building a controlled market economy but in fact we have no real agricultural reform. This is the corner stone, which determines the real progress in the sphere of agriculture. And this progress may be attained only under the presence of a deliberate legislative base and a sufficient amount of investments.

Following the principle of necessity of the drastic changes the Government and the Supreme Council took some measures in the frame work of improving the situation. Having combined the efforts they created and adopted a number of laws aimed to advantage the agriculture. Among them we can point out a new project of Landed code, Act of lease, the privatization of property in agrarian-industrial complex, Act of the priority of social development of village, Act of the single tax and debt restructuring in farm enterprises. Through these laws the peasants received the sound title to land and the right to dispose of products of their labour, besides the amount of tax was reduced due to the Act of the single tax. But despite the taken measures there is still a decline in the agrarian sector. It can be explained by the dominating role of collective land use. The experience of other countries the former republics of the USSR shows that the conditions for economic growth were created only in the countries with the individual land tenure system (Uzbekistan, Turkmenia, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia).

The experts consider that antirecession policy should include the admittance of free bargain and sale of agricultural land, the extension of the possibility of its lease and land lien. The creation of legal and administrative possibilities for those members of the collective farms who want a private land share and introduction of the temporary program of state support for the individual farmers are also very important.

2.Find in the text the equivalents to the following Ukrainian words and word combinations:

, , , , , , , , , , , , -, , .

Text B. Ownership and Management in the British Agriculture

1.Read and translate with the help of dictionary.

Agriculture occupies 77 per cent of Britains land area, which is farmed under many different arrangements. Around 66 per cent is owner occupied and about a third is rented. However, within the regions there are some significant variations. In Northern Ireland, for example, virtually all farms are owner occupied and they also account for around 80 per cent of the area farmed in Wales.

Much of Britain is family farmed, sometimes running into several generations on the same land, which perpetuates a strong sense of tradition. In Wales, the countrys own language and culture bind rural communities even more strongly.

Institutions are also major landowners, among which the largest include the Crown (more than 101,000 hectares), the Church, the Ministry of Defence, and some pension funds and insurance companies which maintain a small agricultural portfolio among their property investments. Most of the land owned by these funds is tenanted.

The future of agricultural tenancies is under review in England and Wales. In the 1970s and 1980s, full agricultural tenancies entitled the tenant to three-generation succession, so that a farm would often be in the hands of the same tenant family for 100 years or more.

In 1984, the Agricultural Holdings Act cut this to one generation only, but landowners are still reluctant to release control of their farms so long.

There has been rapid increase in other types of less formal arrangements, allowing the owner to control of his land but have it farmed by someone else. They have enabled many individuals to increase the area they farm, and have also given rise to considerable opportunities for farming companies, which may farm thousands of hectares all over Britain and whose scale of operation enables low costs and a good return to the landowner.

It is estimated by land agents that informal arrangements could now account for around 10 per cent of farmed land in England and Wales. The reform of complex agricultural tenancy legislation will allow greater freedom for people who wish to negotiate their own arrangements for whatever period they wish, within a legal framework that gives some essential safeguards to each party.

In Northern Ireland, over 20 per cent of the agricultural area is subject to the well-established practice of letting land for periods of 11 months.

2.Render the text in English.

TALKING POINTS

1.Read, translate and act out the following dialogue.

- Hello, Max. Havent seen you for ages.

- Hi. Glad to see you, Stas. Hows business?

- Not bad. And what about you? What have you been doing since graduation from the University?

- Having got my diploma I came back to my native village and since that time Ive been working at the agrarian enterprise as an economist.

- Is it a private one?

- No, its a collective enterprise reorganised from the former local collective farm.

- What does it specialise in?

- Our joint stock company specialises in growing grains and raising dairy cattle.

- How is it managed, I wonder?

- The enterprise is managed by the Board and the chairman. Day-to-day management is determined by a Directorate.

- What about the wages?

- Wages are paid regularly, farmers are directly dependent on how much they produce and how many shares they own.

2.Work in pairs. Discuss with your partner the ways which determine the real progress in the sphere of agriculture. (Use text A Agrarian Policy of Ukraine).


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Text 1.Classes of Animals

1.Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

The ordinary farm animals belong to the large group known as Vertebrata, or animals with a backbone. Fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals all have a backbone. All of these animals do not suckle their young, but the ordinary farm animals do, and hence they are classified as Mammalia. ( Mamma is the Latin word for breast). The capability to produce milk is one of the three main classes: herbivorous, carnivorous and omnivorous.

Herbivorous animals are those that live chiefly on plants. These are: cattle, deer, horses, sheep and rabbits. As they consume coarse foods, for example leaves and stems of plants, they need considerably larger amount of common salt than is supplied by their usual feeds. The cow, the ox, the sheep and the goat belong to the ruminants (animals which chew the cud). Unlike the pig they are capable of digesting a large quantity of coarse fibrous material due to their compound stomachs.

Carnivorous (flesh-eating animals) such as cats, dogs, sharks, etc. Need no additional salt because they live on the bodies of others animals.

Omnivorous animals, such as pigs, bears, rats and others utilize both plant and animal food.

Vocabulary:

backbone

to suckle

capability

herbivorous

carnivorous

omnivorous

2.Make up questions of different types to the text.

3.Retell the text.

Text 2 Mammals

1.Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

When man, the dominant species on earth, looks around him, he must realize at once that he shares his home, our planet, with a vast number of other living things. Man himself is a mammal and also there re many of the animals with whom he is most closely associated: the dogs and cats which often share his life; the cows and sheep and pigs upon which he feeds; the oxen, donkeys and horses which, until very recently, pulled his ploughs, carried his burdens and gave him his most effective means of transport, and the rats and mice which, even in an age when hygiene has become a fetish, still manage to appear as unwelcome guests in his home.

Quite apart from such familiar creatures, a richly varied cast of wild mammals is still spread in astonishing diversity over the face of the earth.

Vocabulary:

burden

creature

diversity,

hygiene

fetish,

2.Make up questions of different types to the text.

3.Retell the text

Text 3 Variety of Mammals

1.Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

The living members of the class mammalia are today divided into three main sub-classes, according to differences in their anatomy and the manner in which they bear their young. First are the monotremes, or egg-laying mammals, of which there are only two families. Second are the marsupials, or mammals with pouches for carrying their young, which are comparatively undeveloped, even embryonic in appearance, at birth. Third, and by far the largest group, are the placentas, mammals whose young grow and develop within the mothers body, nourished by means of an organ known as the placenta, which forms a connecting link with her own blood stream. These three major divisions developed very early in mammalian history and each of them evolved thereafter quite independently of the others.

But these three main divisions are just the beginning. Living mammals are further divided into 18 smaller groups or orders.

Vocabulary:

marsupial

pouch,

to nourish,

to evolve(),

2.Make up questions of different types to the text.

3.Retell the text.

Text 4Farm Animals

1.Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Farm animals are important to man because of:

1) the food they supply;

2) the clothing they make possible;

3) their use in doing work;

4) their relation to soil fertility.

Nearly all of our farm animals except horses and mules have value because they furnish human food. This is true of cattle, swine, and poultry. Farm animals furnish us with meat- pork, beef, veal, mutton; lard, milk, butter, cheese and eggs. Much of our clothing is made from the wool, hair, or skin of farm animals. Leather is made from skin.

For ages animals have been used by man in doing his work. Horses and mules are principal work animals; oxen are also sometimes used for work. Much of the work of these animals goes into the producing of crops.

Two thousand years ago the farmer learned that he must keep up the fertility of this soil if he expected to have good yields of crops; so he used the manure from farm animals. Except in some great river valleys, like the Nile, which are enriched by overflow, no agricultural region has continued to secure abundant harvests without the aid of manure. As a rule, where the farmers keep the most livestock, the crops are the best. As much as 80 or 85 per cent of the plant food elements in a feed are returned in the manure. Manure also makes the soil porous and easily worked.

Vocabulary:

fertility

to furnish,

abundant

aid

manure

livestock

porous

2.Make up questions of different types to the text.

3.Retell the text.

Text 5. The Cow

1.Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

The cow belongs to the class of ruminants. Its value as a domestic animal consists in its ability to consume and digest large quantities of roughage and to convert it into milk and meat for human food.

The cows stomach, which is a compound one, has four distinct compartments: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum. The stomachs of mature cows vary in capacity from 25 to 60 gallons (150 to 300 pounds) depending on the size of the animal.

To produce a large supply of rich milk, cows must be not only well fed but also be of good milking qualities. The cows that are producing milk require a much larger quantity of water than is necessary for growing animals. The period of gestation in cows is about 40 weeks. The lactation period is the period of milking after each calf and it usually lasts for about ten months.

The first milk after calving is called colostrum, and it has a necessary laxative action on the calfs stomach. Dairy cows are milked three times a day and watered twice a day. In summer the consumption of water by cattle is greater on account of the greater evaporation from the skin.

Vocabulary:

ruminant

to digest()

roughage

to convert()

rumen ( )

reticulum ( )

omasum ( )

abomasum ( )

gestation

colostrum

consumption,

evaporation,

2.Make up questions of different types to the text.

3.Retell the text.

Text 6. The Pig

1.Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Pig is a common name given to the domestic swine of any age. Hog is used collectively with much the same meaning as pig, hog being generally used in the U. S. and pig usually referring to the young animal. Swine is applied to any hoofed animal of the family Suidae.

The origin of the pig is shrouded in mystery. A Chinese scholar estimated his people domesticated swine about 2900 B.C. The pig was used as a scavenger before it was discovered that the flesh was good to eat.

The Chinese hog was brought to Europe and crossed with European hogs, thereby forming the foundation for present-day breeds. The pig belongs to the class Mammalia, or animals possessing teats for suckling their young. Pigs are rotund-bodied, short-legged, artiodactyl animals of omnivorous habits, having thick skin from which grow short, coarse bristles, a long mobile snout, small tail and feet with two functional and two nonfunctional digits. A mature pig has 44 teeth, carries its head low, and eats, drinks and breathes close to the ground.

Vocabulary:

hog,

swine

hoof

to shroud

scholar

artiodactyl

scavenger,

descendent

snout

2.Make up the questions of different types to the text.

3.Write down the annotation of the text

Text 7.The Sheep

1.Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Sheep belong to the Genus Ovis, and are generally grouped into: Longwools, Shortwools and Mountain sheep which have horns. Inside each group there are many well-defined breeds, and an endless variety of crosses between the different pure breeds.

Sheep are kept for the production of mutton and wool. The stomach of the sheep is three times larger than that of the pig. As the sheep and goats have a cleft upper lip, they have to graze very close to the ground. A male sheep is called a ram on whose fertility largely depends the lamb crop of the year.

An in-lamb sheep is called a ewe and a new-born- a lamb. The period of gestation in sheep lasts 21 weeks. As a rule, ewes should be healthy and vigorous, with deep, wide bodies, good teeth, healthy udders, and high-quality, dense fleece. Pregnant ewes should always have access to clean water.

Healthy lambs can withstand bad weather, provided the coat dries immediately after birth. If, because of very wet severe weather, the coat does not dry, losses even among the strong lambs may occur.

The consumption of colostrum or first milk is as important to the lamb as it is to the calf.

Vocabulary:

pregnant

horn

cleft

cross,

ram

lamb

ewe

vigorous,

udder

dense,

fleece,

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3.Write down the annotation of the text.

Text 8.The Sheep (Wool Production)

1.Read and translate

the text using a dictionary.

Because of the covering of wool sheep can withstand cold temperatures better than cattle. On the one hand wool protects the sheep against bitter cold, but on the other hand owing to the wool, they become infested by ticks and other parasites which they cannot rub off. Due to that they should be dipped periodically in dilute preparations of arsenical or carbonic poisons in order to destroy the pests.

The wool hair is allied to the proteins, and like them has about 16 per cent of nitrogen. In some foreign breeds, up to 20 per cent of the whole nitrogen of the sheep may be present in its wool.

Pure wool free from grease is a protein substance containing the particular amino acid cystine in much higher proportion than do other animal and vegetable proteins. Although the quality of the wool is chiefly a matter of breed and climate, the finest grades of wool are produced in districts of very low rainfall.

It should be borne in mind that shortage of food either limits wool production or reduces its quality.

Vocabulary:

to infest,

tick

pest,

poison

arsenical

nitrogen

grease, ;

2. Make up the questions of different types to the text.

3 Write down the annotation of the text.

Text 9.Rabbit

1.Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

The word rabbit is a recent name to the small and thin animal; the zoological name, Lepus, dates back to the roman Empire, and at that time it included all the Hare family. It originated in Spain, overran Italy and its environs.

Its home is in runways or burrows that it makes in the ground, usually among low lying bushes. The food of the rabbit consists of soft parts of plants, such as leaves, buds, or roots; and when it can find them it will eat vegetables and garden plants in preference to other plants.

It breeds every five weeks from March to October, and each litter has from 5 to 12 young. These young are immature and naked when born; but in the warm climates they develop so rapidly that in 5 months they are fully matured. In the colder climates, however, the maturing process takes 12 months. The elders are very careful and the loss during infancy is not great.

Vocabulary:

environ,

bud

root

preference

infancy

burrow,

2.Make up the questions of different types to the text.

3.Write down the annotation of the text.

Text 10. Dog

1.Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

The dog is a domesticated wolf, and its history must be traced through the ancestors of the Carnivore. The torerunners of the wolf were present in North America nearly 15-10 million years ago, but they are not commonly found in Europe. True wolves, however, appeared in Europe 2 million years ago.

Identification of very early domestic dogs remains a complex task, but it is probable that the dog was the first animal to be domesticated by a man. These early dogs resembled the present dingo, the wild dog of Australia.

Following domestication, selective breeding produced dogs of divergent forms. The ancient Egyptions, as early as 7,000 years ago, had dogs of many distinct breeds, including the forerunners of the greyhound, mastiff, and dachshund.

Very early in its history, the dog was bred into a variety of races, or breeds, depending on climate, certain environmental directions of selection, and the preferences of its masters.

Vocabulary:

To trace

ancestor

forerunner

divergent ,

to breed

2.Make up the questions of different types to the text.

3.Write down the annotation of the text.

Text 11. Horse

1.Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Throughout much of human history, horses have been closely associated with men. For thousands of years men hunted the horse for its meat. Later, after the horse was domesticated, nomadic tribes used horses as load-bearers and as sources of milk. The horse first became important in warfare sometime before 1500 B. C. when Mesopotamian peoples began to use horses to pull their war chariots, and throughout most of recorded history horses were used chiefly for warfare. The use of the horse for pulling heavy loads and tilling the soil was a comparatively recent development, following the development of the satisfactory harness in the late Middle Ages. In fact, horses did not replace oxen as the main source of agricultural power until the end of the 18th century. After a brief reign as the most widely used source of tractive power, the work horse has been largely displaced by locomotives, automobiles, trucks, and tractors.

Horses now are used chiefly for the sports of horseback riding and racing, and their popularity for these purposes is so great that the horse population in some regions has actually increased.

Vocabulary:

To hunt

load-bearer-

warfare

chariot

to till ()

harness,

truck

2.Make up the questions of different types to the text.

3.Write down the annotation of the text.

Text 12. Proteins

1. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

Proteins are of great importance for all life. The living tissues of plants and animals consist of protein material which is continually destroyed in the maintenance of life and must be restored.

Proteins are found in foods of both animal and plant origin. They are complex in nature and are composed of a number of amino acids present.

Certain amino acids cant be built by the body. They are known as essential amino acids and must be supplied by the food eaten.

Variation in the quality of proteins has resulted in their classification as complete, partially complete and incomplete, based upon their ability to support normal growth and to maintain life even if it is the only protein in the diet.

A partially complete protein is one that maintains life but does not support normal growth.

An incomplete protein by itself neither support normal growth nor maintain life. Most animal proteins are complete. Plant proteins are more or less incomplete.

Vocabulary:

tissue continually to destroy maintenance to restore origin amino acid essential to supply to support ,  

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Text 13. Protein and protoplasm

1. Read and translate the text, using a dictionary.

Proteins represent the stream of life. They make up the vital part of that essential jelly material of the living cell the protoplasm. The beginning of life at this and perhaps at few other planets must have been associated with the formation of proteins. This word means to make first place, for there is no life without proteins.. Usually these most essential of lifes materials have the indefinite and glue-like form known as a colloid though some of them have been separated as pure and definite crystals.

Though the detailed structures of the molecules are complex, there are only a few chemical elements which enter into their composition. Most proteins contain 51 to 55 per cent carbon, about 7 per cent hydrogen, 20 to 23 per cent oxygen, 15 to 18 per cent nitrogen.

Vocabulary:

stream

jelly material

cell

glue-like

colloid

2.Make up the questions of different types to the text.

3.Write down the annotation of the text.

Text 14. Fat and fatty acids

1. Read and translate the text, using a dictionary.

Fat makes our meals palatable and satisfying. Some fats and oils are important sources of vitamins A, D, E and K.

Fats provide various amounts of fatty acids known to be essential in diet.

Natural unsaturated fats are associated with the protein, minerals and vitamins characteristics of the food, as in milk or pork and also carry some vitamins.

Fatty acids that are common in food fats and oils fall into three broad classes according to their degree of saturation. The fully saturated fatty acids make up about 40 to 45 per cent in average diets. Saturated fatty acids may be any chain length from 4 to 18 or more carbons. The most common ones and their chain length are: stearic (18), palmitic (16), myristic (14) and lauric (12).

Beef contains 20 per cent of stearic and lard about 12 per cent.

Both animal and vegetable fats contain up to 5 per cent of various fatty substances that are not true fats but may be nutritionally important.

The complex composition of milk fat includes at least 64 different fatty acids. They contain from 4 to 26 carbon atoms with a relatively high proportion of short- chain. Many of saturated fatty acids are not found in other fats. In general, the fatty acids in milk fat are about 66% saturated, 30% monosaturated and 4% polyunsaturated. Milk fat is a small but dependable source of the essential fatty acids.

Vocabulary:

palatable unsaturated pork to fall into saturation chain length stearic palmitic myristic lauric lard polyunsaturated

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Text 15. Carbohydrates

1. Read and translate the text, using a dictionary.

Carbohydrates are important in nutrition for many reasons. From carbohydrates we get most of energy which we need to act and move, perform work, live. Among the common carbohydrates are sugars and starches. They are composed of the chemical elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Although carbohydrates are mostly of vegetable origin, sugar is found in the blood streams of animals and of man. Many different kinds of carbohydrates occur in foods.

Only a few foods consist of pure carbohydrates. A well-known example of these is sugar. The term sugar to most people means cane or beet sugar, which is sucrose, but such products as milk, fruit, vegetables contain sugars other than sucrose. They differ from each other but all give the foods, in which they are present, a characteristic sweet taste.

The most common sugars are sucrose, glucose, lactose or milk sugar, fructose and others. They are found in beet and cane, fruit and honey, vegetables.

Starch like sugar is also built by the combination of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. We know the ability of green plants to build starch and the ability of the animal body to utilise it.

Foods high in carbohydrates are: cereal grains, honey, vegetables, cakes, candy, cereal products.

Vocabulary:

carbohydrate to perform starch although to occur cane sucrose utilize cereal ,

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3.Write down the annotation of the text.


Text 16. What is a carbohydrate?

1. Read and translate the text, using a dictionary.

From carbohydrates we get most of the energy which we need to act and move, perform work, live. Among the carbohydrates are sugars, starches and cellulose. All green plants form carbohydrates. They are important in nutrition for many reasons. Some of them make our food sweet. Some of them cling to our teeth and serve as food for bacteria that cause tooth decay.

The body needs carbohydrates in order to use fat efficiently. Some diseases, such as diabetes, develop because the body is unable to use carbohydrates properly. The carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Most of the different kinds of carbohydrates are plant products. Plants make them by photosynthesis. Many different kinds of carbohydrates occur in foods. Not all are of equal importance in nutrition. Starch is the only polysaccharide that man can use efficiently. Nutritionally it is far and away the most important carbohydrate.

Besides providing energy carbohydrates affect food consumption indirectly through their flavour, through their influence on the amount of water into the stomach.

Vocabulary:

cling decay food consumption amount flavour ,

2.Make up the questions of different types to the text.

3.Write down the annotation of the text.

Text 17. Constituents of milk

1. Read and translate the text, using a dictionary.

Scientists have revealed the composition and properties of milk by persistent study. It was early recognised that milk contains proteins, fats, sugar and minerals.

In the last half of the 19th century quickly developing chemistry helped to characterise the constituents of milk. When characterised constituents formed the overall picture of milk composition. By 1990 it was recognised that several different proteins are in milk, that milk fat is unique in composition, that milk sugar (lactose) is composed of two simpler sugars (glucose and galactose) and that milk contains different salts.

Since 1990 scientists has filled in and clarified numerous details in this picture. It was discovered that milk has all known vitamins except vitamin R and these vitamins are divided into two groups: fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins.

The proteins in milk are composed of 20 amino acids, eight of which are essential for adults because they cant be made by the body and must be obtained from food. The other 12 can be made by the body so are non-essential amino acids. Casein makes up 82 percent of the protein in milk. Because it contains the essential amino acids in levels needed by humans, casein is the standard for quality by which protein in other foods is measured.

Minerals in milk include calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and zinc. Research indicates that a long-term deficiency of calcium may contribute to the development of osteoporosis.

Vitamins are found in both the fat and non-fat components of milk. Vitamins A and D are the major fat-soluble vitamins present in milk. The B vitamins, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and B12 are water-soluble vitamins present in milk. Milk is particularly an excellent source of riboflavin (B2), which regulates the bodys production of energy from dietary fat, carbohydrate and protein. It also promotes healthy skin and eyes.

Vocabulary:

constituents,

to reveal

property

persistent

overall

unique

clarify

fat-soluble

water-soluble

potassium

magnesium

to indicate,

long-term deficiency

osteoporosis

thiamine

niacin

to promote

2.Make up the questions of different types to the text.

3.Write down the annotation of the text.

Text 18.Meat, chemical composition

1. Read and translate the text, using a dictionary.

Meats contain proteins, fats, water, inorganic salts, nitrogenous extractives, non-nitrogenous extractives, carbohydrates, enzymes and pigments. Meat is one of the most important sources of protein. The proportion of protein in meat varies somewhat with the kind and cut in beef, lamb and veal and comprises between 14 and 26 per cent in a given weight unit.

The protein of meat may be classified under simple proteins which when digested are broken down into groups called building stones or amino acids. The chief protein found in meat is myosin which is the basis of muscular tissue.

Meat contains enzymes which bring about ripening or ageing. Meats are rich sources of iron and phosphorus, however they are low in calcium and must be served with foods rich in calcium salts. Meat also contains copper which functions with iron in haemoglobin formation. Meat contains small amounts of extractives which although they have little food value are extremely important because they give flavour to meat and act as a stimulant to the flow of the digestive juices. The essential extractives found in meat are creatins and purins. They are called extractives because they may be extracted by boiling water. The extractives also contribute to the satiety value, which is one of the characteristics of meat.

Vocabulary:

nitrogenous extractive enzyme muscular tissue copper digestive juices satiety value

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3.Write down the annotation of the text.

Text 19.Composition of dairy foods

1.Read and translate the text, using a dictionary.

All dairy foods are made from milk, and their components are the same as those of milk but in varying amounts. Butter is an exception being comprised ma

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