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A tornado is a very, very strong wind that goes round and round in the shape of a tall, thin, chimney. In the centre of the tornado is a vacuum, which causes very high air pressure. The air in the centre goes round and round at a fantastic speed - the wind speed at the centre can be over 480 kilometres per hour.

Tornadoes are common in the Midwest of the USA, where they can cause great damage to buildings and injury to people. It is very difficult to know when a tornado is going to happen, and it is nearly impossible to make preparations before one arrives. They are one of the great forces of nature.

Over the years, tornadoes have caused death and damage in the Midwest of the USA, from the Gulf of Mexico north to Canada. They usually arrive between the months of March and July.

In just eight hours on 2nd and 3rd April 1974, about a hundred tornadoes killed 324 people in the American Midwest. Thousands of people were injured, and 400 million dollars of damage was caused to farms, homes, and buildings.

The worst-hit town was Xenia in the state of Ohio. In five minutes, the tornado left thirty people dead, 585 people injured, and thousands homeless. Half the town was destroyed. A lorry was blown into the sky, thrown into a tree, which then fell upside down, on top of the lorry! Packets of banknotes from a damaged bank building were found 300 kilometres away.



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1. Many 16-storey houses with all modern conveniences are being built in this part of Kyiv.

2. The sputniks are used for the research of magnetic fields and cosmic rays.

3. The properties of materials are affected by solar radiation.

4. Scientific and engineering progress opens up wide prospects before man.

. , it, that, one.

1. It is necessary to obtain accurate data on the possibility of living and working in space.

2. Everybody knows that with modern high-speed computers it is possible to trace a rocket by radar.

3. We had to find new methods of investigation because the old ones were unsatisfactory.

. , .

1. We know radio and radar systems play a very important role at airport.

2. The information science gets about other galaxies comes through radio telescopes.

IV. . , ᒺ ᒺ .

1. Now we know neutrino to have a rest mass ( ) of about 30 electron volts.

2. The properties of the new materials are known to be determined next month.

3. Conduction is known to be a process by which heat is transmitted through a substance by molecular activity.

4. All the changes of temperature and changes of state to be discussed are shown by a graph in Fig. 2.

V. . 䳺 .

1. Working with machines, sharp tools, and motors one must always be careful.

2. The stream of elections moving along the conductor is called electric current.

3. The scientist has made a number of experiments some of them being very important for our work.

VI. . .

1. If you had translated the article, you could have used valuable data in your work.

2. If the quality of the equipment were higher, the results of the experiment would be more accurate.

3. It would be impossible to explain chemical phenomena without using the laws of physics.

VII. . .

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All the industries today are in need of new methods of joining metals together. And not only metals with metals but also joining metals with glass, plastics and many other materials. The work done by the Paton institute of Electric Welding is considered to be the solution of these problems. For example, how to weld a 1000 km-long pipeline? The Institute has developed a machine for welding pipelines. The welding section in each pipe exceeds 100 000 sq.mm. It would take 6-8 hours to perform this work by hand. The machine does it in two minutes.

The machine was tested in production conditions, the results being excellent.

It would seem strange to compare the steel constructions that produce oil in the Caspian Sea with a space station orbiting the Earth. What do they have in common? But they do it is the need for making repairs, and repairs mean cutting metal and doing welding work.

The rapid development of the oil and other mineral resources of the ocean made the problem of underwater welding especially up-to-date. The equipment developed by Kyiv's scientists is very effective. New semi-automatic machines for underwater welding increased divers productivity by 25-30 times.

And what about welding in outer space? The scientists understood that welding had to be done in conditions of weightlessness, in nearly complete vacuum and within a broad range of temperatures - from 150C below to 130C above zero. The equipment, of course, must be reliable and safe. And the Institute developed such equipment.

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The first computers

The word 'computer' used to mean a person, not a machine. In the nineteenth century, builders and technicians needed to know the answers to very difficult calculations in order to do their work. They did not have the time to do these calculations themselves, so they bought books of answers. The people who did the calculations and wrote the books were called computers.

In the 1820s, a British mathematician called Charles Babbage invented a machine that did very difficult calculations automatically. He called his machine a Difference Engine. He began to build his machine, but he did not finish it because he had a better idea. (Babbage never finished anything he always had a better idea and started working on something new.) In fact, more than a hundred and fifty years later, some technicians from the Science Museum in London built Babbage's Difference Engine. It is still in the museum today. The machine weighs about three tonnes, and it is nearly two metres tall and three metres wide. And it works: in the early 1990s, it did a calculation and gave the right answer 31 digits long! Babbage did not finish making the Difference Engine because he started work on a machine called an Analytical Engine. The Analytical Engine could do more: for example, it had akind of memory. This meant that it was possible to write programs for it, building on each answer and doing more and more difficult calculations. For this reason, the Analytical Engine is often seen as the first real computer. However, Babbage never finished building this machine either!

A woman called Ada Lovelace worked with Babbage. She was the daughter of Lord Byron, a famous English writer. Ada was an excellent mathematician and understood Babbage's ideas (most people did not). She knew that she could do amazing calculations with the Analytical Machine, and she wrote a program for it. Although the machine was never built, Ada Lovelace was still the first computer programmer in the world. In 1979, a modern computer programming language was named ADA.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide is a chemical compound, CO, a colourless, odourless, tasteless, extremely poisonous gas that is less dense than air under ordinary conditions. It is very slightly soluble in water and burns in air with a characteristic blue flame, producing carbon dioxide; it is a component of producer gas and water gas, which are widely used as artificial fuels. It is a reducing agent, removing oxygen from many compounds and is used in the reduction of metals, e.g., iron, from their ores. Carbon monoxide is formed by combustion of carbon in oxygen at high temperatures when there is an excess of carbon. It is also formed (with oxygen) by decomposition of carbon dioxide at very high temperatures (above 2000C). It is present in the exhaust of internal combustion engines (e.g., in automobiles) and is generated in coal stoves, furnaces, and gas appliances that do not get enough air (because of a faulty draft or for other reasons). Carbon monoxide is an extremely poisonous gas. Breathing air that contains as little as 0.1% carbon monoxide by volume can be fatal; a concentration of about 1% can cause death within a few minutes. The gas is especially dangerous because it is not easily detected. Early symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include drowsiness and headache, followed by unconsciousness, respiratory failure, and death. First aid for a victim of carbon monoxide poisoning requires getting him to fresh air; administering artificial respiration and, if available, oxygen; and, as soon as possible, summoning a doctor. When carbon monoxide is inhaled it reacts with haemoglobin, the red blood pigment that normally carries oxygen to all parts of the body. Because carbon monoxide is attracted to the haemoglobin about 210 times as strongly as isoxygen, it takes the place of oxygen in the blood, causing oxygen starvation throughout the body.








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