How the Sandwich Came to the World

In 1762 there was a very famous English politician. Everybody knew about him because he enjoyed playing cards very much. One night he stayed at the card table for 24 hours, and he ate nothing but slices of bread with pieces of meat inside. His name was John Sandwich. The English name for a sandwich comes from this man.

Sandwiches were great favourites in Victorian England. It was the custom to "take" afternoon tea at about four o'clock, and many rich families ate sandwiches at this time.

Cucumber sandwiches were very popular. The servants always cut the edges of the bread, so the sandwiches were very small and delicate.

Sandwiches are less elegant now and often much bigger.

The English eat millions of sandwiches every day. They are a typical "snack" meal because they are easy and quick to prepare. You can buy sandwiches if you don't want to make them yourself. There are thousands of "sandwich bars" and cafes and even some restaurants that sell them.

The Hamburger is not so Young as We Sometimes Think

An American cook, Louis Lassen, made and sold the first hamburgers in 1895. He gave them this name because sailors from German port Hamburg gave him the recipe.

The story of this popular food comes back to the Middle Ages. In the Hamburg area the Tartars first made a sort of hamburger then. They used to sit on pieces of meat when they rode horses; so the meat came out flat!

Kenneth Lassen, Louis' son, still sells hamburgers in Connecticut.

Today you can buy this food in many places of the word. Except 'classic hamburgers' there are also cheeseburgers, fishburgers, beefburgers, eggburgers ... in fact anythingburgers!


Ex. 1.One of the words in each list does not fit. Which is it?

1) lion, tiger, panther, monkey, snake; 2) lily, rose, poplar, tulip, lilac; 3) house, flat, villa, factory, cottage; 4) ink, water, milk, chalk, wine; 5) New York, Rome, London, Tokyo, Madrid.

Ex. 2.Choose the word (a, b) that best completes the sentence. Write the number of the sentence and the letter of the answer, e.g. 1b, 2a, 3b.

1. What time did you up yesterday? a) get b) got c) gets. 2. I will to the cinema tomorrow a) go b) went c) gone. 3. He came into the room, switched on the light and to do his homework a) begin b) began c) begun. 4. Be quiet. The girl has just asleep a) fall b) fell c) fallen. 5. My aunt has beautiful roses this year a) grow b) grew c) grown. 6. The children like milk and it every morning a) drink b) drank c) drunk.

Ex. 3.Choose the word (a, b) that best completes the sentence. Write the number of the sentence and the letter of the answer, e.g. 1b, 2a, 3b.

1. Have you the new film? a) see b) saw c) seen. 2. I have to a concert this week a) be b) was c) been. 3. The children have their homework. They can go to the cinema a) do b) did c) done. 4. She has this engineer since she began to work at the plant a) know b) knew c) known. 5. We have already them our picture gallery a) show b) showed c) shown. 6. They havent yet to the South a) go b) went c) gone.



In the nineties of the 19th century the centre of the wprld revolutionary movement shifted to Russia. The revolutionary crisis assumed here an exceedingly sharp form. Russia was burdened by the yoke of tsarist autocracy which could not cOpe with the military as well as other tasks the country was faced with during the war. Economic destruction, hunger and chaos in state affairs, enormous, discontent of the population and the military defeat of tsarism - all this facilitated the creation of a revolutionary situation in the country.

In February 1917, Russia was the scene of a revolutionary outbreak which resulted in the overthrow of tsarist autocracy and the abdication of the last monarch of the Romanov dynasty Nickolas II. The Provisional Government under Kerensky that finally took power neither wanted nor was able to meet the vital needs of the people. Lenin, who returned from exile in Switzerland, called for preparation for the armed insurrection. Under Trotsky, who was already Chairman of the Petrograd Soviet, a military revolutionary committee was set up to direct the actions of the Red Guard, the sailors and soldiers. By the morning of 8 November, such strategic objectives as the State Sank, telephone exchange and post office had beensuccessfully captured along with railway stations and bridges. The success of the operations of 7-8 November was largely due to the circumstance that there was virtually no opposition to them. The Provisional

Government was no more. The same night the second all-Russian Congress of Soviets made a

reality the slogan "All power to the Soviets" and ratified a series of decrees:the Decree on Peace, which called for an immediate aririfisti^e and invited all peoples and governments at war to begin immediate negotiations for a just and democratic peace, the Decree on Land, which abolished without compensation the private ownership of large estates. The Congress set up the Council of People's Commissars as supreme executive authority in Russia, with Lenin at the head. In the first days of Soviet power, Lenin drew up the "Declaration of Rights of the Working and Exploited People" which later formed the basis of the first Soviet Constitution.


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2 Ann did very well at the exam. She must (be studying / have studied) very hard.

3 George has (to call / to be called) his insurance agent today.

4 It is too cold (to bathe / to have bathed) today.

5 I hope (to send / to be sent) to the conference.

6 The budget committee decided (to postpone / to be postponed) the meeting.

7 The weather seems (to be improving / to have improved) now.

8 I am glad (to have seen / to have been seen) you.

9 The letter may (have been sent / have sent) to the wrong address.

10 I am looking for Helen. Do you know where she is? She may (watch / be watching) TV in her room.


1 Im happy not to have failed you.

2 We were sorry to find out that most of the museums were closed that day.

3 This is a man to be relied upon.

4 Id like to make an appointment.

5 This is an interesting fact to be mentioned in the report.

6 The boy didnt want to be praised in the presence of other pupils.

7 I felt that to send a letter to him would only pain him uselessly.

8 One of our friends was suddenly taken ill and had to be operated on immediately.

9 The President is to visit Vienna next year.

10 The press conference is to start in a minute.

11 You should consult the doctor.

12 The! freezer must be kept at 20º.

13 You would rather go to class tomorrow than today.

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