Fill in the squares with nouns upon the models

71 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview

Crossword 1.


1. A more favourable position; gain or benefit. 2. The fol
lowing one thing after another. 3. Examination, experiment or
trial. ^. The process opposite to multiplication. 5. The heart,
the central part of anything. 6. The science dealing with micro-
circuits. 7. Thickness, compactness; example: packing___ .

8. Application. 9. The doing smth; state of being in motion. 10. To put in writing, to print for future use. 11. Goal, purpose. 12. Memory. 13. Advantage, help; anything contributing to an improvement in condition. 14. Intelligence, mental ability. 15. Method or manner of doing something. 16. Display. 17. A tiny crystall, containing an integrated circuit.


1. Information. 2. Help. 3. Reply, answer or reaction. 4. A group of elements. 5. A unit keeping information. 6. Approach; means of approaching, getting. 7. A style or design; imitation of an existing object. 8. Different form of some thing; condition or quality. 9. A mistake.10. A switch. 11. A fitting together of parts to make a whole. 12. Rate. 13. A model; cliche; standard. 14. A system of symbols used for entering data into the computer. 15. A branch of systematized knowledge of nature. 16. An attempt; a hard try. 17. A device. 18. An example, a sample, a model.


Unit 6


1. 1.

operation [apa'reifn] ; ; ;

to relate [n'leit] ; a broad view ['bro:d 'vju:] ,

unit I'jumit] ; , ; ; ;

input ; ; ;

to insert [m'sa:t] ; ; storage memory ; available [a'veibbl] ; at the appropriate time

arithmetic-logical unit -

output ; ; ;

to remove [n'mu:v] ; ; ;

control unit

cause ['ko:z] ; ; ; ;

to feed (fed, fed) ; ; ()

to interpret [m'tapnt] ;

to issue commands ['isju: ka'marndz] pulse no-pulse ()

73 Unit 6. Functional Organization of the Computer

2. .


As we know, all computer operations can be grouped into five functional categories. The method in which these five functional categories are related to one another represents the functional organization of a digital computer. By studying the functional organization, a broad view of the computer is received.

The five major functional units of a digital computer are:

1) Input to insert outside information into the machine;

2) Storage or memory to store information and make it avail
able at the appropriate time; 3) Arithmetic-logical unit to
perform the calculations; 4) Output to remove data from the
machine to the outside world and 5) Control unit to cause
all parts of a computer to act as a team.

Figure 5 shows how the five functional units of the computer act together. A complete set of instructions and data are usually fed through the input equipment to the memory where they are stored. Each instruction is then fed to the control unit. The control unit interprets the instructions and issues commands to the other functional units to cause operations to be performed on the data. Arithmetic operations are performed in the arithmetic-logical unit, and the results are then fed back to the mem-

. 74

. Information may be fed from either the arithmetic unit or the memory through the output equipment to the outside world. The five units of the computer must communicate with each other. They can do this by means of a machine language which uses a code composed of combinations of electric pulses. These pulse combinations are usually represented by zeros and ones, where the one may be a pulse and the zero a no-pulse. Numbers are communicated between one unit and another by means of these one-zero or pulse no-pulse combinations. The input has the additional job of converting the information fed in by the operator into machine language. In other words, it tran-saltes from our language into the pulse no-pulse combinations understandable to the computer. The output's additional job is converting the pulse no-pulse combinations into a form understandable to us, such as a printed report.

3. . , .

1. What represents the functional organization of a computer? 2. What can we get by studying the functional organization?

3. What is the function of the input device? 4. What does mem
ory serve for? 5. What is the task of the arithmetic-logical unit?
6. What is the function of the output? 7. What is the main pur
pose of the control unit? 8. How do all units of the computer
communicate with each other? 9. What is the additional job of
the input? 10. What is the additional function of the output?


; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; , .

75 Unit 6. Functional Organization of the Computer

5. ,
. .

Organization, functional, available, equipment, processor,-Cbmpletely, architectural, converter, convertible, controller, removable, logical, addition, additional, usually, accomplishment, operator, operation, mainly, communication, insertion, electronic, digital, instruction, generally, arithmetic, daily", development, central, lately, visible, substitution, understandable.

, .

Computer, analog computer; digital computer; hybrid computer; all-purpose computer; general-purpose computer; fifth-generation computer; game computer; handheld computer; mobile computer; multimedia computer; notebook computer; pocket computer; portable computer.

Unit: unit of memory; unit of data; unit of measurement; arithmetic unit; arithmetic-logical unit; central processing unit; computing unit; control unit; functional unit; input unit; output unit; network unit; system unit.

Function: arithmetic function; checking function; complex function; computer function; continuous function; conversion function; distribution function; encoding function; logical function; numeric function; output function; program function; search function; software function; support function; utility function; variable function.

Control: access control; batch control; coding control; distance / remote control; error control; execution control; hardware control; input/output control; memory control; power control; production control; program control; rate control; self-acting control; software control; system control.


A. Small; fast; new; long; late; wide; young; easy; great; dull;
rich; bulky; large; vast; early; old; broad.

B. Frequent; reliable; approximate; significant; intricate;
possible; basic; remarkable; common; modern; dependent; gen
eral; necessary; successful; scientific; universal.

Good; bad; little; many.

77 Unit 6. Functional Organization of the Computer

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