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2011

 

__________ __________________ 2011 .

 

 

________ _________________2011 .

 

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..................................................................................... 1

....................................... 2

- ........................ 2

............................................ 2

...................... 3

1. - ....... 4

Why I study English. 4

T 2. , . .. 7

2.1.

The Beginning of the Parliament in England. 7

2.2. .

Great Britain. 8

3. -

The Constitution of the USA. 20

ϳ We Shall Overcome 21

The United States of America 22

4. 30

The Life of Youth in Great Britain. 30

5. ij 텅... 33

Money.33

6. 37

At the Hotel. 37

7. . 42

The Post-Office. 42

8. ij 52

ij腅53-54

9. 59

English Meals.. . 59

Ukrainian Cuisine.. 59

At the Canteen 60

 

 

Part 2

Additional Reading.68

T1 SCIENCE OPENS ROADS TO FUTURE.......68

2 Henry Cavendish and His Discovery70

Te 3 Great Scholar of the Renaissance..71

4 The Periodic law of the Chemical Elements..72

T 5 Three States of Matter..74

6 Electricity. Electrical Engineering. The Nature of Electricity76

7 Electronics. Electron Emission..77

8 Window into the Invisible World78

9 Powder Metallurgy. Looks Towards the Future..80

10Transmitting Pictures by Telephone.81

11 Evolution of the Computer (Part 1)..82

12 Evolution of the Computer (Part 2)..83

13 The Science of Mechanics.. 85

14 Fundamental Element of Mechanics..85

15 Mechanical Motion.86

16 Carburettor Engine- 텅...86

17 Fundamental Principles....87

18 A Diesel Engine..87

19 Shandon-Elliot Micro Spot Welder.88

20 Metals and non-metals..89

21 Transistor ultrasonic thickness gauge type 110389

 

 

1............................................................................... 92

2............................................................................... . 93

 

 

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WHY I STUDY ENGLISH

Hi, I'm Petro from Smila. It's in the centre of Ukraine.

I'm a pupil of the 11th form and I study English at school. I try to master the language as well as I can do it at school. 'Why?' you can ask. Well, I have my point of view as for this. I want to reach success in life and English will help me.

You see, modern life is impossible without communication. This communication is between people of one country and between people of different nations. So it is necessary to know at least one foreign language.

Besides, I think, that to achieve real success in life is impossible without speaking a foreign language. If you are a scientist you need it to read literature and to take part in conferences.

If you want to be a good expert in any field you need a foreign language to receive new information on your speciality. If you are a businessperson you need a foreign language to have business with foreign partners.

Many people like to travel. For this a foreign language is necessary too. If you want to get education abroad you must know a foreign language too.

If you are fond of reading you can read interesting books in the original. If you are fond of music you can understand the words of songs. If you are an athlete you can communicate using a foreign language during international competitions. If you want to find a job abroad you must know a foreign language too. So in any field of modern life it is necessary to know a foreign language.

We live in Europe. Europe is integrating now and it is very important for everybody to know at least one foreign language. Ukraine is going to become a member of the European Council and the Common Market.

Our country takes part in many international political, economic, cultural and educational projects. But how to take part in them without speaking a foreign language? A private interpreter isn't a suitable way out. People can think that you aren't intelligent enough if you spend much money on paying the private interpreter instead of paying for your own education at least when you are young enough to learn any language rather quickly.

English is one of the most popular foreign languages. It is the most spoken language in international communication. I am glad that I know English a little and I plan to learn it better in future.

 

Great Britain

omplete the chart.

Geographical characteristics ... Capital.....................................

Principal towns ........................

Principal industries ..................

Languages...............................

Sports......................................

 

Complete the chart.

Geographical characteristics ....................

Capital ......................................................

Principal towns .........................................

Principal industries ...................................

Languages................................................ Sports.......................................................

 

Cambridge

Cambridge is situated at a distance of 70 miles from London. It is one of the most beautiful towns in England. The dominating factor in Cambridge is its well-known University, a centre of education and learning. Newton, Byron, Darwin and many other scientists and writers were educated at Cambridge. It has 27 colleges. A college is a place where you live no matter what profession you are trained for: so students studying literature and those trained for physics may belong to one and the same college. Every college is headed by a dean.

Oxford

Oxford is one of the great English universities too. Cambridge and Oxford are almost identical. They trace their long history back to the same period. By the end of the thirteenth century both universities already had colleges.

 

 
 

Oxford and Cambridge are associated with the higher ranks of society. They have always been universities for gentlemen.

The Constitution of the USA

American Constitution was adopted on September 17,1787 by delegates from all over the country. In 1791 the Bill of Rights was added to it.

The Bill of Rights gives American citizens freedom of speech, of the press and worship; the right to meet peacefully; the right to be secure in one's own home against unreasonable searches and seizure of person and property; and the right of any person charged with breaking the law to have a speedy trail by a jury of fellow citizens.

The Constitution divided the powers of government into three branches: the executive, the legislative and the juridical.

The executive power is headed by the President. The legislative power includes both houses of Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate).

The juridical power is headed by the Supreme Court.

The Constitution limits the role of each branch not to give any of them too much power.

For example, if the Congress adopted a law and the President signed it but the law conflicts with the Constitution, the Supreme Court cancels this law.

The whole system of American government is based on the principles established in the Constitution and Bill of Rights. Americans are proud of their Constitution.

Answer the questions.

1. When was the USA constitution approved?

2. When was Bill of Rights added to it?

3. How many branches of power are there in the USA?

4. Who heads each of the branches?

5. What is the role of Constitution in American political life?

3. The Bill of Rights gives equal rights to every American. But do they really have equal rights? Not always, so from time to time Americans, who think that their civil rights are broken, protest against it. Give current examples confirming that

4. This American song is very popular among those who love freedom and take part in demonstrations and marches for peace, freedom, civil rights and democracy. The song is the result of the interchange between Negro and white musicians. People generally sing it in a group after a song leader. Read, learn and sing it too.

 

WE SHALL OVERCOME

Traditional, words and music arranged by Z.Horton, F.Hamilton, G. Garawan and Pete Seeger

We shall overcome,

We shall overcome,

We shall overcome some day,

Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe

We shall overcome some day,

We'll walk hand in hand,

We'll walk hand in hand.

Well walk hand in hand some day,

Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe,

We shall overcome some day,

We shall live in peace,

We shall live in peace,

We shall live in peace some day,

Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe,

We shall overcome some day,

We are not afraid,

We are not afraid,

We are not afraid today,

Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe,

We shall overcome some day.

 

The United States of America (the USA)

 

In every life people call this country America. Do we know much of its past?

Part I. America in the past

Many hundred years ago on the territory of the present day America lived the red-skin Indians. They hunted animals and fished, grew corn and tobacco.

In the middle of the 15th century some European countries began to send their ships to discover new sea routes to far off lands. One of these explorers was Christopher Columbus from Spain, who sailed with his crew on 33 small ships for 3 months. When they saw at last an unknown land they thought that it was India. That is why they called the local people living there red-skin Indians. But Columbus was mistaken. It was an island near North America. This discovery took place on the 12th of October 1492. That is why in 1992 America celebrated its 500th anniversary. But this new land got its name "America" a little later when an Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci described it in his writings in 1499.

Same mar inherent European countries sent their people to North America to trade with the natives and to look for gold, silver, fur and other things there. In 1620 more than one hundred Englishmen left their country forever and went to America on board the ship "Mayflower" to live and work there. Their voyage lasted for many weeks and was very hard. At last they reached the coast of America and began to build a village called New Plymouth.

Later on, more and more people from many countries came to live in America. England considered these new territories as its colonies and soon the newcomers began to fight for their independence. The biggest war lasted from 1775 up to 1783. Commander-in-chief of the North American army was George Washington. His troops won this War for Independence and on July 4, 1776 the famous Declaration of Independence was signed by 13 United States of America. George Washington was elected to be the first American President.

Part II. America today

At present the USA is a highly developed industrial and agricultural country. It is rich in coal, oil, iron and natural gas. It exports a lot of raw materials, industrial and agricultural products.

People enjoy the wonders of nature practically in every state. The Appalachians and the Rocky Mountains, forests, plains, prairies and even deserts, wonderful lakes, waterfalls and rivers cover the American territory that equals about 9.4 million square kilometers. Among the most famous sites of interest are the Great Lakes, Niagara falls, the Golden Gate bridge in San Francisco and others. There are many beautiful National parks and protected areas of wilderness in America.

The population of the USA is about 250 million people of many nationalities. Some of the biggest cities are New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, San Francisco and others. There are many very tall buildings in them that really scrape the sky, that's why they are called skyscrapers.

The capital of the country is Washington D. C. (the District of Columbia). The USA is a federal republic. The American parliament (called Congress) has two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate.

The flag of the USA has 13 red and white stripes representing the original 13 states and 50 stars for each of the 50 states of the country. Each state has its national motto, bird and flower as its symbol. For instance, California's motto is "I've found it! (Eureka)." Its state bird is Valley Quail and flower Golden Poppy.

America as any other country has its own customs, traditions, and holidays. For instance, on the 4th of July they celebrate Independence Day that gave birth to the American nation. At the end of November America has Thanksgiving Day which was celebrated for the first time in 1621 when first colonists from England got their first good harvest.

Young people enjoy two other holidays Halloween (on October 31) and St. Valentine's Day (on February 14). No doubt, a great amount of information about the USA is awaiting the future learners of this country. They will learn of the activity and life of American Presidents, the USA's great writers, poets, artists, scientists, musicians, film stars and other outstanding people.

Let it be only the first line of a long essay on the USA. But as an English proverb says "A good beginning is half the battle."

Go on studying America!

Goodbye, for the present.

6. Please write down and then say what historical events are associated with the following dates:

 

12 October 1492 1861 1499 1865 1620 1863 1775-1783 1992 4th of July 1776

7. On the inside back cover of the "Happy English-2" textbook there is a map of the American states with their mottos. Choose three which you like.

Test yourself

Activity 1. Match the following English words and expressions with their Ukrainian equivalents.

Part I

1) social security 2)heritage 3) well-being 4)challenge 5) community 6)contribution 7) volunteer 8)survey 9)influence   10)disabled people 11)social environment 12)discount 13)membership

, ,

,

,

14)criminal situation 15)unemployment rate 16)working experience 17)vocation 18)friendly ties 19)under the guidance 20)self-consciousness 21)to encourage 22)to prosper 23)to appreciate 24)to respect 25)to support 26)to take measures

Part II

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Reading activities

Activity 2

1) Read and translate the text

MONEY

Money is used for buying or selling goods, for measuring value and for storing wealth. Almost every society now has a money economy based on coins and paper bills of one kind or another. However, this has not always been true. In primitive societies a system of barter was used. Barter was a system of direct exchange of goods. Somebody could exchange a sheep, for example, for anything in the marketplace that they considered to be equal value. Barter, however, was a very unsatisfactory system, because people's precise needs seldom coincided. People needed more practical system of exchange, and various money systems developed based on goods which the members of society recognized as having value. Cattle, grain, teeth, shells, feathers, skulls, salt, elephant tusks, and tobacco have all been used. Precious metals gradually took over because, when made into coins, they were portable, durable, recognizable, and divisible into larger and smaller units of value. A coin is piece of metal, usually disc-shaped, which bears lettering, designs or numbers showing its value. Until the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, coins were given monetary worth based on face value - the value that governments choose to give them, irrespective of the actual metal content. Most governments now issue paper money in the form of bills, which are really "promises to pay". Paper money is obviously easier to handle and much more convenient in the modem world. Checks and credit cards are being used increasingly, and it is possible to imagine a world where "money" in the form of coins and paper currency will no longer be used.

 

Coin -

Disc-shaped -

Amount -

Irrespective of -

Increasingly -

 

2) Answer the questions

1. What is money used for?

2. What system was used in primitive societies?

3. What is coin?

4.Why is it possible to imagine a world where "money in the form of coins and paper currency will no longer be used?

 

1) Read and retell the text

 

Travelling

1) Read the text about travelling by car

a) Ask questions about the town. b) Describe the town

 

A Small Town

This summer the Stogovs spent their holidays in a small town near Krasnodar. At the beginning of August they gathered their things, took two tents, put them all in their car, and went to the Black Sea. They wanted to spend a few days near Krasnodar and then to go to Sochi. In two days they saw the town. It was a nice small town, full of green trees and flowers. First their car passed small houses with orchards and kitchen gardens with fruit-trees and vegetables in them. Near the centre of the town there were big buildings, blocks of flats and a lot of shops. In the centre there was a square. The Stogovs saw the Town Soviet, a library and a hotel there. Not far from the hotel they saw a concert hall and a cinema. There was no theatre in the town. The Stogovs went to the hotel, but all the rooms were taken. So they had their dinner and left the town. Soon they saw a very nice meadow with green grass near a wood. They stopped there and put up their tents. Their camp was not very far from the town, and they decided to live there for some days.

 

2) Answer the questions.

1. Where did you spend your summer holidays?

2. How did you get there?

3. Were you with your parents there?

4. Whom were you with?

5. What was the weather like at that time?

6. What did you do there?

7. Did you have a good time?

 

3) Make a story about how you spent your summer holidays using

the words:

1) to stay, 6) to pick up, 2) to go. 7) to play, 3) holidays, 8) wood, 4) to walk, 9) river, 5) to swim, 10) to have a good time.

4) Situation.

You meet your friend whom you haven't seen for a long time. Ask him (her) how he (she) spent this summer.


Test

 

1. Write questions to have the given answers.

a)____________________________________

Travelling by car you will never miss your train or plane.

b)___________________________________

$4 for you and your wife.

c)______________________________________

I will take the subway.

 

2. Translate the following sentences into English.

) ³ .

b) ?

c) .

 

3. Read the text. Choose and mark true (T) and false (F) sentences.

 

The London Underground

The city of London grew rapidly in 1800's. The streets of the city could not hold all the traffic. A young South African named Henry Greathead had a very simple idea. Why not build tunnels below the streets? Then trains could carry people through them.

Henry Greathead talked about subways for 20 years. But people who owned land in London said that they owned the streets as well as all the land under the streets. The landowners wanted to be paid for the use of this land. Then the Subway Act of 1884 was passed. This law declared that the streets and the land under them belonged to everyone. At last, Henry Greathead could build his subway tunnels.

Henry made working underground safer by using new ways to construct his tunnels. He also invented special tools for the job. Henry built two tubes, one on top of the other. Inside the tubes, electric engines pulled five-car trains. They could carry 160 passengers at 25 miles an hour. By 1890 the trains ran every three minutes. The subway was a great success.

 

a) The idea to build the underground appeared in the 18th century.

b) Henry Greathead was a famous English builder.

c) The first underground tunnels were built in 1820.

d) Going by the underground wasn't successful at first.

 

4. What is the difference between a return and a single ticket? Explain either in English or in Ukrainian.

AT THE HOTEL

RESERVING A ROOM

The secretary of the Russian Trade Delegationin London telephones the Tavistock Hotel1 to reservea room for Mr. Kozlov.

Receptionist: Reception-desk.Tavistock Hotel. Good morning.
Secretary: Good morning. This is the Russian Trade Delegation. We'd like to reserve a room for Mr. Kozlov for three nights2 from the 20th of October.

Receptionist: Mr. Kozlov. Could you tell me3 what accommodationMr.Kozlov would like to have?
Secretary: Yes, certainly. A single roomwith a privatebath.

Receptionist: Just a minute. I'll see whetherwe have the accommodation available.
Secretary: Thank you.

Receptionist: Yes, I can reserve a single room with a bath from the 20th ofOctober, for three nights.

Secretary: Thank you. What's the charge?

Receptionist: Eight pounds tenpence4a night5.

Secretary: Thank you. Good-bye.

Receptionist: Good-bye.

 

AT THE HOTEL

At about I o'clock in the afternoon Mister Kozlov arrived at the Tavistock Hotel. A hotel-portertook Kozlov's suitcase and showedhim to the reception-desk. Kozlov told the receptionist that the Russian Trade Delegation had reserved a roomin his name6 a few days before.The receptionist checkedthat and said that thcould let him have a nice room on the third floor.7 After that the receptionist gave

 

Mister Kozlov a formand asked him to fill it in. Mister Kozlov wrote his name, address, nationalityand ccupationon the formand gave it back. Then the porter took the keyto Kozlov's room and they wentto the lift.In a minute they were on the third floor. The porter unlockedthedoor,brought in the suit-case8and asked ifthat was all. Kozlov thanked him, gavehim a tipand the porter went out. Kozlov unpackedhis suit-case and rang the bell fora chambermaid9 becausehe wanted to have his suit pressed.

Chambermaid: Good afternoon, sir. What can I do for you?
Kozlov: Good afternoon. Could I have my jacketand trouserspressed?

Chambermaid: Very good, sir. I think I can do it right away.

Kozlov: Thank you. By the way, could I have an extra blanket? I'm

afraid I'll be cold at night asthe weatheris dampto-day.
Chambermaid: I'll attendto it, sir.
Kozlov: Thank you. I wonderif the restaurantis opennow.

Chambermaid: Yes, sir. The restaurant servesbreakfast from eight to ten,lunchfrom twelve to two thirty and dinner from six to eight.
Kozlov: Thank you very much.

COMMENTARY

1. the Tavistock Hotel[ 'taevistok] "". . 2.... for three nights ... || 3. Could you tell me... ... Could || .

4. eight pounds4 tenpence night5

pound ( ). || . 100 ; || || d. penny[peni] .| ; pennies |. ., || .

[pens] |.., || -
|| twopence elevenpence.
twopence
[ t^ns], threepence[ 'Grepens]; evro[ 'juarou]-,

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5. eight pounds tenpence night 8 10 .

|| " |"

" ", " " ..

works eight hours day. ³ 8 .

She reads 50 pages week. 50 .

6.... in bis name... '

7. ... they could let him have nice room on the third floor ... || .

8. The porter ... brought in the suit-case. .

9. Kozlov ... rang the bell for chambermaid. || (|| ), || .

un [^n|] , 䳺 .

necessary , unnecessary , ||

usually unusually

to pack || to unpack

to lock || to unlock ||

VOCABULARY NOTES

 


 

to stayv

They stayed at the Minsk Hotel.

I stayedat home on Sunday.

How long did you stay in Petersburg?

to reserve[ri'z3:v] v

It's necessary to reservea room for

Mr. Smith.

Trade Delegation[ ,deli 'geijh]

The Trade Delegationof Russia in

London is in Highgate.

receptionist[ri'sepjbnist] n

reception-desk[ri'sepjbndesk] n

Will you put me through to the reception-desk?

accommodation[s'koms'deijh] n

Yesterday we couldn't get any accommodationat this hotel.

Single room

whether[ 'weds] conj

 

( ), "̳".

1.

2. . ?

3. (, ..) .

4. .

 

5. , ,

 

6. ,

7. ' , , ,

8. ; ,

 

9. ,

10.

11.,

 


 

Ask him whether he can come to-day. available[a'veitabl] adj

 

To be available

Mr. S. will be availablein an hour.

This book is not available.

charge[tfa:d3] n

Your charge for this room is too

high.

hotel-portern

The hotel-porterbrought in my

suit-case.

To show (showed, shown) v

to show ...to a reception-desk

to show ... into a room

|| , .

 

, || ( , )

. .

ֳ ( ), , , ||

|| .

 

( )

.

, , ||

...

||

The secretary showed Mr.Bill into the room.

beforeadv

He said he had stayed at that hotel a year

before, to checkv

||

When is the plane to London taking

off?

Just a minute. I'll checkthat for you.

formn

He filled in the formin English.

address[a'dres] n

Could you tell me his address,please?

nationality[, naeja' naeliti] n

What's your nationality?

I'm Russian (British, German...). occupation[ ,Dkju'peiJh] n

What's your occupation?

I'm a doctor.

key[ki:] n

I can't find the key to my room.

Lift

The liftwill take you to the seventh floor

 

 

 

|| .

, ; ( ||)

 

³ , ,

( || -|.)

 

?

 

. .

 

³ -,

?

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(볺, ),

,

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||,

||

 

||  ,

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Grammar Exercises


 


 

I. , 䳺 :

Mr. Zotov of the Russian Trade Delegation (to receive) fax from Moscow. It said that Mr. Losev of Machinoimport (to arrive) in London on business the next day. Mr. Zotov told the secretary that she (must, to reserve) room for Mr. Losev at the Imperial Hotel for 5 nights.

Before Mr. Losev (to arrive) in London, the secretary (to reserve) room his name at the Imperial Hotel. She also (to phone) the airport and (to find out) when the jet-liner from Moscow (to arrive).

At 4 p.m. Mr. Zotov (to wait) for Mr. Losev at the airport. Soon he (to hear) the announcement that the plane (to land). He (to see) Mr. Losev when the passengers (to get off) the plane. Mr. Zotov (to be) glad to see Mr. Losev in London.

After Mr. Losev (to go) through the Customs, they (to go) to the hotel.

II. , :

... other day Mr. Goodwill, ... representative of Brighton & Co., arrived in Moscow on business. Mr. Mitin, director of our office, met him at Sheremetievo Airport and brought him to ... Metropol Hotel.

Mr. Mitin had reserved accommodation for Mr. Goodwill there two days before. ... hotel-porter met them at... door and showed them to reception-desk. Some people were waiting at... desk.

... receptionist gave Mr. Goodwill... form and asked him to write his name, ... address... nationality and ... ocupation. As Mr. Goodwill knew Russian well it didn't take him long to fill in ... form. After he had done all ... formalities ... receptionist gave Mr. Goodwill... key to his room and ... porter showed him into it. It was... nice single room on ... second floor. Mr. Goodwill liked ... room very much and he thanked Mr. Mitin.

They made ... appointment for the next morning and Mr. Mitin left... hotel.

III. , :

1.1 wonder what hotel they are staying .... 2. Mr. A. asked the secretary if she had reserved accommodation ... him ... the Grand Hotel. 3. Would you like to have single room ... private bath? 4. He said that they would arrive ... London ... Sunday. 5. Will you help me to fill... the form. It is... French and I don't know this language. 6. We didn't have the key ... our office and couldn't get.... 7. When we arrived ... the office Mr. S. had already left. 8. Will you attend ... this inquiry, please. We received it last week and haven't yet sent them our catalogues and price-lists. 9.1 looked ... my watch. It was half... ten.

IV. |,| || ||, 䳺 to
say, to speak, to tell:

1. ³ , "". 2. ³ : "|,| ". 3. ||, . 4. ³ , || ||. 5. . 6. , . 7. ֳ, || . 8. , ? 9. , |,| .10. ³ , || || ||. 11. , .

V. || || ||:

1. "Do you always stay at the Metropol Hotel when you come to Moscow?" the secretary asked Mr. Gray. 2. "I have single room with bath for you", said the receptionist. 3. "I reserved accommodation at the Continental Hotel for you two days ago", she said to me. 4. "Who will attend to my suit-case, please?" I asked. 5. "When does the hotel restaurant serve dinner?" Mr. N. asked. 6. "Will you get accommodation at that hotel next week?" she asked me. 7. "Whom must I phone to have my suit pressed?" he asked the porter.

' VI. |,| || ||:

ֳ, ||? ||, o || "-" . || . 2. 2 . 3. ³ || , . 4. , || || 5- . 5. ֳ, ? 6. || , . 7. ̳ || |,| , . 8. || .

 

 


III SPEECH EXERCISES

VII. ³ .

VIII. || :

1. went to another hotel. 2. Mr. Cook was not available at two o'clock. D. My wife couldn't unlock the door. 4. They decided not to pack the things to-lay. 5. Mr. Wood is staying at the Metropol Hotel. 6. A hotel-porter took our suit-cases and showed us to our room. 7. Last year I couldn't get accommodation Sochi.

IX. || ||:

AT A HOTEL (Mr. Fields, speaking to receptionist)

"I should like room for week."

"Single or double?"

"Single, please.",. "Have you reserved room?"

"I wrote you from New York last week."

"What's your name, please?"

"Fields."

"Yes, we received your letter, Mr. Fields. We have reserved room for you."

"I wonder if there is private bath in this room."

"Yes, this room has private bath."

"Is it an inside room or an outside room?"

"And what is the charge?"

"Eleven dollars night."

"I believe this room is quiet. I don't sleep too well."

"Yes,

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