Basic data processing operations

Five basic operations are characteristic of all data processing systems: inputting, storing, processing, outputting, and controlling. They are defined as follows.

Inputting is the process of entering data, which are collected facts, into a data processing system. Storing is saving data or information so that they are available for initial or for additional processing. Processing represents performing arithmetic or logical operations on data in order to convert them into useful information. Outputting is the process of producing useful information, such as a printed report or visual display.

. 46

Controlling is directing the manner and sequence in which all of the above operations are performed.

Data storage hierarchy

It is known that data, once entered, are organized and stored in successively more comprehensive groupings. Generally, these groupings are called a data storage hierarchy. The general groupings of any data storage hierarchy are as follows.

1) Characters, which are all written language symbols: letters, numbers, and special symbols. 2) Data elements, which are meaningful collections of related characters. Data elements are also called data items or fields. 3) Records, which are collections of related data elements. 4) Files, which are collections of related records. A set of related files is called a data base or a data bank.

3. . , 1.

1. What is processing? 2. What is data processing? 3. What does the term of data processing system mean? 4. What basic operations does a data processing system include? 5. What is inputting / storing / outputting information? 6. What do you understand by resources? 7. How did ancient Egyptians convert facts into useful information? 8. When were mechanical aids for computation developed? 9. What does data storage hierarchy mean? 10. What are the general groupings of any data storage hierarchy?

* 4. :

; () ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; () ; ; ; ; ; ; -

47 Unit 4. Data Processing Concepts

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; .

5. :

Data resource; storage resource; network resource; security resource; system resource.

Communication facilities; data base facilities; display facilities; management facilities.

Distance control; device control; keyboard control; position control; program control.

Computer storage; laser storage; file storage; disk storage; data storage hierarchy.

Character sequence; instruction sequence; message sequence; pulse sequence.

Batch file; catalog file; data file; help file; input file; output file; menu file; user file.

Command input; data input; disk input; file input; keyboard input; program input.

6. , ,
, .

1.Computer ' a) the set of instructions that direct

the operations of computers;

2. Computer literacy b) a part of a computer, entering

data into the device;

3. A program c) facts unorganized but able to be


4. Data d) the output of a data processing


5. Data processing . e) possessing sufficient knowledge

of how computers work and what they can do to use them as problem-solving tools;

6. Data processing f) a series of operations that results

in the conversion of data system into useful information;

. 48

7. Input .g) an electronic device performing

calculations on numerical data;

8. Output h) an electronic device accepting

the data processing results from the computer and displaying them;

9. Useful information i) a set of related files;

10. Data bank j) the resources required to accom-

plish the processing of data. These resources are personnel, material, facilities and equipment.

7. .

1. Data are processed to become useful information. 2. We use the term data processing to include the resources applied for processing of information. 3. Resources required for accomplishing the processing of data are called data processing system. 4. Processing is a series of operations converting inputs into outputs. 5. Facilities are required to house the computer equipment. 6. Egyptians used the information to predict crop yields.

7. Information to be put into the computer for processing should
be coded into ones and zeroes. 8. Processing is operations on data
to convert them into useful information. 9. The first machines
designed to manipulate punched card data were widely used for
business data processing. 10. Hollerith built one machine to
punch the holes and the other to tabulate the collected data.

8. 2.

manual ['maenjusl] , to take advantage of smth .-.

capability [,keip9'bihti] ; ;

accuracy ['sekjurasr] ; ; ()

correctly [ks'rektli] ;

to eliminate [e'hmmeit] ; ; ;

49 Unit 4. Data Processing Concepts

to make errors ['ersz] ()


to remain vulnerable [n'mein 'vAlnorabl] ,

invalid data [m'vashd] , ,

communications networks ;

travel ['traevsl] ; ; ;

instant response ['instant n'spons] ()

to respond [n'spond] ;

access ['aeksas] ; ; ,

capacity of storage [ks'paesiti ev 'stond3] ()

to retrieve [n'trkv] , (); ()

value ['vaslju] ; ; ; ; ;

objective [sb'd3ektiv] ; ;

cost-effective ['kost I'fektiv] ;

challenge ['tfaelmd3] ; ;

9. , . .


Computer-oriented data processing systems or just computer data processing systems are not designed to imitate manual systems. They should combine the capabilities of both humans and

. 50

computers. Computer data processing systems can be designed to take advantage of four capabilities of. computers.

1. Accuracy. Once data have been entered correctly into the
computer component of a data processing system, the need for
further manipulation by humans is eliminated, and the possi
bility of error is reduced. Computers, when properly pro
grammed, are also unlikely to make computational errors. Of
course, computer systems remain vulnerable to the entry by
humans of invalid data.

2. Ease of communications. Data, once entered, can be trans
mitted wherever needed by communications networks. These
may be either earth or satellite-based systems. A travel reserva
tions system is an example of a data communications network.
Reservation clerks throughout the world may make an enquiry
about transportation or lodgings and receive an almost instant
response. Another example is an office communications system
that provides executives with access to a reservoir of date, called
a corporate data base, from their personal microcomputer work


3. Capacity of storage. Computers are able to store vast
amounts of information, to organize it, and to retrieve it in ways
that are far beyond the capabilities of humans. The amount of
data that can be stored on devices such as magnetic discs is con
stantly increasing. All the while, the cost per character of data
stored is decreasing.

4. Speed. The speed, at which computer data processing sys
tems can respond, adds to their value. For example, the travel
reservations system mentioned above would not be useful if cli
ents had to wait more than a few seconds for a response. The
response required might be a fraction of a second.

Thus, an important objective in the design of computer data processing systems is to allow computers to do what they do best and to free humans from routine, error-prone tasks. The most cost-effective computer data processing system is the one that does the job effectively and at the least cost. By using computers in a cost-effective manner, we will be better able to respond to the challenges and opportunities of our post-industrial, information-dependent society.

51 Unit 4. Data Processing Concepts

10. , .

1. What capabilities should data-processing systems combine when designed? 2. What are the main advantages of computers? 3. What do you know of computers accuracy? 4. What is the function of communication networks? 5. Give examples of a data communication network. 6. What do you understand by capacity storage? 7. What other values of computer data processing systems do you know? 8. What is an important objective in the design of computer data processing systems? 9. What is the most effective computer data processing system? 10. What is the best way of responding to the challenges and opportunities of our post-industrial society?


; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; , ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ,


eliminate: elimination; eliminable; eliminator; unlimited.

To respond: respondent; response; responsible; irresponsible; responsibility.

Accuracy: inaccuracy; accurate; inaccurate; accurately.

Correctly: correct; incorrect; to correct; correction; correctional; corrective; corrector.

Vulnerable: invulnerable; vulnerability; invulnerability.

Invalid: valid; invalidity; validity;

Access: accessible; inaccessible; accessibility; inaccessibility.

. 52

13. ,
, ) ; ) .

1. Computers can replace people in dull routine work. 2. The program is a set of instructions that may also include data to be processed. 3. Computer-controled robots must increase the productivity of industry. 4. They can help in making different decisions. 5. The pupils may work with computers at the lessons. 6. Electric pulses can move at the speed of light. 7. Storage devices must have capacities for the input, output data and programs and for intermediate results. 8. Business minicomputers can perform to 100 million operations per second. 9. In order to solve scientific problems researchers must deal with the language of science mathematics. 10. Programmers must write application programs in a way that computers can understand.

14. ,
. ,
, ,

() / ...









, , ...;






53 Unit 4. Data Processing Concepts

, ... , ... , ...

1. The ENIAC (1943-1946)

The first all-electronic computer, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) was developed at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering of the University of Pennsylvania. It was developed as a result of a military need. J.Presper Eckert and John Mauchly proposed the machine to solve the problem of calculating firing tables for new weapons.

The ENIAC weighed 90 tons, its 18.000 vacuum tubes demanded 140 kilowatts of electric power. Although it was fully electronic, the ENIAC had two major shortcomings: it could store and manipulate only a very limited amount of information, and its programs were wired on board. Since its programs were hardwired that is, the programs operating the computer were established by physically changing the patterns of the wires interconnecting the vacuum tubes the machine was not so flexible in operation. These limitations made it difficult to detect errors and to change the programs. And yet, the project was successful and the ENIAC was used for many years to solve ballistic problems.

2. The EDVAC (1946-1952)

Although the idea of an automatic computing engine occurred first to Charles Babbage in 1832, it was more than a century later, in 1945, that John von Neumann set out the principles that fixed the pattern of computer design.

Dr.John von Neumann, professor of mathematics at the Prinston Institute of Advanced Study, together with P.Eckert, J.Mauchly and Goldstine became a project member of a new improved computer, the Electronic Discrete Variable Computer (EDVAC). Von Neumann was a major contributor to the project as he developed the concept of storing instructions as well as data in the memory of the computer. As a result it became possible to replace the writing board, which so seriously handicapped the operation of the ENIAC.

Von Neumann is also given a share of the credit for introducing the idea of storing both instructions and data in a binary code instead of decimal numbers or human-readable words.

. 54

3. The UNIVAC 1(1951)

P.Eckert and J.Mauchly left the EDVAC project to form their own company and built the UNIVAC I computer. UNIVAC stands for UNI\fersal Automatic Computer. The first UNIVAC was installed in the Census Bureau in 1951, and it was used continuously for 10 years. From the University laboratories the computer finally entered the wider world in 1951 with the invention of first UNIVAC I. It was the first digital computer which was not "one of a kind", it was produced in quantity.

In 1952 IBM (International Business Machine) introduced the 701 commercial computer. Although limited in storage capacity by modern standards, the 701 could add a column of 10-digit numbers as tall as the Empire State Building in one second. Very soon improved models of the UNIVAC I and other 701-series machines were introduced. In 1953 IBM produced the IBM 650 which used a magnetic drum for storage and was popular with business and science.

15. .



1. Computer data_____ system frees humans from routine

error-prone tasks.

a) counting; b) computing: c),processing

2. Computers can store vast amount of information to orga-

nize it and______ it.

a) to travel; b) to retrieve; c) to respond

3. The entered data can be transmitted by____ networks.

a) communications; b) conversions; c) procession

4. The possibility of_____ is reduced if data were correct-

ly put into the data processing system, a) character; b) access; c) error

5. Computer data processing systems can____ at a frac
tion of a second.

a) receive; b) respond; c) retrieve

55 Unit 4. Data Processing Concepts

6. Computer systems are vulnerable to the entry of____


a), invalid; b) invariable; c) invisible

7. As soon as data were entered into the system correctly, the

human_____ is limited.

a) computation; b) information; ^manipulation

8. The amount of data stored on magnetic discs is constant-


a) decreasing; b>increasing; c) eliminating

2. , .

1. Inputting a) saving information for further pro-


2. Character . b) the process of producing useful in-


3. Database c) meaningful collections of related


4. Data elements d) the most common input device;

5. Controlling ^e) the part of the computerthat receives

and stores data for processing;

6. Outputting f) directing the sequence of the opera-

tions performed;

7. Memory - g) >a written language symbol;

8. Record h) a collection of related data elements

9. Keyboard i) a set of related facts;

10. Storing j) the process of entering collected into

a data processing system;

Unit 5


1. 1.

architecture ['aki'tektfs] ;

architect ['akitekt] (, )

unit ['jmnit] ; ; ; ;

accessory equipment [sek'sesan]

engineering background ['baekgraund] ,

analyst ['aenshst] ; product line ()

manufacturer [] ; ;

application programmer [aepli'keijh ']

to simulate ['simjuleit] ; voltage ['voltidj] pressure [] ,

digital computer ['did3itsl ksm'pjitfs]

hybrid computer ['haibnd] , -

discrete [dis'kri:t] ;

continuous quantity [ksn'tinjuss 'kwDntiti]

on-going process , ,

to rely [n'lai] .-.;

57 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview

to install [m'sto:l] ; ; ;

household appliances ['haushould sp'larensiz] /

microwave oven ['maikrouweiv 4vn]

indoor climate control system

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