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P.52 Ex.1 Choose the correct variant.

 

1.He established/had established his business in 2001.

2001.

2.I was late for the company meeting because I missed/had missed the 6 oclock bus.

, / 6- .

3. She entered the University after the graduated/had graduated from the business school.

, / .

4. We arrived late at the stadium and the football match had started/started.

, .

5.When we came back to the hall, the guests left/had left.

, .

6.Her face was familiar , I met/had met her at the university before.

, .

7. Most of the delegates /had arrived by the time I got there.

/ , .

8.The general manager reported that our company had/had had a successful year.

, .

9.Before these two companies merged, their profit was/had been very low.

, , .

10.The plane left/ had left when we arrived at the airport.

, .

11.Did you manage to see your boss, or has he gone/had he gone by that time?

, ?

12.They were/had been our customers before we diversified our business.

, .

 

P.53 Ex.2 Complete these sentences using the correct form.

 

1. He already had worked in business before he joined our company.

, .

2.We had won a controlling share of the company before they went out of business.

, .

3.They just had started their business when we worked out a programme of restructuring.

, .

4.As soon as this company was privatized their expenditures increased.

, .

5.After they had invested in this business , our share prices went up.

, , .

6.They decided to together and formed a joint venture.

.

7.As soon as our business expanded we began to buy share in other companies.

, .

8.Several years ago these two companies formed a joint venture but they remained separate legal entities.

, .

9. The regulations had changed before we took over this company.

, .

10.When they made bid for a computer company they were ready to buy it at that price.

, .

11.I couldnt get into the office because I had left my keys at home.

, .

12.Out manager was in a very good mood because we had won a profitable contract.

, .

P.53 Ex.3 True or false? Correct where necessary.

 

1. We had met many times and reached an agreement at last.

.

2.When did you hear about the takeover?

?

3.We decided to replace our equipment because it had become outdated (old).

, .

4.Before he became bankrupt he hadsold most of his shops.

, , .

5.We had done a lot of work with our clients before the board of directors introduced new regulations.

, .

6.The business had undergone major reorganization by the end of the year.

.

7.After we had introduced new technology our business become more efficient and profitable.

, , .

8.Before he invested in this business he had studied the financial statement carefully.

, , .

9.It was one of the most reliable companies in the service sector.

.

10.He developed his business plan better than we had expected.

- , .

11.We had finished our experiment by that time.

.

 

P.54 Ex.4 Translate into English.

 

1. , . 1. The representative of firm has already signed the contract when they have stopped raw materials delivery.

2. , .

We have already sent the company report when she has noticed some errors.

3. , .

The company personnel has already chosen the new president when he has called.

4. , .

Before we have connected our companies, this was unprofitable.

5. .

By the end of alien year they already have created some joint ventures.

6. .

By the end of September of the price have grown twice.

7. , , .

It was late for conference because was not in time on the first bus.

8. , .

It has already finished preparation for the annual report when the manager has caused it in the office.

9. , .

We have already begun to the robot over our general project when it has left the company.

10. , .

Its business became very profitable when he has invited the new adviser.

11. , .

Yesterday I have found the document which so long searched.

12. , .

These two companies have incorporated still before it has got a controlling interest.

 

 

LESSON 6

Text: Organization Structure

Grammar: Past Perfect Continuous

Terms to remember:

 

be in charge of-

Board of Directors-,

Chairman of the Board-

customer-, 볺,

day-to-day-

employee-, ,

Finance department-

Head of a company-

hold a position-

location- ,

make a decision-

Managing Director-

Marketing department-

personnel- ,

Personnel department-

Production department-

report to-,

Research and Development-

department

Sales department-

senior executive/manager-

top executive/manager-

 

Organizational Structure

 

In business organizational structure means the relationship between position and people who hold these positions.

, .

The structure of organizations varies greatly according to the nature of the business.

.

There are several factors which influence this structure:

, :

the number of locations and employees

the economic sector

the type of a market in which they operate

,

the type of a customers

the degree of management control required

the complexity of the business activities

The company is a run by a Board of Directors; each Director is in charge of a department.

- ; .

However, the Chairman of the Board, someone who wears many hats, is in overall control and may not be the head of any one department.

, , -, , , , .

The Board is responsible for policy decisions and strategy .

.

The Managing Director (something called the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), or President in the USA) is the head of the company, who has overall responsibility for the running of the business.

(- (), ) , .

In the US, senior managers in charge of particular areas are often called vice-presidents (VPs).

, , - (VPs).

Most companies have Finance , Sales, Marketing, Production, Research and Development (R&D) and Personnel Departments.

, , , , (R&D).

These are most common departments, but some companies have others as well.

- , .

Most departments have a Manager, who is in charge of its day-to-day running, and who reports to the Director; the Director is responsible for strategic planning and for making decisions.

, , ; .

Various personnel in each department report to the Manager.

.

People at the head of an organization are often called senior executives or senior managers, top executives or top managers.

, -.

 

 

p.63 Ex1 Answer the following questions:

 

1.What does the structure within which business can operate depend on?

The structure of organizations varies greatly according to the nature of the business.

.

2.What factors influence this structure?

?

There are several factors which influence this structure:

, :

the number of locations and employees

the economic sector

the type of a market in which they operate

,

the type of a customers

the degree of management control required

the complexity of the business activities

3.Who is the company run by?

?

The company is a run by a Board of Directors; each Director is in charge of a department.

- ; .

4.What is the Board of Directors responsible for?

?

The Board is responsible for policy decisions and strategy .

.

5.Who is the head of the company ? What is he/she responsible for?

? ?

The Managing Director (something called the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), or President in the USA) is the head of the company, who has overall responsibility for the running of the business.

(- (), ) , .

In the US, senior managers in charge of particular areas are often called vice-presidents (VPs).

6.Who supervises the Managing Director?

?

7.What departments do most companies have?

?

Most departments have a Manager, who is in charge of its day-to-day running, and who reports to the Director; the Director is responsible for strategic planning and for making decisions.

, , ; .

8. What is the Director responsible for?

?

Director is responsible for strategic planning and for making decisions.

.

9.Who reports to the Director?

?

Most departments have a Manager, who is in charge of its day-to-day running, and who reports to the Director.

, , .

10.Whom do personnel in each department report to?

?

Various personnel in each department report to the Manager.

.

 

 

Grammar Revision

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