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How Tea Was First Drunk in Britain

By the time tea was first introduced into this country (1660),coffee has already been drunk for several years.

By 1750 tea had become the most popular beverage for all types and classes of people - even though a pound of tea cost a skilled worker perhaps third of his weekly wage!

1 George has travelled a lot. He____ speak many languages.

2 I can hear you quite well. You____ not shout.

3 I´m not sure where I will go for my holidays but I______ go to Italy.

4 She______ ride her bike at night without lights. It's not allowed.

5 She_______ not eat so much chocolate because it's bad for her figure.

6 I _______ understand him.He should speak louder.

7 It's later than I thought. I _____ go now.

8 You______ a better trainer if you want to improve yourself.

9 Talk to Ann about your problems. I'm sure she________ help you.

10 You ______ not vacuum the carpets, Carol has already done it.

11 You_______ be tired because you have worked very hard.

12 He_______ come to my party because he is ill.

13 He_________ go to the dentist when he has toothache.

14 It's not very important. You______ not do it now. You________ do it tomorrow.

15 _______you speak many languages?

16 I don't know what I'm doing this weekend but I_____ go to London.

17 Smoking is very unhealthy. You ______ stop it.

18 Playing football ___________ in this park.

19 You have got plenty of time. You__________ not hurry.

20 You_______ have a passport to visit most foreign countries.

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Paraphrase the following sentences, using the words and word

Combinations from the text.

1. Saying that he had the right to the English Crown, William invaded England.

2. The battle went on with varying degrees of success, but at last the Anglo-Saxons surrendered.

3. London was compelled to open its gates.

4. William the Conqueror told the Anglo-Saxon nobles that he would by all means grant the old rights to them, but it was a kind of camouflage aimed at pacifying the inhabitants of the captured areas.

5. Soon the true purpose of the new king became clear to everybody.

6. Land grants in return for military service were very'typical of feudalism.

7. In England there was a danger of using the landowners' military forces against the king. J

8. William gave large estates to those who supported him. '

9. During the rule of William there were numerous revolts of the Anglo-Saxons.

10. The officials of the Curia Regis collected taxes.

11. The country was ruled with the help of a special organ.

12. It comes as no surprise that many people ran away and hid in the forests to escape Norman oppression.

13. Some of them were caught and put to death.

14. How were the Russian people brought under Polish yoke in the 17th century?

15. In France and Germany land grants brought about the weakening of royal power because the great landowners could use their military forces against the king.

6. Arrange the following in pairs of antonyms:

conquered, lawful, upper, powerful, to open, nobility, real, weakening, big, careful (, ), difficult, easy, careless, small, strengthening, unreal, plebs, to close, powerless, lower, unlawful, unconquered

7. Complete the following sentences, using the text:

1. In the atmsophere of oppression it is not surprising that many Anglo-Saxons ...

2. Sometimes they started ...

3. The native population was treated ...

4. Barons ruled their ... in the same ...

5. Curia Regis made .. .imposed and levied ...

6. The Norman kings ruled with the help of...

7. The new king granted large ...

8. Land grants in reward for military service was ...

9. The confiscation of lands and their distribution among the Norman nobility completed...

10. The real intentions of the Conqueror became clear when he ...

11. It was only a pretext to pacify the Anglo-Saxons who ...

12. As regards ( ) the Anglo-Saxon nobility William promised to...

13. He named himself...; London was forced to ...

14. At the end of the battle the English troops ...

15. The well-armed Norman knights met...

16. The Norman duke landed on the British Isles under the pretext of

17. William was one of the most powerful...

 

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Learn these facts by heart:

There are five basic types of food a person should eat.

1. Meat group (meat/ eggs/ chicken/ fish). Meat helps you have a strong and healthy body by providing protein.

2. Milk group (ice-cream/ cheese/ milk) Dairy builds strong teeth and bones by providing calcium.

3. Fruit and vegetable group (wild berry/ orange/ corn/carrots/cabbage/juice) Fruits and Vegetables help you have healthy gums, good eyesight etc. by providing Vitamins A and C/

4. Bread-cereal group (cereal/pasta/bread). This group gives you energy by providing protein, iron and several B vitamins.

5. Fats and sugar (sugar/butter) Fats and sugar are quick resulted source of energy.

The Hot Dog

In its home country of Germany, the hot dog was called the frankfurter. It was named after Frankfurt, a German city.

Frankfurters were first sold in the United States in the 1860s. Americans called frankfurters "dachshund sausages". A dachshund is a dog from Germany with a very long body and short legs. "Dachshund sausage" seemed like a good name for the frankfurter.

Dachshund sausages first became popular in New York, especially at baseball games. At games they were sold by men who kept them warm in hot-water tanks. As the man walked up and down the rows of people, they yelled, "Get your dachshund sausages! Get your hot dachshund sausages!" People got the sausages on buns, special bread.

One day in 1906 a newspaper cartoonist named Tad Dorgan went to a baseball game. When he saw the men with the dachshund sausages, he got an idea for a cartoon. The next day at the newspaper office he drew a bun with a dachshund inside - not a dachshund sausage, but a dachshund. Dorgan didn't know how to spell dachshund. Under the cartoon, he wrote "Get your hot dogs!"

The cartoon was a sensation, and so was the new name. If you go to a baseball game today, you can still see sellers walking around with hot-water tanks. As they walk up and down the rows they yell, "Get your hot dogs here! Get your hot dogs!"

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THE RESCUE

Rebecca, one of the pricipal characters of the novel, had a good knowledgeof medicine. Once she found a knight who was badly wounded. The young man was bleeding to death when the girl decided to take him home and cure him. Soon she fell in love with the man and loved him secretly and hopelessly. Though the knight, whose name was Wilfred Ivanhoe, was in love with a Saxon lady, he was grateful to Rebecca and was always ready to come to the rescue ( ). When some ignorant and wicked people called her medical art magic, the girl was condemned to die as a sorceress. People said she would be burned alive unless a knight appeared as her champion and fought for her in a tournament which was to be held in a few days. The day of the tournament came. The field where the knights were to fight was made ready. The gates opened, and a knight rode out from the castle, followed by six trumpets and other knights, two and two, the Grand Master coming last with a mace. Behind him came Brian de Bois-Guilbert, armed in bright armour, but without his lance, axe, shield, and sword, which were carried behind him. He looked very pale. Behind him followed other knights and pages dressed in black. Then came guards on f o o t " , also in black, among whom could be seen the snow-white face of Rebecca. This

slow procession entered the field, marched around it and stopped. Instantly Rebecca was led to the black chair placed near a high pile of wood on which she was to be burned if her champion did not conquer. When the trumpets announced that the court were seated for judgement, one of the knights laid Rebecca's glove, the pledge of battle, at the feet of the Grand Master. "Here stands the good knight, Brian de Bois-Guilbert, knight of the Order of the Temple", said he, "who is ready to combat this day to prove that this maiden, by name Rebecca, has justly deserved to die as a sorceress." The trumpets sounded and a herald , stepping forward, proclaimed aloud: "Hear! Hear! Hear! Here stands the good knight, ready to do battle with any knight who will support the quarrel of Rebecca." There was a long dead pause. "No champion appears," said the Grand Master. It was the general belief that no one would appear for the woman accused of sorcery. "We've been waiting for quite a time. We will not wait any longer ," said the Grand Master when all of a sudden a horseman came in sight. "A Champion! A Champion!" exclaimed a hundred voices when the stranger rode up to the crowd. To the herald, who demanded his rank, his name and purpose, the horseman answered: "My name is Wilfred Ivanhoe, I'm a good knight and noble. I've come here to support the just and lawful quarrel of Rebecca and to defy Sir Brian de Bois-Guilbert as a traitor, murderer and liar." "Dog of a Saxon! I demand that you should take your lance. Prepare for death," said Brian, flying into a rage. "Does the Grand Master allow me?" asked Wilfred, addressing the Grand Master. "I may not deny," said the Grand Master, "provided the maiden accepts you as her champion." "Rebecca," said Wilfred, riding up to her, "do you accept me for your champion? I heard you had agreed to die and I decided to come to the rescue." "I do, dear," she said, but then: "Oh, no. Your wounds are not healed. Don't meet that man. You may be killed." But Ivanhoe was already at his post. The herald then pronounced the signal words "Laissez aller!", and the combat began. It did not last long. A few minutes later Wilfred's opponent fell to the ground, and the next moment he was no more. Rebecca

was saved.

: 1 He go skating because he broke his leg.

2 Many children in Britain wear school uniforms.

3 I'm not sure but Jane come to visit me this afternoon.

4 Didn´t you see the sign? You drive more than 30 miles.

5 He speaks a lot of languages but he speak Chinese.

6 It snow. It looks like it.

7 You drive on the right in Britain.

8 He is a good boxer. You be careful.

9 You to smoke in the office.

10 This test will be very difficult. So you learn a lot.

11 You eat more vegetables because they are healthy.

12 I don't the car. You can take it.

13 He does everything himself. He no help.

14 It`s going to rain. You shut the window.

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1. .. . : . . , ., . : -̻, 2007. 384.

2. .. , .. , .. , .. . . . / . . .. ϳ. .: , 2000. 368.

3. . . : : . . . . Գ㳿, , , . : , 2005. 414.

4. . . ( ). . .: , 2005. 2


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