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Shandon-Elliot Micro Spot Welder

The Shandon-Elliott Micro Spot Welder is a robust precision machine, specially designed for the speedy and efficient welding of stainless steel, resistance and other ferrous wires and tapes. It incorporates variable power and timing controls and will weld wires, tapes, etc. ranging from .001 in. to .040 in. diameter or thickness, producing a perfect, homogeneous weld without destroying the temper of the material.

The machine is foot-controlled by means of a pedal, enabling the operator to use both hands for locating the work between the electrodes. Its built-in carrying handle and weight of only 35 Ib make it completely portable. The machine is well finished in enamel with a stainless-steel top cover, handle supports and pilot lamp housing. The machine incorporates four top and four bottom electrode, mounted so that they be used in various combinations to weld similar or differing sizes of tapes and wires. These eight interchangeable electrodes, made of a special alloy, fit into tapered sockets in rotatable stainless- steel chucks. They are numbered for use with a combination table on the right-hand side of the machine which indicates the correct power and time settings and the electrode combinations to be used for various classes of work. The electrodes are arranged as follows:

Top Electrodes: No 1curved electrode with flat working surface 1 mm in diameter.

No 2straight electrode with two grooves at right angles to each other. The grooves are about 0.5 mm deep to accommodate 1 mm wire.

Nos 3 and 4curved electrodes filed to chisel point, then edges filed flat to 0.5 mm wide Xl mm long. This permits welding in corners.

Bottom Electrodes: No 1curved electrode with working surface slightly domed. This "marries" with Top No 1 electrode for tape weldings.

Nos 2,3 and 4straight electrodes, all grooved to accommodate intermediate size wires from 0.35 mm to 1 mm. These "marry" with Top No 2 electrode for wire weldings.

The electrodes can easily be modified by the user or spare electrodes can be filed to shape to suit special requirements.

In operation, the appropriate electrodes and time and power settings are selected in accordance with the combination table fitted to the machine. The work is positioned between the electrodes, which are then brought together by initial pressure on the foot pedal, grip ping the work firmly. Further pressure on the foot pedal closes the circuit and completes the weld.

TEXT 20

Metals and non-metals

The 105 elements do not, fortunately, exhibit 105 completely different sets of properties. When the major properties are considered it is found that the elements fall into one of two groups, the metals or the non-metals. The contrast between the properties of these two groups is given below. It is not to be expected that all elements in one class will agree in every detail; some differ in one or two properties from the others of their class; these exceptions are indicated in brackets.

Metals Non-Metals

Physical properties

1. Solid at room. temperature (mercury is the only liquid metal) 2. Have a high density (except potassium and sodium) 3. Can be moulded by pressure, i. e. they are malleable 4. Have high melting points and boiling points 5. Are good conductors of heat and electricity   6. Can be drawn into wire, i.e. they are ductile 1. Many are liquids and gases at room temperature 2. Density is usually low   3. Solid non-metals are brittle   4. Have low melting points and boiling points 5. Are poor conductors of heat and electricity (graphite is a good conductor of electricity) 6. Cannot be drawn into wire  

Chemical properties

7. Have basic oxides 8. React with dilute acids forming salts 9. Form positive ions 10. Are liberated at the cathode during electrolysis (hydrogen acts as a metal) 7. Have acidic oxides 8. Salts of non-metals do not exist 9. Form negative ions 10. Are liberated at the anode during electrolysis  

The chemical properties are much more conclusive than the physical properties for deciding whether a particular element is to be regarded as a metal or a non-metal, e.g.: if an element forms a basic oxide, it must be classified as a metal. A basic oxide is never formed by a non-metal. To determine if a particular element is a metal or a non-metal, prepare its oxide and examine this as follows:

a) if the oxide is soluble in water, use litmus to find out if the solution is acidic or alkaline;

b) if the oxide does not dissolve in water, an attempt must be made to find out if it neutralizes an acid and forms a crystalline salt. Only metallic oxides do this.

 

TEXT 21

Transistor ultrasonic thickness gauge type 1103

A direct-reading ultrasonic thickness gauge which requires access to only one side of the material and has been specially developed for applications where a very high degree of portability is essential.

Features: Direct-reading scale. Range 0.09 in. to 5 in. Compact lightweight all-transistor design.   Simple operation. Suitable for flat and convex surfaces. Visible and audible resonance indication.

Application: The Transistor Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge Type 1103 is especially suitable for work which requires rapid and simple non-destructive measurement of material thickness in awkward locations and to which there is access to one side only. Such applications include corrosion studies and flaw detection on ship hulls and decking, and on piping, tanks and pressure vessels in the oil, chemical and nuclear power industries.

Special features of the Type 1103 are its compact ultra-lightweight design and its direct meter indication of thickness. The material selector switch gives immediate readings with steel, aluminium and copper. Other materials, including most metals, glass, plastics and ceramics can be tested by using the undesignated switch position and calibrating on a known thickness of the material.

In applications where measurement outside the range 0.09 in. to 5 in. is required or where accuracy greater than 3 to 5% is necessary, the use of alternative instruments is recommended. The Ultrasonic Thickness Gauges Type 1101 and 1101/1 provide ranges of 0.06 in. to 12 in. and 0.02 in. to 4.0 in. respectively with accuracies of 1% to 3%. The Vistgauge Type 1108 provides cathode ray tube direct measurement of thickness from 0.006 in. to 1.8 in. with accuracies from 0.1% to 2%.

Design: The equipment consists of an all-transistor oscillator which generates waves at frequencies variable between 2 and 4 Mc/s. The piezo-electric transducer converts the waveform into mechanical vibrations and transmits them into the workpiece. The vibration frequencies are varied by means of the oscillator tuning dial, and frequencies at which resonance occurs in the workpiece are found by noting the accompanying increases in the headphone audio signal and in the output meter deflection. In a given material the resonant frequencies are directly related to the thickness, and values from 0.09 in. to 5 in. can be read directly on the large indicating meter.

The standard flat surface transducer is suitable for use on flat, cylindrical and compound curved surfaces down to 2 in. overall diameter or 12 in. internal diameter. Concave transducers are available for use on smaller convex surfaces.

The stable all-transistor oscillator and meter circuits are battery powered. A battery check is provided on the indicating meter, and the typical battery life is 80 hours continuous operation, or 2 to 4 months of normal use.

Specifications

Thickness Range: 0.09 in. to 5.0 in.

Test Materials: Direct reading with steel, aluminium and copper, and direct reading after calibration with most other metals, ceramics and hard plastics.

Accuracy: 3 to 5% of the wall thickness, provided that the surfaces are clear and flat.

Surface Preparation: A thin film of oil, grease or glycerine gives good ultrasonic coupling between transducer and workpiece. Major surface irregularities and heavy layers of paint or scale must be removed by filing or griding.

Power Supply: Three Mailory Type TR-233 dry batteries.

Weight: 4¾ lb (2.2 kg) approx. including batteries, transducer, cable, harness and headphones.

 

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