Складання діалогу по темі «Обмін валюти»
Анотування газетної статті за фахом.
Індивідуальна робота за семестр:
2. Словник-мінімум (за професійним спрямуванням).
The first evidence of human life in Greece dates back to the Palaeolithic period between 120,000-10,000 B.C. However, it was not until the Neolithic period dated approximately 7,000 - 3,000 B.C. that Greek civilisation grew and flourished. Many remains of settlements and burial chambers of this period have been discovered in Thessaly, Macedonia and the Peloponnese. The first urban centres appeared during the Bronze Age (3,000-1100 B.C.) Evidence of these have been found all over modern day Greece, for example, in some North Eastern Aegean islands, the Cycladic islands, Crete and the Greek mainland.
During the Minoan period in Crete (approximately, 2nd millennium B.C.) a more sophisticated, organised society developed with a culture specific to that region. The first scripts were invented and communication opened up between the Minoans and people from the East Mediterranean countries. This led to an exchange of culture and ideas which became not only established as part of Minoan culture but spread to influence cultures, religion and government all over the Aegean islands and mainland Greece. During this time Crete became the main exporter of jewellery, skilled craftworks, oil and wine as well as importers of food and raw materials. It was during this time in Crete that the first major mercentile navy was developed.
This state of affairs continued until around 1500 B.C. when the tragic destruction of Crete occurred due to the eruption of the volcano of Santorini. This period of Mycenaean civilisation saw the conquest and settlement by Greeks. Their society was based essentially upon warfare and its elite class were war-chiefs. Their culture thrived for around four hundred years. The cities of the warlords were large and powerful, art and agriculture flourished and there was great prosperity. However, unlike the earlier Minoan societies the wealth was not distributed amongst the population. As a monarchical society, it was the warring kings who accumulated the riches of the society and spent vast amounts of it upon battles and invasions.
This continued until around 1200 B.C., by which time the power of the Mycenae kings was declining and by the 12th century BC their dominance had collapsed - considered by some to be due to the invasion of the Dorian tribes from the north of Greece. Alternatively, it is postulated that as the Mycenaean superstructure weakened it was overthrown by other groups of the Mycenaean population who then settled in many of the areas formerly controlled by them.
Following the Mycenaeans,there was a long period of cultural and economic stagnation which lasted from around 1150-900 BC. This Dark Age however ended with the emergence of the beginning of the Greek renaissance, known as the Geometric period (9th-8th century BC). The Greek city-states were formed and, as in all subsequent renaissance times, the Geometric period saw the development of literature and arts. Homeric epics and the Greek alphabet were both created during this time of enlightenment. The Archaic Period which followed during the 7th-6th centuries BC saw fundamental political and social changes. The Greek city states began to colonise and open up their dominance, establishing colonies at all points of the compass, North Africa to the south, the Black Sea to the north and Spain to the west.
This was the start of what has come to be known as the Classical period. By the 5th-4th centuries BC Athens dominated both politically and culturally in what is called the 'Golden Age of Pericles', only to lose this dominance at the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC The 4th century BC saw the development of Macedonians as a new force in the Greek world. Philip II, king of Macedonia and his son Alexander played a leading role. In 388 BC the eighteen year old Alexander led the Macedonian cavalry to victory at the Battle of Chaeronea. After the assassination of his father Phillip in 336 BC during an expedition to free the Greek states of Asia Minor from the Persians, there was unrest between Greeks and Macedonians in Thebes.
Alexander conquered Thebes and, as a warning to other Greeks, destroyed the city, leaving only their temples standing. Greeks and Macedonians again joined forces under Alexander and went on to conquer Persia, Egypt and regions as far as the Indus River. His tremendous empire radically changed the political and cultural situation in the then-known world.
After his early death at the age of thirty three his vast empire was divided amongst his generals and although the political entity that he created did not continue, his legacy was a uniform economic and cutlural world that stretched from the Straits of Gibraltar to the Indus River. In the succeeding Hellenistic Age (3rd to 1st centuries BC) the Greek city-states had lost their position of power and prestige although they did remain self-governing and independent of each other.
VІІ. Змістовий модуль „Готельний сервіс ”
Практичне заняття 1
Тема: В готелі. Резервація готелю (реєстрація і виписка з готелю).
AT THE HOTEL
Nowadays people travel on business and as tourists much more than in the past. Accommodations as well as rates vary from hotel to hotel. There are deluxe hotels, the most luxurious and more expensive. There are resort hotels used for entertainment or recreation. There are also a lot of motels which grew with the development of highways in America. They provide accommodation with parking space near the guests' rooms. There are hotel chains, consisting of several hotels controlled by one company having its own trademark, or logo.
Most hotels offer single and double rooms, for one and two people respectively. Of course rollways (collapsible beds on roller) can be placed in a room for other family members. If a guest requires more than one room, some hotels have fine suites consisting of several rooms.
The secretary of the Ukrainian Delegationin London telephones the Tavistock Hotel to reservea room for Mr. Kozlov.
Receptionist: Reception desk.Tavistock Hotel. Good morning.
Receptionist: Mr. Kozlov. Could you tell me what accommodationMr.Kozlov would like to have?
Receptionist: Just a minute. I'llsee whetherwe have the accommodation available.
Secretary: Thank you.
Receptionist: Yes, I can reserve a single room with a bath from the 20th of October, for three nights.
Receptionist: Eight pounds ten pencea night.
AT THE HOTEL
At about I o'clock in the afternoon Mister Kozlov arrived at the Tavistock Hotel. A hotel-portertook Kozlov's suit-case and showedhim to the reception-desk. Kozlov told the receptionist that the Delegation had reserved a room in his name a few days before.The receptionist checkedthat and said that they could let him have a nice room on the third floor. After that the receptionist gave Mister Kozlov a formand asked him to fill it in.
Mister Kozlov wrote his name, address, nationalityand occupationon the form and gave it back. Then the porter took the keyto Kozlov's room and they went to the lift.In a minute they were on the third floor. The porter unlockedthe door, brought in the suitcase and asked ifthat was all. Kozlov thanked him, gave him a tipand the porter went out. Kozlov unpackedhis suit-case and rang the bell for a chambermaid becausehe wanted to have his suit pressed.
Chambermaid: Good afternoon, sir. What can I do for you?
Kozlov: Good afternoon. Could I have my jacketand trousers pressed?
Chambermaid: Very good, sir. I think I can do it right away.
Kozlov: Thank you. By the way, could I have an extra blanket? I'm afraid I'll be cold at night asthe weatheris damptoday.
Chambermaid: I'll attendto it, sir.
Kozlov: Thank you. I wonderif the restaurantis opennow.
Chambermaid: Yes, sir. The restaurant servesbreakfast from eight to ten, lunchfrom twelve to two thirty and dinner from six to eight.
Kozlov: Thank you very much.
.the Tavistock Hotel['taevistok] — гостиница "Тависток". Перед названиями гостиниц всегда употребляется определенный артикль.
... for three nights— ... на трое суток
Could you tell me... — He могли бы вы сказать мне ... Could— форма прошедшего времени от глагола сап— часто употребляется в речи как вежливая форма по отношению к настоящему времени.
a pound— фунт (денежная единица). На письме фунт изображается знаком £. В фунте 100 пенсов; пенс изображается на письме буквой d. penny[peni] — ед. ч.— пенни; pennies— мн. ч. употребляется только по отношению к отдельным монетам.
pence[pens] — мн. ч., употребляется для выражения денежной суммы и пишется слитно с числительным от twopenceдо elevenpence, twopence[ tupans], threepence; euro— евро, общеевропейская единица валюты.
eight pounds tenpence a night — 8 фунтов 10 пенсов в cутки.
В английском языке не употребляется предлог в сочетаниях "в день", "в неделю", "в месяц" и т.д.
Не works eight hours a day. — Он работает 8 часов в день.
She reads 50 pages a week. — Она читает 50 страниц в неделю.
...in his name...— на его имя
... they could let him have a nice room on the third floor — ... они могут предоставить ему хорошую комнату на третьем этаже.
The porter... brought in the suit-case. — Портье внес чемодан.
Kozlov... rang the bell for a chambermaid. — Козлов позвонил (нажал кнопку), чтобы вызвать горничную.
Ex. 1. Open the brackets in Present Perfect or Past Simple:
1. I (to lose) this paper yesterday. 2. He just (to play) a game of chess. 3. Nick already (to finish) this job. 4. He never (to travel) by plane. 5. John (to buy) a house last year. 6. I (not to see) Smith since 1998. 7. I (not to see) Smith in 1998. 6. They (not to win) any matches lately.
Ex 2. Open the brackets using the verbs in Present Perfect or Past Simple.
1. Look at my new dress! I (to make) it myself. 2. When you (to see) Mary? — I (to see) her last week. 3. He is not at school today, he (to fall) ill. — When he (to fall) ill? — He (to fall) ill yesterday. 4. Look at this bird-house. Mike (to make) it himself. He (to make) it last Sunday. 5. He (to go) already? 6. When you (to see) him last? 7. I (not to see) him for ages. 8. His health (to improve) greatly since I (to see) him last. 9. Last night I (to feel) tired and (to go) to bed very early. 10. Where you (to spend) your holidays? 11. At last I (to do) all my homework: now I shall go out. 12. The building of the house (to begin) early in April. 13. The rain (to stop) but a cold wind is still blowing. 14. We already (to solve) the problem. 15. He (to come) a moment ago. 16. I never (to speak) to him. 17. He just (to finish) his work. 18. You (to make) any spelling mistakes in your dictation? 19. You (to see) Mary today? 20. You (to be) in the Caucasus last year? 21. Your mother (to promise) to take you to the theatre? 22. Не (to be) abroad five years ago. 23. They (to leave) England when he (to be) still a child.
Робота над текстом за профілем спрямування: