²ʲв
:
³
ʳ
'
˳
˳
ϳ
'
㳿
Գ
Գ
Գ
Գ


ALFRED NOBEL (A Man of Contrasts)

1. Alfred Bernhard Nobel (1833-1896), Swedish inventor and philanthropist was a man of many contrasts. He was a son of a bankrupt, but became a millionaire, a scientist with a love to literature. He made a large fortune but lived a simple life. He was cheerful in company and often sad in private. A lover of mankind he never had a wife or family to love him, a patriotic son of his native land, he died alone on foreign soil. He discovered a new explosive, dynamite, to improve the peaceful industries of mining and road building, but saw it used as a weapon of war to kill his fellow men.

2. He was born in Stockholm but moved to Russia with his parents, where his father made a strong position in engineering industry. He made a lot of money for his invention of landmine but later went bankrupt. Alfred came to Sweden in 1863 and stated his own study of explosives. He had never been to school or university but he studied privately. Like his father, Alfred was imaginative and inventive, but he had better luck in business and showed more financial sense.

3. He was quick to see possibilities for his scientific inventions and built up over 80 companies in 20 different countries. His greatness lay in his outstanding ability to combine the qualities of an original scientist with those of a forward-looking industrialist.

4. But Nobel's main concern was never making money or even making scientific discoveries. He was always searching for a meaning of life. He cared deeply about the whole of mankind. His greatest wish was to see an end to wars and he spent much time and money for this cause until his death in Italy in 1896.

5. His inventions made him a very wealthy man. He created the famous Nobel Foundation, the yearly interest in which is distributed in the form of prizes to leading personalities from the whole world in the fields of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and the promotion of peace and understanding between the nations. The Nobel prize, distributed every year on the anniversary of Nobel's death, the 10th of December has made his name famous, all over the world. So, the man who felt he should have died at birth, is remembered and respected long after his death.

6. The prizes were first awarded in 1901.They are given in Stockholm Concert Hall in the presence of a distinguished audience including the scientific elite of the world and the Swedish royal family.

V. 4 . , .
Where are Nobel Prizes given to leading personalities of the world?

1. in the International Centre of science and culture.

2. in Stockholm Concert Hall in the presence of a distinguished audience including scientists and the Swedish royal family.

3. in any country of the world.


3

, 3 :

that, one, if.

Indefinite (Simple), Continuous (Progressive), Perfect.

.

4. 䳺:

ij. . 䳺 .

. . : ᒺ , ᒺ .

.

:

 

 

1 ( )

Present Perfect Passive

The main question has already been discussed.

Present Indefinite Passive

His scientific work is much spoken about

2 ( )

1. It is necessary to use the latest means of control  
One should agree that experiment was of great importance for our research. , .

3 ( )

What is the name of the book you are reading? , ?
The region we must explore possesses great natural wealth. , , .

4 ( V)

1. The importance of chemistry for all sciences is known to be growing rapidly. 2. We want the new car to be produced by February. The device to be bought must be checked beforehand. ³, 쳿 .   , . , , .

5 ( V)

1.Having installed the new equipment, the plant could raise its output
2. Applying this method our plant could achieve a greater volume of production. 3. New technological processes having been developed, new types of equipment have been installed in the shop. ϳ , .

 

6 ( VI)

 

1. If the installation is put into operation in time, the economic effect will be greater. 2. If the system had been perfected, we should have applied it for new calculations. 3. It would be impossible to build spaceships without using new materials and alloys , . , . .

 


3

. , 䳺-. .

1. When much material had been looked through and some problems had been solved, the article was written.

2. Electric cars will be widely used in future.

3. Today plastics are being applied for car bodies ( ).

4. This lecture is listened to with great interest.

. , it, that, one.

1. It is proved that light needs time to travel any distance.

2. One must take part in scientific work.

3. Specialists consider that in future city transport will reject gasoline.

. , .

1. We know electricity produces heat.

2. The new materials the chemists of our institute developed were widely used.

IV. . , ᒺ ᒺ .

1. We expect the scientific and technological progress to increase the intensification of production.

2. For a long time, special paper impregnated with paraffin was considered to be the main non-conductor used for manufacturing small capacitors ().

3. The metal to be poured into a mold for casting may contract or expand on solidifying.

V. . 䳺 .

1. Having done a number of calculations, our astronomers have shown that the basic mass of the galaxies is concentrated outside their visible part.

2. A simple laboratory experiment demonstrating this principle is shown in Fig. 1.

3. Ordinary light entering a crystal of tourmaline, the phenomenon of "selective absorption" takes place.

VI. . .

1. If the computers electronic memory had recorded all the operators commands, the picture of deviations from the required parameters would have been produced.

2. If biological experiments are continued, the problem of developing the technology for growing plants in space conditions will be solved.

3. It would be impossible to protect metal from corrosion without the films.

VII. . .

© 2013 wikipage.com.ua - wikipage.com.ua |