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Exercise 6.5 Increase Your Vocabulary

 

You may have come across the following words before but perhaps not used in quite this way. Suggest words or phrases which might replace them:

 

Equipment sequence to low

to medium batch time-consuming

to deal with changeover to alter

flexible fixture to date back

to equip

Exercise 6.6 Choose the Correct Definitions for Terms

Match each term with its definition. Translate these definitions into Ukrainian.

 

to download To succeed in doing something that you planned to do
to accomplish The things that are needed to do a particular activity
Equipment To copy a computer file from larger computer system to a smaller one
production A set of ideas or rules for organizing something, a particular way of doing something
system The making or growing of something, especially in large quantities

Exercise 6.7 Learn to Write a Summary

Give a short summary of the text in writing.

Exercise 6.8 Controlled Practice

a) Find the derivatives to words (in the text and in the dictionary): flexible, product, equip.

 

b) Write the following sentences in Past Indefinite Tense. Translate them into Ukrainian.

 

1 Programmable production systems are often used to produce parts or products in batches.

2 They are especially appropriate when repeat orders for batches of the same product are expected.

3 To produce each batch of a new product, the system must be programmed with the set of machine instructions that correspond to that product.

4 The physical setup of the equipment must also be changed: special fixtures must be attached to the machine, and the appropriate tools must be loaded.

 

c) Write plural for the following words:basis, batch,fixture, phenomenon, interruption, roof.

Exercise 6.9 Focus on Translation

Translate the following sentences into English.

1 , .

2 , .

3  .

 

Exercise 6.10 Discussion Point

What are advantages and disadvantages of programmable automation? Brainstorm it in teams.

 

Unit 7

Robotics

Pre-reading Task

 

Scan the text for the main idea and answer the following question:

What do abbreviation RIA, ISO, JIRA mean?

 

Text

Industrial robotics is the science of designing, building, and applying industrial robots.

Specifically, robot work should be optimized to (1) minimize the time per unit of work produced; (2) minimize the amount of effort and energy expanded by operators; (3) minimize the amount of waste, scrap, and rework; (4) maximize quality of work produced; and (5) maximize safety.

What are robots? In the late 1970s the Robotic Industries Association (RIA; formerly the Robot Institute of America) defined a robot as "a manipulator, designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks." Although this definition does not directly include pick-and-place arms as robots, teleoperators and remotely controlled devices are often referred to also as robots. The International Standards Organization (ISO) has a more lengthy definition of an industrial robot:

A machine formed by a mechanism including several degrees of freedom, often having the appearance of one or several arms ending in a wrist capable of holding a tool or a workpiece or an inspection device. In particular, its control unit must use a memorizing device and sometimes it can use sensing or adaptation appliances taking into account environment and circumstances. These multipurpose machines are generally designed to carry out a repetitive function and can be adapted to other functions.

The RIA and ISO definitions both stress the multifunctional and programmable capabilities and, therefore, exclude special-purpose "hard automation" tools and equipment typically found in high volume production. Also excluded are manual remote manipulators, which are extensions of human hands for use in, for example, sterile, hot, or radioactive environments.

In Japan, the Japanese Industrial Robot Association (JIRA) classifies industrial robots by the method of input information and the method of teaching:

 

1 Manual Manipulators. Manipulators directly activated by the operator.

2 Fixed-sequence Robot. Robot that once programmed for a given sequence of operations is not easily changed.

3 Variable-sequence Robot. Robot that can be programmed for a given sequence of operations and can easily be changed or reprogrammed.

4 Playback Robot. Robot that "memorizes" work sequences taught by a human being who physically leads the device through the intended work pattern; the robot can then create this sequence repetitively from memory.

5 Numerically Controlled (NC) Robot. Robot that operates from and is controlled by digital data, as in the form of punched tape, cards, or digital switches; operates like a NC machine.

6 Intelligent Robot. Robot that uses sensory perception to evaluate its environment and make decisions and proceeds to operate accordingly.

 

The scientists have defined three generations of robot systems.

The first-generation of robot systems was defined for the various robots with limited computer power. Their main intelligent functions include programming by showing a sequence of manipulation steps by a human operator using a teach box. Without any sensors, these robots f require a prearranged and relatively fixed factory environment and, therefore, have limited use

The second-generation of robot systems was enhanced by the addition of a computer processor. A major step in industrial robotics development was the integration of a computer with the industrial robot mechanism.

Third-generation robot systems incorporate multiple computer processors and multiple arms that can operate asynchronously to perform several functions. These robots can already exhibit intelligent behavior, including knowledge-based control and learning abilities.

The relatively short history of industrial robots, about 40 yr, has been full of ingenious innovations. It is anticipated that with the current explosion of AI research and development efforts the next 40 yr will be just as exciting.

 

Post-Text Exercises

 

Exercise 7.1 Read and Translate the Text into Ukrainian

Exercise 7.2 Expand Information about the Text

Make up six questions to the text covering its context in detail, answer these questions.

 

 

Exercise 7.3 Increase Your Vocabulary

 

Give Ukrainian equivalents of the following. Make up sentences with English phrases.

 

1 to optimize overall performance of the work system;

2 pick-and-place arms;

3 fixed-sequence robot;

4 playback robot;

5 the second generation of robot systems;

6 to minimize the amount of waste, scrap and rework;

7 ingenious innovations;

8 artificial intelligence research.

 

Exercise 7.4 Read for Specific Information

 

Express doubt concerning the truth of the following statements, using the following phrases. Give your own variant of the appropriate answer.

 

Phrases:

I doubt it;

I am not sure of it;

I am not certain;

One never can tell;

One never knows;

Not likely;

I dont think so.

 

 

1 Industrial robotics as a science developed many centuries ago.

2 Industrial robots are classified into five groups.

3 Variable sequence robot programmed for a given sequence of operations is not easily changed.

4 The second-generation of robot systems incorporate multiply computer processors and multiply arms that can operate asynchronously to perform several functions.

5 The mankind does not anticipate a breath-taking development of industrial robotics in the nearest future.

6 Robots may be manipulators which are useful only in the favourable and safe environment.

 

 

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