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Exercise 7.5 Choose the Correct Definitions for Terms

Match each term with its definition. Translate these definitions into Ukrainian.

 

ROBOTICS a mechanical device that is operated by remote control.
DEVICE a process or action that is part of a series in some work.
INNOVATION a robotic device controlled from a distance by a human operator.
MANIPULATOR the science or technology of robots, their design, manufacture, application, use, etc.
TELEOPERATOR mechanical invention or contrivance fore some specific purpose.
OPERATION something newly introduced, new method, custom, device, etc, change in the way of doing things.

 

Exercise 7.6 Learn to Write a Summary

Give a short summary of the text in writing

Exercise 7.7 Controlled Practice

 

1 Copy out ing forms from the text. Define if they belong to the class of Participle or class of Gerund.

2 Translate given below sentences with Participle and Gerund into Ukrainian.

a) A pioneering mobile robot called Sharkey was developed at Stanford Research Institute from 1967 to 1969.

b) The long history of automation and mechanization as well as science fiction background leading to industrial robotics are well documented.

c) The main intelligent fictions of the first generation of robot systems include programming by showing a sequence of manipulation steps by a human operator using a teach box.

d) Devols inventions were harnessed by Joseph Enhelberger who built the first working industrial robot in 1959.

e) To complete a brief historical background its necessary to consider robot programming languages.

Exercise 7.8 Focus on Translation

Translate the following sentences into English.

 

1 . , .

2 , .

3 . .

 

Exercise 7.9 Discussion Point

Talk it over.

1 There are several classes of industrial robots.

a. What are they?

b. What are their principles of operation?

2 What is the difference among robot systems of three generation?

 

Unit 8

Computer Networks in Manufacturing

Pre-reading Task

 

Answer the following questions:

 

1 What do you know about computers?

2 Its advantageous to use computers in manufacturing. Do you agree with it? If yes, give your supporting ideas.

 

Text

Numerically controlled machine tools, process control, materials tracking and handling, inspection and quality control, manufacturing resource management, and operations planning are all manufacturing systems activities that have been profoundly affected by the introduction of low cost computers and embedded controllers. The collection of these computer systems led to large-scale factory automation and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). As manufacturing systems components become more intelligent, the information exchange between such components must be computerized to avoid bottlenecks in the system. Information exchange among computerized systems naturally led to computer networks. A manufacturing computer network is a communication system that permits the various devices connected to the network to communicate with each other over distances from several feet to several miles. Computer communication in the factory is done by using local area networks (LANs). All the devices in a factory such as computers, CNC machines, robots, programmable controllers, data collection devices, process controllers, and vision systems are attached to the network.

Initially, computer networks were not developed for manufacturing systems but for communication among machines for scientific computing and, later, for the telecommunications industries. The diversity and variation in sophistication of computer systems found in manufacturing systems present computer networking with unique challenges in standardization and industry acceptance. Paradoxically, it is the computerization of manufacturing systems that brought about the largest improvements in manufacturing technologies, quality, and cost containment.

Almost all of the computers used in manufacturing systems are digital computers. The communication among these computers needs to take one or more lines of data (single line or a bus) and represent the two binary states of each line in some physical medium. There are many suitable physical media each with many ways to represent the binary states.

Computer networks may be more important for small manufacturing businesses than for industry giants. The small enterprises constitute an important portion of the national industry, generating about two-thirds of the gross national product (GNP). They lag behind larger corporations in implementing high technology tools. Furthermore, they are growing in number of employees and in their contribution to major manufacturers as suppliers. Thus high technology manufacturing tools especially designed for small enterprises is a significant area of need with many opportunities for improvement

 

Post-Text Exercises

Exercise 8.1 Read and Translate the Text into Ukrainian

 

Exercise 8.2 Comprehension Check

Answer the following questions:

 

1 In what spheres of manufacture are computers used?

2 Give definition of a manufacturing computer network.

3 What kind of computers dominates in manufacture?

4 Are computer networks more preferable for small or big enterprises?

5 How can small enterprises be improved?

Exercise 8.3 Read for Specific Information

 

Read and translate the statements. Correct the statements if they are wrong.

 

1 Expensive computers are quite beneficially used in many manufacturing systems activities.

2 At first computer networks were used for scientific computing and telecommunications industries.

3 Application of computers is not favourable for extensive automation of production.

4 Not all computers used in manufacturing systems are digital computers.

5 Small enterprises are more profitable than industry giants because they use high technology tools.

 

Exercise 8.4 Develop Your Idea about the Text

Copy out the key sentences from the text. They may be made shorter or slightly changed.

Exercise 8.5 Scan the Text for Specific Information

 

Fill each gap with one of these words. Read and translate the statements.

 

Cost, rapid, obsolete, universally, manufacturing, early, difficult, factor.

In spite of many substantial efforts in the _______ part of the 1990s, there still is not a _______ used computer network systems adopted by all _______ industries. Another complicating _______ is the _______ increase in computer power versus the steady decline of _______ of computers. It can be argued that the computer field is so volatile that it is ______ for any standard to be used for a reasonable period of time. In fact, it is the view many that a computer network standard becomes _______ as soon as it is established.

 

Exercise 8.6 Controlled Practice

 

a) Look through the text and find all Past Participles with ed ending. Define their functions in the sentences.

b) Make up sentences of your own with the following Past Participles.

 

1 used

2 designed

3 represented

4 improved

5 generated

 

Exercise 8.7 Focus on Translation

Translate the following sentences from Ukrainian into English.

 

1 , .

2 , .

3 , .

 

Exercise 8.8 Discussion Point

Talk it over. Give your reasons why.

Computerizing of manufacture is a very beneficial process.

 

 

Unit 9

Microprocessors for Fluid Properties

Pre-reading Task

 

Skim and scan the text for answering the following questions:

 

1 What are the desirable characteristics of microprocessors for fluid properties?

2 What is the maximum pressure at which microprocessors were tested?

 

Text

A mixture of air and atomized gasoline is sprayed into the combustion cylinders of an automobile engine. With each new tank of gas, the composition, source, and processing history of the fuel can change, so the octane, density, and the so-called "stoichiometric demand" for Oxygen of the gasoline will almost certainly change as well. These changes alter the mixture of air and filel in the cylinders that will give the most efficient combus- j tion. If the engine could adjust itself to these changes in fuel properties each tune the fuel tank is refilled, the vehicle would get better mileage and engine exhaust would be cleaner.

A chemical plant must continuously monitor for fugitive emissions (that is, for the discharge of gases other than air into the environment). If properties of air such as density, thermal conductivity and specific heat can be monitored at all relevant pressures and temperatures, a fugitive emission of, say, propane or methane could be indicated on a monitor as a measurable deviation from those properties.

Gas hydrocarbon is leaking from a system of storage tanks, but the traditional leak detectors cannot distinguish natural gas from propane, from gasoline fumes. Tracking the leak, not to mention assessing the danger of the leaking gas, demands that workers be able to instantly determine the identity of the gas.

In all three of these applications and in many others, the incentives are keen to develop small, stable, rugged, long-lived, low-power and low-cost devices for measuring a diverse spectrum of fluid properties on-line. In chemical processing, combustion, billing, or simply in transporting fluids, one would like to monitor the quality of the fluid continuously to determine its effects on; the efficiency and safety of an operation and to assess its impacts . on the environment.

We have found that a great many fluid properties can be measured in situ and on-line to within accuracies of 1% with a silicon microsensor that is quite similar to existing, off-the-shelf devices. Indeed, for some properties of mixed fluids, the repeatability and consistency of the measurements made by our microsensors is higher than that of the best corresponding thermophysical data in the scientific literature, obtained with more traditional devices. Thus the ultimate accuracy of the microsensors is currently limited more by the uncertainties in independent estimates of the measured quantities than by signal-to-noise limitations of the sensors themselves.

Our design strategy is to collocate several sensing elements within the small confines of a single silicon microchip. We then interface those measurements with software built into connecting integrated circuits that can correlate the primary measurements with the output properties of interest. Because of the wide use of natural gases and of fuel oils, we have initially focused our efforts on calibrating and measuring the average properties of those fluids.

Sensing more than one property at a time enables calibrations to be made that dramatically improve the accuracy of the output values. For example, by simultaneously measuring ambient temperature, pressure, thermal conductivity, and specific heat of a fluid, it is possible to derive the value of such parameters as the heating value, density, viscosity, or octane number of gaseous or liquid fuels, or as the critical compression ratio, compressibility factor, or Wobbe number of gaseous fuels. The open structure of the microsensor design eliminates concerns about over pressure. Sensors have been tested successfully at pressures from vacuum to the maximum pressures readily available in the laboratory, near 200 bar (3,000 pounds per square inch).

 

Post-Text Exercises

 

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