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Exercise 3. A. Read and learn.

 

I Want to Read Faster

Mary: I've read a detective story. It wasn't very good so I wasted ( ) much time.

Jane: Oh, it takes me now not more than an hour to read a novel.

M.: Really?

J.: Two months ago it would have taken me about two days. It is a pity you didn't join me when I was taking speed-reading course.

M.: Two things hold me back. Doubts that any system could radically and permanently increase my speed. And money for the courses.

J.: But I thought that if I could double my speed, the sum wouldn't be so much.

M.: Sure, you are right. By the way, some authorities say it isn't reading. Though a lot of unread newspapers, books and magazines about the house might fall on me. My present work day reading is 200 words per minute, it is very slow. How are those speed reading courses?

J.: Great, today 50,000 students a year take these courses.

M.: How long does this course last?

J.: Eight weeks, a 2,5 hour session a week plus an hour a day drill.

M.: What is your speed now?

J.: The final test showed that my speed was 1520 w.p.m. The book was the same we have used for our entrance exam.

M.: But you can lose the technique.

J.: It is another question. The only wide survey () of ex-students 1800 of them showed that after a year one third of the people weren't using the method at all. Another third said they use it sometimes and that probably they have kept speed. But the rest of the students said they were reading faster than a year later.

 

Text 8B

 

Optical Technology

 

One of the most interesting developments in telecommunication is the rapid progress of optical communication where optical fibers are replacing conventional telephone wires and cables. Just as digital technologies greatly improved the telephone system, optical communication promises a considerable increase in capacity, quality, performance and reliability of the global telecommunication network. New technologies such as optical fibers will increase the speed of telecommunication and provide new, specialized in-information service. Voice, computer data, even video images, will be increasingly integrated into a single digital communication network capable of processing and transmitting virtually any kind of information.

It is a result of combining two technologies: the laser, first demonstrated in 1960, and the fabrication 10 years later of ultra-thin silicon fibres which can serve as lightwave conductors. With the further development of very efficient lasers plus continually improved techniques to produce thin silica fibres of incredible transparency, optical systems can transmit pulses of light as far as 135 kilometers without the need for amplification or regeneration.

At present high-capacity optical transmission systems are being installed between many major US cities at a rapid rate. The system most widely used now operates at 147 megabits (thousand bits) per second and accommodates 6,000 circuits over a single pair of glass fibres (one for each direction of transmission). This system will soon be improved to operate at 1.7 gigabits (thousand million bits) per second and handle 24,000 telephone channels simultaneously.

A revolution in information storage is underway with optical disk technology.

The first digital optical disks were produced in 1982 as compact disks for music. They were further developed as a storage medium for computers. The disks are made of plastics coated with aluminium. The information is recorded by using a powerful laser to imprint bubbles on the surface of the disk. A less powerful laser reads back the pictures, sound or information. An optical disk is almost indestructible and can store about 1000 times more information than a plastic disk of the same size.

One CD-ROM disk (650 MB) can replace 300,000 pages of text (about 500 floppies), which represents a lot of savings in databases.

The future of optical storage is called DVD (digital versatile disk). A DVD-ROM can hold up to 17 GB, about 25 times an ordinary CD-ROM. For this reason, it can store a large amount of multimedia software and complete full-screen Hollywood movies in different languages. However, DVD-ROMs are read-only devices. To avoid this limitation, companies also produce DVD rewritable drives.

Besides, it is reported that an optical equivalent of a transistor has been produced and intensive research on optical electronic computers is underway at a number of US companies as well as in countries around the world.

It is found that optical technology is cost-effective and versatile. It finds new applications every day from connecting communication equipment or computers within the same building or room to long-distance transcontinental, transoceanic and space communications.

 

Text 8C

 

.

 

An Encyclopedia on a Tiny Crystal

 

Scientists have discovered that a laser beam can be effectively used to record alphanumeric data and sound on crystals. According to Russian researchers a method for recording information on crystals by means of a laser has already been developed, but advanced technologies are needed to make it commercially applicable.

At present researchers are looking for the most suitable chemical compounds to be used as data storages and trying to determine optimum recording conditions. Theoretically, the entire Great Soviet Encyclopedia can be recorded on a single tiny crystal.

As far back as 1845, Michael Faradey discovered that a light beam reverses its polarization as it passes through a magnetized crystal. Scientists of our day have used this phenomenon to identify crystalline materials capable of storing information. Lasers have been successfully employed to record information on and read it off.

No ideal data storage crystal has yet been found, but it is obvious now that the future of computer engineering lies in lasers and optoelectronics.

 

 

LESSON 9

 

Text 9A. Superconductivity

Text 9.

Text 9C. New Hope for Energy

 

 

1. .

 

1. We know Morse to have been a painter by profession. 2. Scientists expect lasers to solve the problem of controlled thermonuclear reaction. 3. M. Faraday supposed a beam of light to reverse its polarization as it passed through a magnetized crystal. 4. Designers expect dirigibles to be used for exploration of new territories. 5. Japanese designers believe a new ceramic engine to replace the conventional one. 6 Engineers suppose a new night vision system to enable drivers to see better after dark. 7. Scientists believe new laser devices to be widely used in medicine. 8. We know the first digital optical disks to have been produced as disks for music. 9. They believed him to be capable.

 

2. , .

 

. 1. Hundreds of radio navigation stations watch the airplanes find their destination and land safely. 2. Twice a year people see birds fly south and north, but we don't know how they find their way. 3. At the Paris Exhibition people watched the cargo airplane Ruslan carry a great amount of cargo. 4. When you stand near a working engine you feel it vibrate. 5. Making experiments with electric telegraph Morse noticed a pencil make a wavy line when connected to an electric wire. 6. Nowadays people watch on television cosmonauts work in space, Lunokhod move on the surface of the Moon and Olympic games take place on the other side of the globe.

B. 1. A force applied to a body causes it to move in a straight line. 2. The unsatisfactory results of Bell's experiments forced him to change the method of testing. 3. The excellent properties of Damascus steel made metallurgists of the whole world look for the lost secret of the steel. 4. Very high temperatures often cause certain materials to break. 5. Bad weather conditions make pilots switch over to automatic control.

3. , for, .

 

1. It was the only thing for us to do. 2. The students were waiting for the lecturer to describe the properties of a new composite material. 3. It is for you to decide which of the two methods to use. 4. It is necessary for the students to know the properties of various alloys. 5. A system of satellites is provided for people to watch the central TV program.

 

4. .

 

A. 1. Students of Cambridge are supposed to wear gowns at lectures. 2. The first pocket-size colour television sets were reported to have been developed. 3. Today's aircraft is expected to be replaced by a new model of hypersonic aircraft in a few years. 4. Intensive research on optical-electronic computer is said to be going on in a number of US companies. 5. A method for recording information on crystal by means of a laser is known to have been developed by a Russian researcher. 6. The annual output of personal computers is expected to reach millions in the near future. 7. The laser is known to be a device producing an intensive beam of light by amplifying radiation. 8, Optical technology has been found to be cost-effective. 9. The optical equivalent of a transistor is reported to have been produced.

B. 1. Our present-day life seems to be quite impossible without telephone, radio, and television. 2. Nowadays the principle of radio operation seems to be quite simple. 3. The term radar is known to be composed of the first letters of radio, detection and ranging. It happens to reflect its basic principle, that is, the location of an object at a distance. 4. About 50 per cent of Lake Baikal water proved to have been polluted since the Baikal plant has begun its work. 5. Lasers appeared to be highly useful for solving the problem of controlled thermonuclear reaction and communication. 6. A system of Earth satellites appears to have solved the problem of transmitting the central TV program to any part of the world. 7. Electricity proved to be able to travel instantly over a long piece of wire.

. 1. Dirigibles are likely to be used for taking tourists to distant and beautiful places. 2. Lasers are unlikely to be used in our everyday life soon. 3. Superconductivity is certain to bring about new discoveries in science and technology.

 

5., r much.

1. One more present-day complicated problem to be solved is that of combining laser and thermonuclear reaction to produce a practically limitless source of energy. 2. A Japanese company is planning to install several more electronic devices on the car instrument panel. 3. The Voice Warning System is one more electronic device. 4. If you make half-hour breaks while getting ready for your exams, your brain will work much more efficiently. 5. Aerodynamics is one more problem to be taken into consideration when designing a hypersonic craft. 6. The wheel-computerized system is much more efficient than those used previously. 7. Cryogenic fuels used both as coolant and propellant make the solution of the superliner surface cooling problem much easier to solve. 8. The fact that dirigibles are much larger in size and their staying power is much longer than those of an aircraft makes them ideally suited for exploration.

 

6. .

 

the physics discoveries, discoveries that led to, the scientific advantage, advantage could well come to nation, to bring the mankind to, mercury wire, unexpected phenomenon, to return to normal state, by passing electric current, by applying magnetic field, to make a great contribution, they introduced a model, a model proved to be useful, a theory won for them the Nobel Prize, research in superconductivity, research became especially active, the achieved record of 23 K.

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7. .

 

prestige [pres'tJZ], nation ['neISqn], Nobel prize [nqu'bel praIz], absolute zero ['xbsqlHt 'zIqrqu], phenomenon [fI'nOmInqn], normal, magnetic, electromagnetic, theory ['TIqrI], theorists ['TIqrIsts], fundamental theory, physics, physicist, model ['mOdl], metallic [mI'txlIk], ceramic [sI'rxmIk], colleagues ['kOlJgz], laboratory, critical temperature, fabricate, extremely [Iks'trJmlI], process ['prquses].

 

8. :

 

latest ['leItIst], spectacular [spek'txkjulq], breakthrough ['breIk'TrH], compare [kqm'pFq], award [q'wLd], research [rI'sWC], mercury ['mWkjurI], wire ['waIq], below [bIlqu], 5C ['faIv di'grJz 'sentIgreId], completely [kqm'plJtlI], return [rI'tWn], either ['aIDq], finally ['faInqlI], Zurich ['zjuqrIk], previously ['prJvjqslI], throughout [TrH'aut], liquid ['lIkwId], nitrogen ['naItqGqn], lose [lHz], moreover [mL'rquvq], lack [lxk].

 

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Text 9

 

Superconductivity

 

According to the prominent scientist in this country V.L. Ginz-burg the latest world achievements in the field of superconductivity mean a revolution in technology and industry. Recent spectacular breakthroughs1 in superconductors may be compared with the physics discoveries that led to electronics and nuclear power. They are likely to bring the mankind to the threshold of a new technological age. Prestige, economic and military benefits could well come to the nation that first will master this new field of physics. Superconductors were once thought to be physically impossible. But in 1911 superconductivity was discovered by a Dutch physicist K. Onnes, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1913 for his low-temperature research. He found the electrical resistivity of a mercury wire to disappear suddenly when cooled below a temperature of 4 Kelvin (-269 C). Absolute zero is known to be 0 K. This discovery was a completely unexpected phenomenon. He also discovered that a superconducting material can be returned to the normal state either by passing a sufficiently large current through it or by applying a sufficiently strong magnetic field to it. But at that time there was no theory to explain this.

For almost 50 years after K. Onnes' discovery theorists were unable to develop a fundamental theory of superconductivity. In 1950 physicists Landau and Ginzburg made a great contribution to the development of superconductivity theory. They introduced a model which proved to be useful in understanding electromagnetic properties of superconductors. Finally, in 1957 a satisfactory theory was presented by American physicists, which won for them in 1972 the Nobel Prize in physics. Research in superconductors became especially active since a discovery made in 1986 by IBM2 scientists in Zurich. They found a metallic ceramic compound to become a superconductor at a temperature well above3 the previously achieved record of 23 K.

It was difficult to believe it. However, in 1987 American physicist Paul Chu informed about a much more sensational discovery: he and his colleagues produced superconductivity at an unbelievable before temperature 98 in a special ceramic material. At once in all leading laboratories throughout the world superconductors of critical temperature 100 and higher (that is, above the boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen) were obtained. Thus, potential technical uses of high temperature superconductivity seemed to be possible and practical. Scientists have found a ceramic material that works at room temperature. But getting superconductors from the laboratory into production will be no easy task. While the new superconductors are easily made, their quality is often uneven. Some tend to break when produced, others lose their superconductivity within minutes or hours. All are extremely difficult to fabricate into wires. Moreover, scientists lack a full understanding of how ceramics become superconductors. This fact makes developing new substances largely a random process. This is likely to continue until theorists give a fuller explanation of how superconductivity is produced in new materials.

 

 

Notes to the Text

 

1. spectacular breakthroughs ,

2. IBM

3. well above

 

 

 

9. 9 .

 

1. What is this text about? 2. What is the phenomenon of superconductivity? 3. Who was the first to discover the phenomenon? 4. What scientists do you know who have worked in the field of superconductivity? 5. What materials are the best superconductors? 6. Is it possible to return superconducting materials to the normal state? 7. How can it be done? 8. In what fields of science and technology can the phenomenon of superconductivity be used?

 

10., 9. .

 

1. The latest achievements in superconductivity mean a revolution4 in technology and industry. 2. Superconductors were once thought to be physically impossible. 3. The achievements in superconductivity cannot be compared with the discoveries that led to electronics and nuclear power. 4. The electrical resistivity of a mercury wire disappears when cooled below 4 K. 5. A superconducting material cannot be returned to the normal state. 6. Landau and Ginzburg introduced a model which was useful in understanding electromagnetic properties of superconductors. 7. Scientists from IBM found a ceramic material that became a superconductor at a temperature of 23 K. 8. Potential technical uses of high temperature superconductivity are unlikely to be possible and practical.

 

11. 9 .

 

12. , .

 

1. Designers report a new manned craft to be able to submerge to the depth of 21,000 feet. A new manned craft is reported to be able to submerge to the depth of 21,000 feet. 2. We know radio navigation stations to be located at different places around the world to guide the pilots. Radio navigation stations are known to be located all over the world to guide the pilots. 3. People considered dirigibles to be too slow and unreliable, that is why they were not used for a long time. Dirigibles were considered to be slow and unreliable. 4. Experts expect the new submersible craft to move round the ocean floor like a sports car. The new submersible craft is expected to move round the ocean floor like a sports car. 5. Scientists in many countries consider propeller engines to be much more economical. Propeller engines are considered to be much more economical. 6. We know propeller planes to fly slower than jet planes, therefore, a new ventilator engine with a propeller has been built. But as propeller planes are known to fly slower than jet planes a new ventila- tor engine with a propeller has been built.

 

13. , .

 

1. The phenomenon of superconductivity appears to have been discovered as early as 1911. 2. Before 1911 superconductivity was assumed to be impossible. 3. Recent discoveries in superconductivity made scientists look for new conducting materials and for practical applications of the phenomenon. 4. The latest achievements in the field of superconductivity are certain to make a revolution in technology and industry. 5. Recommendations from physicists will allow the necessary measures to be taken to protect the air from pollution. 6. Lasers are sure to do some jobs better and at much lower cost than other devices. 7. M. Faraday supposed a light beam to reverse its polarisation as it passed through a magnetised crystal. 8. Superconductors are likely to find applications we don't even think of at present. 9. A Dutch physicist found a superconducting material to return to normal state when a strong magnetic field was applied. 10. Properties of materials obtained in space prove to be much better than those produced on Earth. 11. There are prospects for lasers to be used in long distance communication and for transmission of energy to space stations. 12. The electrical resistivity of a mercury wire was found to disappear when cooled to 269 C. 13. Additional radio transmitters let the pilot make his approach to an airport by watching his flight instruments. 14. There seems to be a lot of alloys and compounds that become superconductors under certain conditions.

 

 

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14. , .

 

resistant, resist, resistance, resistor, resistivity; superconductivity, superconductive, superconductor, superconducting; theory, theorist, theoretical, theorize; physics, physicist, physical, physically; explain, explainable, explanation; store, storage, storable.

 

15. .

 

achievable, achievement, achieve; electronics, electronic, electron; easily, easy, easier; satisfy, satisfactory, satisfaction; reality, realise, really.

16. .

 

below above; useful useless; easy difficult; field sphere; to meet demands to meet requirements (needs); full complete; to use to apply; to get to obtain; moreover besides; sufficient enough; likely unlikely; to continue to discontinue; conductivity nonconductivity; to vary to change; to lead to to result in; recent latest; advantage disadvantage; low high; believable unbelievable; to lose to find; tiny huge; liquid solid; unexpected expected; common ordinary.

 

17. .

 

The ancient Greeks are known to have been great watchers of the sky and also great thinkers. As they watched the sky night after night, it was natural for them to think that the Earth stood and the stars, planets, sun and moon were moving round the earth in space. They thought the sun to be between Venus and Mars. To explain the movement of the planets, however, was very difficult. Then one day a young scientist named Copernicus at Krakow University in Poland supposed that the sun and not the Earth should be the centre of everything. He was the first to explain properly our solar system. The ancient Greeks had made the mistake of thinking that because the stars and planets seemed to move as they looked at the sky, the Earth must stand. If you sat in a train and looked out at the trees, it would be easy to understand their mistake. The trees seem to be moving backwards, but really it is the train that is moving forwards.

 

CONVERSATION

 

Exercise 1.Answer the questions.

 

1. What field of science studies the phenomenon of superconductivity? (physics) 2. What can a nation have if it is the first to master this new field of science? (prestige, scientific advantage, economic and military benefits) 3. What is superconductivity? (the loss of electrical resistivity by a material on being cooled to temperatures near absolute zero) 4. What is absolute zero? (0 Kelvin or 273 C) 5. What scientists worked in the field of superconductivity research? (Dutch physicist K. Onnes, Russian physicists L. Landau and V. Ginzburg, and a number of American scientists) 6. What materials are the best super conductors? (ceramic materials) 7. What are the potential technical uses of superconductivity? (nuclear research, power generation, electronics, etc.)

 

Exercise 2. Make a sentence out of the two parts.

 


1. Recent achievements in superconductivity research are

2. They may be compared with

 

 

3. Superconductivity is known to

 

4. While carrying out his low temperature research he

1. fundamental theory to explain this unexpected phenomenon.

2. found the electrical resistivity of mercury to disappear when cooled to the temperature of 4 Kelvin.

3. to the development of superconductivity theory.

4. have been discovered by a Dutch physicist.

5. For 50 years after the discovery there was no

6. In the 1950s Russian and American physicists made a great contribution

7. Research in the field of superconductivity became especially active

 

5. of great importance for science and technology.

6. since the discovery of a superconductive metallic ceramics.

 

7. physics discoveries that led to the development of electronics and nuclear power.

 


Exercise 3.Read and learn.

 

Professor Brown: Hello, glad to meet you, prof. Smith, haven't seen you for ages, since I left the University.

Prof. Smith: How do you do, prof. Brown, I haven't expected to see you here. Are you interested in superconductivity problems? By the way, how are you making your living? I haven't heard anything about your work lately. I spent the last two years in Geneva as a member of a special UN committee.

Pr. .: I am with Bell Telephone company. It is a global leader in electrical engineering. And I deal with new technologies.

Pr. S.: Oh, your work is so important nowadays. Mankind needs energy for producing light, heat and transportation. This is the basis of our civilization.

Pr. .: Sure, that's so. And as the population grows, so does the demand for better quality of life. Energy consumption increases daily.

Pr. S.: But with it the threat to clean air, pure water and soil increases too. These natural resources are not inexhaustible.

Pr. .: Of course. We are developing new industrial systems to improve productivity, reducing the amount of raw materials and energy required. Our new advanced systems help to conserve energy too.

Pr. S.: In Geneva one of the problems I studied was the problem to generate, transmit and distribute energy with great efficiency. I think Doctor Carter's work in this field is the most promising. From the Agenda ( ) we have all just received you can see that Dr. Carter will speak on his work tomorrow.

Pr.B.: I have already seen this paper on the program. I won't miss () it. Have you attended the morning session?

 

Pr. S.: The most interesting was the discussion on the problems of the balance between the needs of mankind and the conservation of the natural resources.

Pr. .: Have you taken part in it?

Pr. S.: Certainly. I've spoken about clean and efficient technology in the field of electrical engineering.

 

Text 9

 

.

 

Superconductivity is a state of matter that chemical elements, compounds and alloys assume on being cooled to temperatures near to absolute zero. Hence, a superconductor is a solid material that abruptly loses all resistance to the flow of electric current when cooled below a characteristic temperature. This temperature differs for different materials but generally is within the absolute zero (-273 C). Superconductors have thermal, electric and magnetic properties that differ from their properties at higher temperatures and from properties of nonsuperconductive materials.

Now hundreds of materials are known to become superconductors at low temperature. Approximately 26 of the chemical elements are superconductors. Among these are commonly known metals such as aluminium, tin, lead and mercury and several less common ones.

Most of the known superconductors are alloys or compounds.

It is possible for a compound to be superconducting even if the chemical elements constituting it are not.

 

Tex 9

 

. .

 

 

New Hope for Energy

 

Recently some ceramic materials have been found to be superconductors. Superconducting ceramics are substances which can transmit electric currents with no loss of energy at temperatures much higher than conventional superconductors (that is, at the temperature of liquid nitrogen).

One use for the new superconductors would be to replace those that need the extreme cold of liquid helium huge superconducting electromagnets used in nuclear magnetic resonance research, atomic particle acceleration and research reactors.

Other types of electromagnets made with superconductors could be used to lower the cost of electric generation and storage. Such uses may take 10 years of research, a quicker use will probably be in electronics.

Researchers now estimate that tiny but immensely powerful highspeed computers using superconductors may be three to five years away. Further off are 300 m.p.h. trains that float on magnetic cushions which now exist as prototypes but may take at least a decade to perfect. Power lines that can meet a city's electric needs with superconductor cables may be even further in the future.

Meanwhile, scientists around the world are trying to turn the new materials into useful products. Among the most notable is a micron-thin film to transmit useful amounts of electric current without losing superconductivity. The film could be used in the microscopic circuitry of advanced computers as high-speed pathway (, ) between computer chips.

Several nations are known to be very active in superconductor research. For example, the United States is spending millions of dollars on such research, much of it for military uses: projectile accelerators, lasers, ship and submarine propulsion.

 

 

 


²

 

Text

 

The world of microelectronics

 

Switching on a portable radio transistor, a low-wave TV-set, looking at an electronic watch or counting on a micro-calculator, we hardly give thought to the idea of how these devices work so common are they in our lives. What has brought them into being? How do miniature apparata perform complicated operations in general? These miniature devices, one of the greatest achievements of scientific and technological progress, are functioning on the basis of microelectronic circuits. Microelectronics, a section of semiconductor electronics, is developing at a rapid pace. It defines the technical and elemental base of cybernetics, instrument engineering as well as the efficiency of research and thus influences the scientific and technological potential of the country.

A great role belongs to microelectronics in our national economy. Its appearance and intensive development was caused by the necessity of using a great quantity of active elements: diodes, transistors, variable capacitors.

Semiconductor elements are usually presented in a microminiaturized form: they are arranged in a single crystal, though their quantity sometimes exceeds hundreds of thousands. But this is a unique apparatus, a very complicated circuit which performs quite a number of processes. Such devices have acquired the name of integrated circuits. The "cleverest" of them perform the function of "logical thinking" and carry out rather a complicated operation of processing information. They have been called microprocessors.

At the base of modern microelectronic devices lie semiconductor elements. Microelectronics itself is based on planar technology and photolithography. Integral circuit is a complicated structure with its ways, sluices and quick-working gates for the flows of electrons which are carriers of information. They are able to act at command just as to work independently. And that means that the electrons can create a new process, direct operations, think over and carry out such complicated calculations that are inaccessible even to a great number of qualified specialists.

The history of microelectronics is not so long: 1947 saw the creation of the first semiconductor transistor on which applied semiconductor electronics is based. Ten years later, in 1958, the first integrated circuit appeared. Industrial production of integrated circuits began in 1960s. First they consisted of several elements, later the count went by the hundred, at present supergreat integrated circuits count several hundreds of thousands of elements in one crystal.

No branch in the history of technique has ever lived througli such a rapid growth. The level of the development of microelectronics defines the level of all computers and data processing as well as diverse complicated systems of electronic automation.

There is a great social demand for creating automata of wide application (up . to robot including), for constructing new computers and complexes facilitating the work of people.

 

.

 

1. What are the most popular electronic devices? 2. What are the electronic miniature devices functioning on? 3. What science defines the technical and elemental base of cybernetics and instrument engineering? 4. What caused the appearance of microelectronics? 5. What devices acquired the name of integrated circuits? 6. What is at the base of modern microelectronics? 7. When does the history of microelectronics begin? 8 When did the first integrated circuit appear? 9. What do we call modern supergreat integrated circuit? 10. Why is the development of microelectronics so important for any national economy?

 

Text

 

Radio engineering and television

 

 

The seventh of May is traditionally named Radio Day. It was on this day in 1895 that A- S. Popov, a Russian scientist, reported in the Physics Department of the Russian Physical and Chemical Society on his invention of a sensitive re ceiver which detected and registered electric oscillations In the atmosphere. He demonstrated his radio-receiving set in operation. Popov's invention found practical application in meteorology and communication. Since then, radio communication and radio engineering have made a tremendous progress. A great number of scientists and inventors contributed to this progress. Radio has become such a part of our life that we cannot imagine our existence without it. Now it is hardly possible to name a sphere of science, engineering or national economy where radio equipment is not used.

Today radio engineering is a very vast field, which includes a great number of specialized branches, such as radio communication, television, radiolocation (radar), radioastron-omy, radiotelemetry, automatics, cybernetics, and so on.

The invention of the radio (electronic) valve made possible the transmission of speech, music and vision signals and thus led to broadcasting and television. While radar helps navigation at sea and makes air navigation and flight safe, television helps man to see what goes on hundreds and thousands of kilometres away. Man is already able to cast his electric eye at the bottom of the sea, inside a roaring blast furnace and a live nuclear reactor. Without radio, radiobeacon and radiocompass it would be not safe to travel by air and by sea in foggy and stormy weather. Without radioelectronic equipment space flight would be impossible. Radiolocators installed on sputniks help see from outer space the formation of typhoons or hurricanes, calculate their force and direction, determine spring floods of rivers, etc.

Radio and television are not only the reliable means of communication but also efficient means of educating people, spreading knowledge and ideas and raising the cultural level of the population. Television finds ever wider application in various fields of national economy.

In radioastronomy radiotelescopes are used to investigate the Universe, to obtain data on chemical composition and surface conditions of the Sun and other planets.

Radio engineering technique is widely used in radiotelemetry to indicate or record a measurable quantity at a distance.

At present we produce equipment for powerful broadcasting and television centres and radio-relay stations, electronic computers, radar stations, telecontrol and telemetric systems, etc.

Radiobroadcasting is the technique of use of radio (electromagnetic) waves for wireless transmitting of sound. Radiowaves are produced at the broadcasting station and radiated by the aerial. Radiowaves generated by the radio transmitter and emitted by the aerial propagate in all directions. Radioreceivers receive, transform and amplify the energy of radiowaves into audio signals so that they can reach the loudspeaker, headphones, a relay, recording equipment, etc. Radioreceiver is one of the main elements of broadcasting, communication systems, television, radar and many other fields of engineering. The lower the power of signals received, the higher sensitivity of the receiver should be.

Broadcasting based on digital coding has revealed many advantages over conventional broadcasting. It consists in converting soundwaves into series of digits and their subsequent transmission in the form of monofrequential pulses. A signal is then received and after amplification is sent to the acoustic system for reproduction. Digital coding enhances the quality of broadcasting, makes it possible to reduce considerably the size of new receiver-decoders. In digital broadcasting more than one station can use one and the same wavelength without interference.

Many fundamentally new radioengineering devices have appeared of late, which infinitely extend the range of their application.

 

Notes to the Text

 

1. radio communication '

2. to cast one's eye (at) , ()

3. blast furnace ,

4. live [laiv] nuclear reactor

5. measurable quantity ,

6. technique of use (of) (-.)

7. conventional (broadcasting) , ()

8. monofrequent(ial) pulse

9. digit(al) coding

10. series of digits ()

11. receiver-decoder -

:

1. When is Radio Day marked? 2. Who is the inventor of radio? 3. Why is Radio Day marked on the 7th of May? 4. Where did Popov's invention find application? 5. Where is radio equipment used now? 6. Where is television applied today? 7. What modern radioengineering techniques do you know? 8. Where are radio-waves produced and how are they radiated? 9. How does radio work? 10. What is digital broadcasting? 11. What does digital broadcasting eonsist in? 12. What advantages has digital broadcasting revealed over conventional broadcasting?

 

Text

 

 

Television

 

Television provides a means of viewing the images of objects that are out of sight, i. e. far removed from the observer.

The images of moving or stationary objects are converted into electric signals and these signals are transmitted by a television transmitter. The television receiver (TV-set) picks up these signals and performs the reverse conversion of electrical signals into the image displayed on the screen of a cathode ray tube (CRT). Television signals can be transmitted by means of transmission lines as well as by radio.

The transmission of video signals is more complicated than the transmission of audio signals by means of radio-waves. There is a difference between the perception of audio signals and video signals by the human being. No matter how complex the audio signal is, the human ear interprets it as the sum total of all its components, i, e. as a single sound. The human eye, on the other hand, can perceive many different objects at one and the same time. Modern television techniques have taken all the peculiarities of human sight into consideration.

The iconoscope camera tube was developed as far back as the early thirties. Later, other types of camera tubes came into use, such as the supericonoscope which is more commonly known as the image iconoscope. The tube in the television receiver, that provides picture display, is called the picture tube or kinescope.

The image of an object is projected onto the camera tube. The electron beam of this tube scans the image point by point. The beam scanning is controlled by a scan unit. At the tube output, pulses corresponding to the image are generated. These signals are usually termed the picture signals.

These pulses are amplified and used to drive the television transmitter, where they modulate the transmitter carrier. Transmission is usually achieved by amplitude-modulation techniques. The resulting radio-frequency vision signals are transmitted by the aerial and picked up by the receiving aerial, in which they induce an e. m. f. corresponding in frequency and waveform to the transmitted signals. Received signals are fed to the video channel amplifier, that is essentially a pulse receiver. Here the signals are amplified and detected; the picture signals from the detector output are amplified and used to drive the television tube brightness control electrode.

The movement of the electron beam in the television tube must be strictly synchronous and in phase with the electron beam of the camera tube. This phasing is accomplished by transmitting special syncpulses, provided by a synchronization generator (timer). These syncpulses control the scan of the camera tube and are transmitted along with the picture signals. At the receiver, these syncpulses are extracted from the composite video signal and used to control the operation of the scan.

In television broadcasting, the sound signal is transmitted simultaneously with the video signal. The audio signal from a microphone is amplified and used to modulate the frequency sound channel carrier. Both transmitters feed one common aerial through a special coupling filter. The receiver aerial picks up the sound and vision radio frequency signals. After amplification, the sound signal is separated from the composite signal, amplified, and used to drive a loudspeaker.

 

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out of sight , reverse conversion , cathode ray tube (CRT) - , sum total , to perceive , , perception , , (iconoscope) camera tube , image iconoscope , , scan unit , television transmitter , transmitter carrier (), sound channel carrier () , amplitude modulation techniques , radio-frequency vision signals , electromagnetic field (e. m. f.) , to feed , video channel amplifier Ⳮ, pulse receiver , , detector output , television tube brightness control electrode , to scan , output , frequency-modulated signal - , syncpulses , coupling filter ', to drive .

 

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1. What kind of means of viewing object images does television provide? 2. What does the television receiver do? 3. By what means can television signals be transmitted? 4. What is the difference between the audio signals and video signals? 5. How many different objects can the human eye perceive at one and the same time? 6. What does the electron beam of the tube do? 7. Where are signals amplified and detected?8. Why must the movement of the electron beam in the tube be strictly synchronous with the beam in the camera tube? 9.What is the role of syncpulses? 10. What does the receiver aerial pick up?

 

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Automation and labour

 

It is a matter of common knowledge nowadays that the principal direction of the present-day scientific and technological progress consists in the revolution of mechanized forms of work through the automation of production. Quite recently, only some decades ago, even the words "automation", "automatic control" seldom appeared on the pages of the press or scientific publications. In the early forties the position radically changed. Soon automatic control was recognized throughout the world to be a new, progressive, independent branch of science and engineering. Today one cannot imagine technical progress without automation.

Automation may be defined as "the accomplishment of a job by an integrated mechanism with a minimum assistance of any kind". In fact, automation is the integration of four independent compounds which have been linked together into a single process. These integral parts of automation are: transfer machining, automatic assembly, communication engineering and control engineering.

Emphasis should be made that automation is not a mere extention of mechanization, but a qualitatively new step in technological development. It brought about radical changes in the technological nature of the relationship between man and machine. In mechanization the function of the direct effect on the object of labour was transferred to the working mechanism. Here, man remained the principal agent of the technological process. He retained the functions of control, regulation, maintaining machines and direct intervention in production process. With the advent of automation these functions were transferred to the mechanical device. The automation of production enables man to operate machines with the help of other machines. Now machines discharge not only production but also intellectual, and in some cases even physiological functions.

Our country has many thousands of comprehensively mechanized and automated enterprises and workshops. The mechanized and automated production lines replace or lighten the work of a tremendous number of workers. All the hydro-power plants in the country have been completely automated. Annually hundreds of automated control systems go into operation at industrial, agricultural, communication, trade and transport enterprises and organizations.

Modern means of automation make it possible to link up in a single complex the whole technological chain: machine designing, equipment and rigging, control of a technological process, control of the whole enterprise. This has been made possible due to the extensive development and mass production of new types of computer technology, from large computers to microprocessors.

Needless to say, comprehensive automation calls for material inputs and time. But the economic effect from the release of "living labour", the intensification of production, the higher quality of output and more flexible technology make up for the inputs, while, on the social plane, it gives opportunities for creative work by both the makers of this technology and its users.

Thus, now the main trend in automation is developing not merely automatic machines, but entire technological processes and systems whose functioning excludes the direct involvement of men.

Such automated systems, called flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are regarded by many experts as being the best way to meet the demands of industry. They consider the FMS to be the future of the automated factory, or at least the minimally manned factory.

The application of FMS requires advanced technical know-how.

 

Notes to the Text

 

1. matter of common knowledge

2. to consist in ( -.)

3. emphasis should be made ()

4. with the advent of automation

5. (machines) discharge functions ()

6. material input ()

7. release of "living labour1'

8. advanced technical know-how

 

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1. What is the principal direction of the present-day scientific and technological progress? 2. Can one imagine technical progress today without automation? 3. What is automation? 4. Did the words "automation", "automatic control" appear recently or long ago? 5. What is the difference between mechanization and automation? 6. What are the integral parts of automation? 7. What does modern automation mean? 8. What is the basis of automation? 9. What is the economic effect of automation?

 

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Automatic control in industry

 

Any technical development that enables a machine or instrument to dispense with labour is a step toward automation. Wherever two or more automatic machines are tied together with overriding automatic control to create a self-feeding, self-initiating and self-checking process, an automated system is created. The real distribution is between automation that displaces muscle and automation that displaces brain, and it is roughly the same distinction as that between automatic operation and automatic control. The industrial development of the nineteenth century was a change towards automatic operation. But mechanization was limited to individual processes, and only in a few trades it was possible to provide automatic links between processes and organized production as a continuous flow. In the twentieth century the idea was widely applied of producing goods in a continuous flow rather than in batches. The control was obtained by a human operator who noted faults and deviations and corrected them either directly or through instruments. Control may be simply mechanical, electrical, electronic or a combination.

The developments in automatic operation while extending their application, were not revolutionary but part of a well-established trend. Those in automatic control have been considerably more drastic, and arose largely from the recent and sudden application of electronic methods of control. Electro-mechanical, pneumatic and hydraulic devices also contributed, but the introduction of electronic computers marked the new stage in the development of automatic control. The electronic devices rapidly gained in importance and industrial enterprises widely used them to plan and control the operations of machines. These devices can detect faults in a processed part, communicate the error to the machine and adjust its operation so as to correct the fault. They can integrate the work of industrial- machines and the more complex devices can select alternative courses of action according to the instructions fed into them, considerably extending the possibilities of remote control. Now electronic devices greatly reduced the amount of routine brainwork performed at factories. Rapid technological advance reduced the part played by human labour to skilled supervision and maintenance. Electronic computers have shown that man can rely on them for the performance of operations based on formal logic.

Automatic systems take several forms and are based on several different techniques, but in each case the measurement and correction of errors are performed and coordinated by electronic devices and the human operator does not take an active part in it.

First of all automatic control was widely established in such industries as chemicals, petroleum, iron and steel, cement, paper, textile, printing, food and others. The overall trend now is toward a total automatic control in industry with the help of new generations of electronic devices with their rapidity, accurateness, reliability, flexibility, and compactness.

The present day stage of automation is based on the revolution in computer technology, in computerisation of the whole national economy.

 


I. Infinitive II. Past Indefinite III. Past Participle
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awake awoke awoke/awaked
be was (were) been
bear bore born
become became become
beat beat beaten
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bind ' bound bound
blow blew blown
break broke broken
bring brought brought
build built built
burn burnt burnt
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cut pi cut cut
deal dealt dealt
do did done
draw , drew drawn
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flown
forget forgot forgotten
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freeze froze frozen
get got got
give gave given
go , went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
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know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
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