ƒл€ п≥дготовки до ≥спиту з курсу Ђ≤ноземна мова
ѕерел≥к розмовних тем
ƒл€ п≥дготовки до ≥спиту з курсу Ђ≤ноземна мова
за профес≥йним спр€муванн€мї дл€ студент≥в
—пец≥альност≥ Ђƒошк≥льна осв≥таї (м/с), ≤ курс, заочна форма навчанн€
(≤ семестр 2013 -2014 н. р.)
1. The family in the past and present.
2. My family.
3. My motherТs / fatherТs / friendТs character and appearance.
4. The place I live in.
5. My flat / house.
6. The house of my dream.
8. City and country life.
9. My native town / village.
10. Our University.
11. Seasons and weather.
12. Meals in Britain.
13. Ukrainian national dishes.
14. American food.
15. My profession.
16. Ukrainian educational system.
17. Higher education in Great Britain.
18. Teaching as a profession.
19. What makes a good teacher.
20. The importance of preschool education.
«авданн€ з граматики:
ѕ≥дручник: ¬ерба Ћ. √., ¬ерба √. ¬. √раматика сучасноњ англ≥йськоњ мови Ц .: “ќ¬ Ђ¬ѕ Ћогос-ћї, 2006.
¬пр. 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15; 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 49 ст. 222 Ц 238.
Exercise 1. Match the word with its meaning.
Exercise 2. Read and translate the text.
The family in the past and present
A hundred years ago there was only one acceptable model of a family: the father, mother and children. A man was the head of the family and the most important person in the home. He was the master and ruler who treated his wife and children as his private property. A woman was financially dependent on her husband and had little to say. Her only role was to bear and rear children. The children, in turn, were brought up in discipline and obedience Still, their situation was much better than that of those who were born out of wedlock. In the past single unmarried mothers with illegitimate children were stigmatized and barely tolerated in society.
The situation improved a lot with the Liberation Movement which started at the end of the 19lh century. Women were given more rights and their role in society was strengthened but at the same time the traditional family pattern began to change.
Nowadays we can forget the stereotype of the bread-winning father and the child-raising mother. The term "traditional" or "typical" applies to fewer and fewer families. Although still the most common type of household is the couple with one or two children, more and more people decide not to get married claiming that legislation is unnecessary to prove their love. This more "informal" family pattern is particularly popular in Sweden which in 1997 had the highest percentage of children born out of wedlock in Europe Ц fifty four per cent. Another common family structure today is the single mother, either unwed or divorced, who raises one or two children. There has also been an increase in the number of men who are being granted custody after divorce, especially in the United Kingdom.
Over the last twenty years the percentage of European children living in single parent households has nearly tripled, and in 2000 amounted to nearly ten per cent.
To sum up, the structure of the European family is changing drastically. A married couple with children, once the model, is being replaced by all kinds of different relationships, not necessarily based on marriage. Although governments hope to encourage the traditional nuclear family made up of two parents and their children, there isn't much they can do. They have to adapt to the new realities by legally recognizing and giving certain rights to non-traditional families instead of telling people how they should live together.
Exercise 3. Give answers to the questions.
1. Describe a model of a traditional family.
2. Who was the head of the family some hundred years ago?
3. What was womanТs role in those days?
4. When were women given their rights? What improved the role of women in the society?
5. Why do most of people decide not to get married nowadays?
6. Explain the term Уnuclear familyФ
7. What types of modern families do you know?
8. Do you think itТs positive for children to be raised only by father or mother? Give reasons.
9. What can governments do to encourage the traditional nuclear family?
CHARACTER AND APPEARANCE
Appearance Ч «овн≥шн≥сть:
beautiful (about women) Ч гарна (про ж≥нок)
handsome (about men) Чгарний (про чолов≥к≥в)
pretty (about women) Ч симпатична (про ж≥нок)
agreeable Ч приЇмний
engaging Ч привабливий, чар≥вний
good-looking Ч гарний, приЇмний, ц≥кавий
pleasant-looking Ч приЇмний
plain-looking Ч негарний
ugly Ч потворний, бридкий
extravagant Ч екстравагантний
stylish Ч модний
elegant Ч елегантний.
Face Ч ќбличч€:
oval Ц овальне
round Ц кругле
square Ц квадратне
broad Ц широке
long Ц продовгувате
hard Ц вольове
hollow Ц запале
blazing with love Ц те, €ке випром≥нюЇ любов
worried Ц занепокоЇне
pimpled (pimply) Ц прищаве
freckled Ц вкрите ластовинн€м
elderly (face) Ц обличч€ л≥тньоњ людини
wrinkled Ц зморшкувате
clean shaven Ц гладенько поголене
swarthy Ц смугл€ве
sunburned (tanned, browned) Ц засмагле
bone-structure Ц овал обличч€
Features Ц –иси:
regular Ц правильн≥
irregular Ц неправильн≥
delicate Ц тонк≥
forceful Ц сильн≥, вольов≥
large (massive) Ц велик≥, масивн≥
small Ц др≥бн≥
Mouth Ц Pот:
small Ц маленький
set / firm Ц твердий, р≥шучий
large (wide) Ц великий, широкий
toothless Ц беззубий
vivid Ц виразний
Nose Ц Ќ≥с:
straight Ц пр€мий
snub (turned-up) Ц кирпатий
strong (large) Ц великий
Roman Ц римський
Grecian Ц грецький
small Ц маленький
crooked Ц кривий
aquiline Ц орлиний
flat Ц приплюснутий
hooked Ц крючкуватий
a bridge of one's nose Ц перен≥сс€
Eyes Ц ќч≥:
anxious Ц занепокоЇн≥
slanting (oblique) Ц розкос≥
wide-apart Ц широко поставлен≥
clever Ц розумн≥
narrow Ц вузьк≥
near- (short) Ц sighted Ц короткозорий
long-sighted Ц далекозорий
cross-eyed Ц косоокий
hazel Ц кар≥
striking blue (dark, green) Ц €скраво блакитн≥ (чорн≥, зелен≥)
kind, warm Ц добр≥
under-eye-bags Ч Ђм≥шкиї п≥д очима
dark circles Ч темн≥ кола (п≥д очима)
blue-eyed Ч блакитноокий
Eyelashes Ц ¬≥њ:
straight Ц пр€м≥
curving Ц загнут≥
Eyebrows Ц Ѕрови:
thin Ц тонк≥
thick Ц густ≥
arched Ц вигнут≥ дугою
shaggy Ц кошлат≥
to rise one's eyebrows Ч п≥д≥ймати брови
to frown (knit) one's eyebrows Ц хмурити брови
Forehead Ц Ћоб:
high (tall) Ц високий
large (open) Ц великий (в≥дкритий)
low Ц низький
narrow Ц вузький
broad Ц широкий
Lips Ц √уби:
full - повн≥
thin Ц тонк≥
painted Ц нафарбован≥
parted Ц нап≥вв≥дкрит≥
Cheeks Ц ўоки:
plump (chubby) Ц пухл≥
rosy (ruddy) Ц румТ€н≥
sunken (hollow) Ц запал≥
pale Ц бл≥д≥
dimples in one's cheeks Ч €мочки на щоках
Complexion Ц ол≥р обличч€:
fair Ц св≥тлий (б≥лий)
swarthy (dark) Ц темний
pale Ц бл≥дий
blooming Ц кв≥тучий
peaches and cream Ц кров з молоком
Ears - ¬уха:
huge Ц велик≥
small Ц маленьк≥
Chin Ц ѕ≥дбор≥дд€:
massive Ц масивне
pointed Ц гостре
Hair Ц ¬олосс€:
straight (even) Ц пр€ме
curly Ц кучер€ве
plaited Ц заплетене в косу
wavy Ц хвил€сте
abundant Ц густе, пишне
thin (scanty) Ц тонке
sleek (smooth) Ц гладеньке, прилизане
dyed Ц фарбоване
golden Ц золотисте
elaborately dressed Ц гарно зачесане
bobbed Ц коротко п≥дстрижене
gray Ц сиве
dark Ц темне
fair Ц рус€ве
blond(е) Ц б≥л€ве (блондинка)
red Ц руде
hair-cut (to have oneТs hair-cut )Ц стрижка (стригтис€)
hair-do (to do oneТs hair) Ц зач≥ска (робити зач≥ску)
beard Ц борода
moustaches Ц вуса
wig Ц перука
Teeth Ц «уби:
even (uneven)Ц р≥вн≥ (нер≥вн≥)
small (tiny)Ц др≥бн≥
Figure Ц ‘≥гура:
posture Ц стан
lean (about men) Ц худорл€вий
slender /slim (about women) Ц струнка
slight Ц тенд≥тна
graceful Ц витончена, грац≥озна
fat Ц повна, товста
plump Ц повненька, пухка
stout Ц огр€дна
Height (Stature) Ц «р≥ст:
average (medium, middle-sized) Ц середн≥й
tall Ц високий
short Ц низький
diminutive Ц м≥н≥атюрний
Character Ч ’арактер
trait [ trei] (Br.) / [ treit] (Am.)Ч риса (обличч€, характера)
character ['kærektə] Ч характер; репутац≥€; особист≥сть, герой; характерна особлив≥сть
virtuous (good) characteristics of a person Ц позитивн≥ риси особистост≥
evil (bad) characteristics of a person Ц негативн≥ риси особистост≥
affable Ч прив≥тний, любТ€зний
amiable Чдобродушний; любТ€зний
good-natured (ill-natured)Ч добродушний (зл≥сний)
good-tempered / ill-tempered Ц з гарним характером, вр≥вноважений (з поганим характером, невр≥вноважений)
communicative, sociable Ц комун≥кабельний, компан≥йський
friendly Ц дружн≥≥й
modest Ц скромний
generous Ц великодушний, благородний
attentive Ц уважний
earnest Ц серйозний
sincere [sin'siə] (insincere) Ц щирий, чистосердечний (нещирий)
calm, quiet Ц спок≥йний, тихий
composed Ц спок≥йний, стриманий
honest Ц чесний
merciful (sympathetic) Ц милосердний, (сп≥вчутливий)
impartial, just Ц справедливий
patient ['pei∫ənt] Ц терпл€чий
respectable Ц той, €кий заслуговуЇ поваги
cordial Ц сердечний, щирий
broad-minded Ц з широким св≥тогл€дом
witty Ц дотепний
intelligent, clever Ц розумний
dignified ['dignifaid] Ц сповнений г≥дност≥, величний
easy-going Ц добродушно- веселий, легкий у сп≥лкуванн≥
sophisticated Ц з витонченим смаком
affectionate Ц любл€чий, н≥жний
loyal Ц в≥рний, в≥дданий, ло€льний
courageous Ц см≥ливий, хоробрий
hard-working, industrious Ц трудолюбивий
gentle Ц мТ€кий, добрий
proud Ц гордий
shy Ц соромТ€зливий
reserved Ч стриманий
silly, foolish, stupid Ц дурненький
unkind Ч недобрий, злий
hard-hearted Ч жорстокий, нечутливий
uncommunicative, unsociable Ч некомпан≥йський, некоммун≥кабельний
hostile Ч ворожий
haughty, arrogant, vain, (conceited) Ч пихатий, зарозум≥лий (самовдоволений)
showy Ч ефектний, показний
indiscreet Ч необережний, безтактовний
greedy Ч жад≥бний
clumsy Ц незграбний
reliable Ц над≥йний
passionate, partial Ч пристрасний, палкий
fussyЧ метушливий, нервовий
dishonest Ч нечесний, недобросов≥сний
cruel Ч жорстокий, безжал≥сний
tolerant (intolerant) Ч терпимий (нетерпимий)
wilful Ч свав≥льний, упертий
capricious Ч капризний, непост≥йний
insensible Ч нечутливий, байдужий; непритомний
deceitful [di'si:tful] Ч обманливий, брехливий
sulky, (sullen), (cross) Ц сердитий, надутий (похмурий, сердитий), (сердитий, оздратований)
obstinate, persistеnt Ч впертий, наполегливий
coarse, rude Ч грубий, нев≥чливий
harshЧ грубий, жорстокий, р≥зкий
impertinent, impudent Ч зухвалий, нахабний
revengeful Ч мстивий
short-tempered Ц запальний, невитриманий
envious Ч заздр≥сний
stubborn, obstinate Ч впертий
mean [mi:n] Ч п≥длий
jealous Ч ревнивий
selfish Ч егоњстичний
boring Ч надокучливий, нудний
weak-willed Ч слабохарактерний
shallow Ч поверховий, нец≥кавий
absent-minded Ч забудькуватий, неуважний
My Aunt Emily
Of all my relatives, I like my Aunt Emily the best. She's my mother's youngest sister. She has never married, and she lives alone in a small village near Bath. She's in her late fifties, but she's still quite young in spirit. She has a fair complexion, thick brown hair which she wears in a bun, and dark brown eyes. She has a kind face, and when you meet her, the first thing you notice is her lovely, warm smile. Her face is a little wrinkled now, but I think she is still rather attractive. She is the sort of person you can always go to if you have a problem.
She likes reading and gardening, and she goes for long walks over the hills with her dog, Buster. She's a very active person. Either she's making something, or mending something, or doing something to help others. She does the shopping for some of the old people in the village. She's extremely generous, but not very tolerant with people who don't agree with her. I hope that I am as happy and contented as she is when I'm her age.
Exercise 2. Put questions to the sentences.
1. Aunt Emily is my mother's youngest sister.
2. Aunt Emily lives alone in a small village near Bath.
3. She has a fair complexion.
4. She wears a bun.
5. She has dark brown eyes.
6. She likes reading and gardening.
7. She goes for long walks over the hills with her dog.
8. She does the shopping.
Exercise 3. Complete these sentences in a suitable way. (More than one answer may be possible.)
1. SheТs got blonde ЕЕЕЕЕ .
2. HeТs got very pale ЕЕЕЕ.. .
3. TheyТve got both curly ЕЕЕЕ. .
4. I would say he was medium ЕЕЕЕ .
5. Her brother has got very broad ЕЕЕ. .
6. She doesnТt like men with hairy ЕЕЕ.. .
7. Last time I saw him he had grown a ЕЕЕ.. .
8. HeТs got very muscular ЕЕЕЕ. .
9. Both men were very good-ЕЕЕ .
10. All of them have got dark ЕЕЕ. .
Exercise 4. Fill the gaps in the sentences.
1 He's only one metre 52. He's quite ...short
2 Very.................. ЕЕ. people are often good at basketball.
3 Models are usually...................
4 Is her skin dark? No it's..................
5 She's only 12. She's very.................
6 If I eat too much I'll be..................
7 My grandmother is in this hospital. It's a hospital for.............. people, (don't use 'old')
Exercise 5. Write down the names of three people you know. Then write about:
- their height (tall, short, medium height)
- their hair (colour, long, short, beard)
- their eyes (colour)
- their looks (ordinary, handsome, etc.)
Exercise 6. Read the text below which is an essay of an English schoolgirl describing her friend.
About my friend
Janet is my best friend; we go to school together. We have been friends for 5 years already, since she came to our school. Some people say that we look alike but I don't think so. Janet has blue eyes and fair hair, while my eyes are brown and I'm dark-haired. She has a lovely fresh complexion and a beautiful mouth with full lips, but she is short-sighted so she wears contact lenses. Janet is quite tall and has a beautiful slim figure. Actually we are the same height and build, maybe that is why our neighbours sometimes take me for Janet. Janet is very smart and looks really attractive when she dresses up to go out with her boyfriend.
Janet likes studying languages and is thinking of learning them at the university to be able to work later for a travel agency. She can already speak French and Spanish fluently and is learning Modern Greek. Janet loves being with crowds of people and makes friends easily. She loves going to parties, and there she immediately becomes the centre of attention. Janet is good at games but never takes them seriously, so when we play tennis, I always win because she doesn't care if she wins or loses.
Janet is very witty and amusing and she always cheers me up when I am depressed because she has a wonderful sense of humour. I think her only fault is that she is restless and gets bored easily. She is an intelligent and hard-working person, but she doesn't get good marks at school because she doesn't study enough. I admire her because she is so bright and energetic, but I think it is a good thing that both her boyfriend and I are calm and tolerant, and when she is impatient with us we just laugh, and then she laughs, too.
Exercise 7. Write a similar description of a member of your family or your friend in about 15 Ц 20 sentences. Include the following:
a. your opinion of the person
b. physical description
c. their character, habits, likes, dislikes.
Exercise 8. Read and translate the text.
Character and Appearance
Appearance is deceptive. It is a common truth; practically everyone has met at least someone whose character and appearance differ radically.
When one sees a tall, broad-shouldered youth, one expects him to be strong-willed and brave. One thinks: "A model to follow!" How often a good-looking person turns out to be weak-willed or even cowardly. Then one thinks. "A mediocrity!"
At the same time everyone knows that a lot of great people were of poor build, short and fragile. It did not stop them from displaying intelligence and courage.
Plump or fat people create an impression of generous and kind personalities. Strangely enough, not rarely they may be greedy. One usually thinks: "What a scrooge!"
On the other hand, thin and slim ladies often tend to be lavish. They like to buy and never think twice when they pay. Then one thinks. "I would call her open-handed and my mother would call her a spend-thrift" Yes, mothers are always stricter in judgments.
Has it ever happened to you that you come to an important office and see an important boss? You immediately evaluate his appearance. "Round-faced, small eyes, dimples on the cheeks and an upturned nose. What a kind-hearted person!" You tell the boss of your troubles and expect immediate help. But the toss appears to be rude and willful. You never get your help and think: "A stone heart!"
When someone sees a delicately built pretty blonde with curly hair, blue eyes, a straight nose and a high forehead, one is inclined to think that the beauty is intelligent and nice. It may be disappointing to think later: "What astupid impolite bore!"
On the contrary, when one sees a skinny girl with irregular features one doesn't expect her to be a clever, kind-hearted and good-mannered lady. It may be a relief to think later: "What charm! A heart of gold"
Another general misconception lies in the fact that children are always expected to resemble their parents. And parents like it when children take after them. The greatest compliment is: "They are as like as two peas." The greatest disappointment is to find nothing in common.
Exercise 9. Answer the questions.
1. Do you agree with the statement that appearance is deceptive? 2. Have you ever met a person whose character and appearance differ? 3. What do you think when you see a broad-shouldered and tall youth? 4. Does one's intelligence and courage depend upon his or her constitution? 5. What impression do plump people create? 6. What do you call people who like to buy and never think twice when they pay? 7. What are you inclined to think when you see a delicately built pretty blonde with curly hair, blue eyes, a straight nose and a high forehead? 8. How would you describe appearance of a cunning person? 9. What does a general misconception consist in? 10. Do parents like when children take after them?
Exercise 16. Sort out the personality qualities and features of appearance given in the box into corresponding column according to your opinion.
boring, stout, stupid, obstinate, slender, sensitive, forgetful, skinny, sociable, moody, greedy, calm, shy, fat, plump, mean, thin, sly, energetic, selfish, modest, tolerant, ambitious, indecisive, absent-minded, generous, dishonest, hard-working, persistent, witty, impudent, sincere, courageous, cruel, attentive, envious.
UNIT 3. THE PLACE I LIVE IN
a streetlight (street lamp) Ц л≥хтар
traffic lights Ц св≥тлофор
heavy traffic Ц великий транспортний рух
traffic jam Ц затор на дорогах
(zebra) crossing/ crosswalk Ц перех≥д
pavement (Br.)/ sidewalk (Am.)Ц тротуар
underground/ subway Ц метро
underground walkway/ subway Ц п≥дземний перех≥д
a bed of flowers Ц клумбa
a bus station Ц автобусна зупинка
housing estate/ residential area Ц жилий район
industrial area Ц промисловий район
a block of flats (a large building divided into separate parts) Ц багатоквартирний будинок
a noisy crowd Ц галасливий натовп
a rush hour Ц година п≥к
a department store Ц ун≥вермаг
a mall (shopping centre) Ц торг≥вельний центр
a suburb Ц окрањна, околиц€
an avenue Ц проспект
a square - площа
a vegetable garden / kitchen garden Ц город
unpolluted environment Ц незабруднене навколишнЇ середовище
an orchard Ц (фруктовий) сад
a meadow Ц луг
a fence Ц паркан, огорожа
hedge Ц живопл≥т
a well Ц колод€зь
outskirts Ц околиц≥, передм≥ст€
Exercise 1. Read and translate the text.
Home (Our Flat)
The house we live in is our home, or in more official speech, our residence or dwelling. Some people live in individual houses. The town building may be five-or nine-storied. There are multi-storey buildings too.
Our first floor is usually called the ground floor in England, and the second floor corresponds to the English first floor. Americans call the floors the same as we do: first, second and so on.
Let us visit one of the modern flats of the apartment house in a big town. The flat is in a multi-storey building on the sixth floor. The family has recently moved into it. It is a three-room flat with all modern conveniences. It consists of a living-room, a bedroom and a study.
The living-room is large. There are two windows in it. In the evening all the family gather in the living-room to watch a TV programme, read newspapers or magazines or to receive guests. The room is well furnished. In the middle there stands a large square table with six chairs round it. On the table there is a vase with flowers. There are some arm-chairs and sofa near the wall. Opposite the sofa there is a colour TV-set.
You can see the piano near the window. At the wall stands a sideboard. Crystal bowls, wine glasses, goblets, china dishes and special tea-sets stand on its shelves.
The walls in the living-room are papered blue and the curtains over the window match them. On the walls there hang some pictures. A thick carpet covers the floor.
The bedroom is also a cosy room. There is only one window with dark curtains over it. The window faces the yard. Against the wall there are two beds. In the corner there is a dressing-table with a mirror. Opposite it there is a dark wardrobe.
The small room is a study. Here the children do their homework. It is a simply furnished room. In the corner near the window there is a small writing-table with a lamp on it. A comfortable arm-chair stands near it. On the wall you can see shelves full of books, magazines and journals. In front of the window stands a bookcase.
Besides these three rooms, the flat has a kitchen, a hall, a bathroom and a lavatory. The kitchen is not so small. The built-in furniture and all modem conveniences make housekeeping easy.
The bathroom has a build-in bath-tub with a shower and a washstand. There is a glass shelf over the wash-stand. You can see some sponges, soap-dishes, tooth-glasses with tooth-brushes, and some tubes of tooth-paste. You can take a shower or a bath any time.
Next to the bathroom there is a lavatory. In the hall you can see a hallstand for coats, hats and umbrellas. Besides there is a small table for the telephone.
So you can see the flat is comfortable enough. Next week the family will give a housewarming.
Exercise 2. Answer the questions to the text.
1. What do we call a house consisting of many flats (a building of many storeys; a flat of two rooms; the place, i.e. town, street and apartment house where you live; different levels on which some flats are located; a room which is at the same time a sitting-room and a dining-room; a table on which toilet things stand; a piece of furniture for keeping dishes, bowls, cups, etc.; a piece of furniture for keeping clothes; celebration on the occasion of moving into a new flat)? 2. Do we call floors of the apartment house in the same way as they call them in England and America? 3.Where is the flat we visited located? 4. Is the flat large or small? 5. How many rooms are there in it? 6. What is the largest room? What is the smallest one? 7. The rooms are comfortable and cosy, aren't they? 8. What pieces of furniture stand in the living-room? 9. Is it well furnished? 10. What do the windows of the room face? 11. What room is simply furnished? 12. Does the family have many books? Where do they keep books, magazines and journals? 13. The kitchen is very convenient for housekeeping, isn't it? 14.What things do they keep on a glass shelf in the bathroom? 15. What makes housekeeping easy?
Exercise 3. Complete the sentences according to the text.
l. Our first floor is usually called... 2. Let us visit one of the modem flats of... 3. It is a three-room flat with all ... 4 The rooms are... 5. In the evening all the family gather in the living-room to... 6. In the middle there stands a large square... 7. The walls in the living-room are papered blue and... 8. Opposite it there is a dark... 9. In the corner near the window there is... 10. In the hall you can see a hallstand for...
Exercise 4. What are these parts of the house used for? Match each part of the house with what is usually done there.
Exercise 5. Tick yes or no. yes no
Exercise 6. Fill in the gaps with a suitable word.
Mr. Hudson is selling his house. At the moment he is showing it to Mr. and Mrs. Wills.
Here we are. As you can see itТs really quite a big spacious (1) Е with two storeys. Upstairs there are three (2) Е where you and your children can sleep, and one (3) Е which has both a bath and a shower. Downstairs we have a large (4) Е where all our family liked to get together in the evenings to watch TV and talk. Next to it is a (5) Е where we used to have our evening meals when all the family sat down to table. We usually had breakfast in the (6) Е as it was a very quick meal.
Before we go in, letТs have a look at the house from the outside. I think you will agree that the front (7) Е is very nice with all itТs flower beds and a lawn. The green hedge around it makes it a little more private. YouТve got a car, havenТt you? So the (8) Е next to the house will be very useful.
Now follow me up the path to the front door. Here we are inside. In this little (9) Е you can hang your coats and hats. On your right is the living-room and this (10) Е on the left leads into the dining-room. It is connected with the (11) Е , so you can cook there and serve the meals in the dining-room. From the kitchen (12) Е you have a pleasant view on the back (13) Е which as you see has a strong wooden fence around it.
The house is in a excellent (14) Е youТll have no problems with the floors, walls, ceilings, the roof, central heating, hot and cold running (15) Е or electricity. So, any questions? Ah, yes, the price. Three bedrooms, a garage and a garden. Well, what do you think?
Exercise 7. Read and translate the text.
Living in the City
Living in a city has both advantages and disadvantages. On the plus side, it is often easier to find work, and there is usually a choice of public transport, so you don't need to own a car. Also, there are a lot of interesting things to do and places to see. For example, you can eat in good restaurants, visit museums, and go to the theatre and to concerts. What is more, when you want to relax, you can usually find a park where you can feed the ducks or just sit on a park bench and read a book. All in all, city life is full of bustle and variety and you need never feel bored.
However, for every plus there is a minus. For one thing, you might have a job, but unless it is very well-paid, you will not be able to afford many of the things that there are to do, because living in a city is often very expensive. It is particularly difficult to find good, cheap accommodation. What is more, public transport is sometimes crowded and dirty, particularly in the rush hour, and even the parks can become very crowded, especially on Sundays when it seems that every city-dweller is looking for some open space and green grass. Last of all, despite all the crowds, it is still possible to feel very lonely in a city.
In conclusion, I think that city life can be particularly appealing to young people, who like the excitement of the city and don't mind the noise and pollution. However, many people, when they get older, and particularly when they have young children, often prefer the peace and fresh air of the countryside.
Exercise 8. 1) Sort out the words and expressions given in the box into two columns according to the place where you are most likely to find them. 2) Use the words and expressions in each column to describe a typical city or a village in your country.
Exercise 9. Read and translate the text.
One English proverb says: УThere is no place like homeФ. So the best of all places is our native town. We never forget it when we leave for another town. We are proud of it and like it very much because it is the place where we live, study and work. For me it is Lutsk.
Lutsk is an administrative, economic and cultural centre of the Volyn region. It lies on the river Styr. According to the Ipatyev Chronicles Lutsk (Luchesk) was mentioned as a town in 1085. There are several versions as to the origin of the name УLutskФ. As far as I know one of them is associated with Lucas, the name of the chief of the Dulebes, an East Slavonic tribe. In fact some scholars consider that the name of the town is derived from the word УLukaФ which means the bend of the river.
Lutsk is one of the most ancient towns of Ukraine. It bears witness to many historic events. In the 12th century it was the capital of the independent principality. It had to go through many severe trials in the past suffering from and offering heroic resistance to the Polish, Lithuanian, Austro-Hungarian and Swedish lords.
The newcomer to Lutsk is at once attracted by magnificent view of the medieval castle, the Lubart Castle. It is an architectural monument of the 14th century. Overlooking the towers of the castle is the dome of the Jesuit church, one of the best examples of the Early Baroque, created by the noted Italian master Briano in the early 17th century. Another architectural monument of interest is the building of the former Bernadine and Dominican monasteries.
Old and new mingle harmoniously in Lutsk. Each epoch has left its trace in the townТs appearance. From a typically provincial town with narrow streets and small houses Lutsk has grown into a modern town boasting a number of factories, plants and industrial enterprises.
Lutsk is very beautiful. The town is buried in greenery. Its streets squares, new residential districts are adorned with parks, public gardens, flower beds and fountains.
Lutsk is a cultural and educational centre of the Volyn. The Shevchenko Music and Drama Theatre, the Volynian Museum of Regional Studies, the Memorial Complex of Glory are the most beautiful sights of the town. There are some monuments in Lutsk, among them monuments to the great Ukrainian poetess Lesya Ukrainka who spent her youth in Volyn. Nowadays Lutsk is a student-town. There are the Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University, Lutsk Technical University, nearly one hundred general educational and technical schools.
The names of many renowned people are associated with Lutsk. Among them outstanding statesmen Bohdan Hmelnytsky, Ivan Bohun, at different times Peter the Great, Ivan Franko, Yaroslav Hasĕk and many other prominent public figures, writers and poets visited Lutsk, lived or worked in it.
One cannot help admiring the beautiful town of Lutsk with its tidy streets, cozy squares and lush greenery. Ancient and ever young Lutsk becomes more and more beautiful with every passing day.
Exercise 10. Answer the questions to the text.
1. What town is the centre of Volyn region?
2. Where is it situated?
3. What is the origin of the name УLutskФ?
4. Did Lutsk have to go through many severe trials? Prove it.
5. What are the main attractions of the town?
6. Has Lutsk changed much since those days?
7. Is Lutsk really beautiful?
8. What are the main cultural and educational centres of the Volyn region?
9. What prominent people visited Lutsk?
10. Do you like Lutsk? Why?
pre-school Ц дошк≥льна
primary / elementary Ц початкова
Education secondary Ц середн€
осв≥та higher Ц вища
vocational Ц профес≥йна
a school-leaver (Br.) / graduate Ц випускник
an entrance examination Ц вступний ≥спит
an applicant Ц аб≥тур≥Їнт
studies (study) Ц навчанн€
a short (long) break Ц коротка (довга) перерва
a study programme; curriculum Ц навчальний план закладу
a syllabus Ц програма курсу, лекц≥њ з предмету
a college of education Ц педагог≥чне училище
a teachersТ (training) college Ц педагог≥чний ≥нститут
an education faculty /pedagogical department Ц педагог≥чний факультет
specialty Ц спец≥альн≥сть (What is your speciality? What do you specialize in?)
to work in oneТs own field Ц працювати за спец≥альн≥стю
a day / full-time department Ц стац≥онарне в≥дд≥ленн€
an evening department Ц веч≥рнЇ в≥дд≥ленн€
an extramural department Ц заочне в≥дд≥ленн€
a departmentТ(s) staff room / chair Ц кафедра
Tests and Types of Control
homework / home assignment (university) Ц домашнЇ завданн€
a class/ class hour/ period Ц зан€тт€
to take a class / to teach a class Ц проводити зан€тт€
to go to a lecture, to attend a lecture Ц в≥дв≥дувати лекц≥ю
tutorial Ц консультац≥€
a subject/ class Ц предмет
to miss a class Ц пропустити зан€тт€
to skip a class/ to play truant (from a class)/ to cut (a class) Ц прогул€ти
notes Ц конспект (to take notes Ц конспектувати)
a mark/ grade Ц оц≥нка
a (first-year / second-year / etc.) paper/ term paper Ц курсова робота
a degree/ diploma paper Ц дипломна робота
a masterТs thesis Ц маг≥стерська робота
a credit Ц зал≥к
a (grade) record book Ц зал≥кова книжка
an examination card Ц екзаменац≥йний б≥лет
an examination period Ц сес≥€
mid-year examinations Ц зимова сес≥€
end-of-year examinations Ц л≥тн€ сес≥€
to take an exam Ц складати ≥спит
to fail an exam Ц не скласти ≥спит
to pass an exam Ц скласти ≥спит
cheating Ц користуватис€ шпаргалкою (crib/ cheat sheеt Ц шпаргалка)
to grade / to check up (papers) Ц перев≥р€ти
the 1st/2/3/4-year student = freshman / sophomore /junior /senior /fifth-year student
a bachelor Ц бакалавр
a master Ц маг≥стр
a subgroup Ц п≥дгрупа
a monitor / head-student Ц староста
scholarship Ц стипенд≥€
a fee-paying student Ц платник
tuition / fees - плата за навчанн€ (to pay fees)
a (studentsТ) hall of residence (Br.) / hostel (Br.) / (studentsТ) dormitory (am.) Ц гуртожиток
a campus Ц територ≥€ вищого закладу (часто разом ≥з прим≥щенн€м), студентське м≥стечко
to chatter Ц баз≥кати
to cram a lesson Ц зубрити урок
Subjects and Lessons
a timetable / schedule Ц розклад
algebra Ц алгебра
anatomy Ц анатом≥€
arithmetic Ц арифметика
astronomy Ц астроном≥€
biology Ц б≥олог≥€
botany Ц ботан≥ка
chemistry Ц х≥м≥€
drawing/ art Ц малюванн€
geography Ц географ≥€
geometry Ц геометр≥€
handicraft Ц трудове навчанн€
history Ц ≥стор≥€
the humanities Ц гуман≥тарн≥ науки
law Ц право
literature Ц л≥тература
mathematics/ math Ц математика
philosophy Ц ф≥лософ≥€
physical training (PT) Ц ф≥зкультура
physics Ц ф≥зика
psychology Ц психолог≥€
singing Ц сп≥ви
technical/ mechanical drawing Ц кресленн€
zoology Ц зоолог≥€
an assembly hall Ц актовий зал
a library Ц б≥бл≥отека
a dining room/ canteen Ц столова
a gym/ gymnasium Ц спортивний зал
a teacherТs / staff room Ц учительська
a register Ц журнал
a record-/ day-book Ц щоденник
a board/ blackboard Ц дошка
chalk Ц крейда
a duster/ cloth Ц ганч≥рка
a sheet of paper Ц аркуш паперу
a pencil-box/ pencil-case Ц пенал
coloured paper Ц кольорова пап≥р
water-colours/ oil paint Ц акварельн≥/ ол≥йна фарба
a brush Ц пензлик
Exercise 1. a) Match the subjects given in the box to the things they study.
b) Write down your school timetable of the final year. Add any other subjects you had.
1. This science studies forces or qualities such as heat, light, sound pressure, gravity and electricity and the way they affect objects.
2.A branch of mathematics in which letters are used to present possible quantities.
3. The study of the countries of the world, land formation, climate, seas, towns and population.
4. The scientific study of the characteristics and composition of substances and the way they react with other substances.
5. Sports and games.
6. A mathematical science concerned with the measurement of lines, angles, curves and shapes.
7. Activities such as embroidery, knitting, pottery, carving, etc. which involve making things with your own hands.
8.Classes that teach students to use electronic machines that can quickly make calculations, store and rearrange information.
9.A subject that deals with the past.
10.A study of novels, plays and poetry.
11. The science which is concerned with the study of living beings.
12.A science that studies a system of communication which consists of a set of sounds and written symbols which are used by the people of a particular country for talking or writing.
13.A school subject at which students create paintings or sculptures by themselves.
14. Classes where students get knowledge how to lead a healthy life.
15. Classes in which students learn how to do work about the house.
16. Classes where students sing and learn various songs.
Exercise 2. Put each of the following words into its correct place in the passage below.
Weather and Seasons
The sun is shining. Ц —онце св≥тить.
The wind is blowing. Ц ¬≥тер дме.
It is snowing. Ц ѕадаЇ сн≥г.
It is raining. Ц …де дощ.
cold Ч холодно
warm Ч тепло
hot Ч спекотно
cool Ч прохолодно
chilly Ч прохолодно, свежо
gloomy/ dull Ч похмуро
frosty Ч морозно
foggy Ч туманно
It israinyЧ дощовий (дощова погода)
snowy Ч сн≥жний, сн≥говий (сн≥жна погода)
windy Ч в≥тр€но
sunny Ч сон€чно
cloudy Ц хмарно
cloudless Ц безхмарно
moist/ damp Ц волого
dry Ц сухо
slippery Ц слизько
a rainbow Ц райдуга
a rainfall Ц опади у вигл€д≥ дощу
flood Ц пов≥нь
shower Ц злива
to drizzle Ц накрапати, мр€чити
thunderstorm Ц гр≥м
a flash of lightning (it lightens) Ц спалах блискавки
a snowfall Ц опади у вигл€д≥ сн≥гу, сн≥гопад
(hard) frost Ц сильний мороз
bitter cold Ц сильний холод
ice Ц л≥д
icicle Ц бурулька
a snowflake Ц сн≥жинка
snow showers Ц сн≥гопад
thaw (sets in) Ц в≥длига (починаЇтьс€)
to freeze Ц замерзати, мерзнути
to melt Ц танути
hurricane Ц ураган
breeze/ gentle wind Ц бриз / легкий в≥терець
gale/ strong wind Ц бур€, шторм/ сильний в≥тер
storm Ц шторм
drought Ц засуха
heat Ц спека
humidity /moisture Ц волог≥сть
Seasons and Weather
The year is divided into four seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter.
In spring nature awakens from her long winter sleep: the rays of the sun warm the earth and the weather gets gradually milder. The birds come back from the warm lands and tiny green leaves appear on the trees. Thin new blades of grass come up and fruit trees begin to blossom. "April showers bring May flowers" as the proverb goes. The fields and meadows look magic. The woods and forests are filled with the songs of the birds. The sky is blue and cloudless. At night, millions of stars shine in the darkness.
When summer comes the weather gets warmer still, the sun shines brightly and sometimes it's very hot. Summer is the most suitable season for holidays. It's a good time for going to the seaside Ц to bathe in the sun, to swim and to enjoy the bright sunshine. In summer the days become longer and the nights shorter as the sun rises early and sets late in the evening.
June, July and August are probably the most beautiful months of the year although sometimes the sky is overcast with heavy clouds and there are storms with thunder, lightning and hail. It's the farmer's busy season Ц he works in his fields from morning till night. The grass must be cut and the hay must be made while the dry weather lasts.
Autumn brings with it the harvest-time, when the crops are gathered and the air is filled with the fragrance of ripe fruit. The days get shorter and the nights longer. The woods turn yellow and brown, leaves begin to fall from the trees and the ground is covered with them. In autumn the sky is often cloudy and the sun is not as bright as it was in summer: its rays have already lost their strength.
The air is moist. Days get shorter and the nights longer. Autumn is a rainy season and, therefore, the weather is mostly dull. But there is a spell of sunny weather in late September, which is called Indian summer, when the sun shines brightly; the sky is rather cloudless and there is a carpet of multicolored leaves on the ground.
Winter is the coldest season. The air is frosty, large snowflakes fall to the ground covering the trees and the roofs of the houses with a white blanket. The rivers, streams, ponds and lakes are covered with a thick layer of ice, they are frozen. Quite often it's difficult to walk because the streets are slippery Ц going out in such weather is not pleasant. But children enjoy being out-of-doors because they like to make snowmen, to go tobogganing, skating or skiing and to throw snowballs.
The unpleasant time comes when the thaw begins Ц the temperature rises and the snow begins to melt. As the cars and buses go along the streets, they splash mud and water on the passers-by. By the end of the February the sun grows warmer and soon there won't be any ice but plenty of water. Winter will yield to spring.
Exercise 2. Answer the questions to the text.
1. How many seasons are there in a year? 2. Why do they say that nature awakens from her long winter sleep in spring? 3. How would you explain the meaning of the proverb "April showers bring May flowers"? 4. Which season is the most suitable for holidays? 5. Why do the days become longer and the nights shorter in summer? 6. What is the most typical summer weather? 7. What is the weather like in June? 8. What is the weather like in July? 9. Are there storms with thunder and lightning in summer? 10. Which season is called "farmer's busy season"? 11. What is the weather like in autumn? 12. Is autumn a rainy season? 13. Does it drizzle in autumn? 14. Does the sun shine brightly in autumn? 15. What do they understand by "Indian summer"? 16. Which season is considered to be the coldest one? 17. What is the weather like in winter? 18. Why do children enjoy being out-of-doors in winter? 19. What is your favourite season?
UNIT 6. MEALS
At the Grocer's Ч ” бакал≥њ
cereal Ц крупа
sugar Ц цукор
buckwheat Ч гречка
macaroni Ч макарони
noodles Ч лапша
rice Ч рис
flour Ч мука
oats (Am.) Ч в≥вс€на каша
porridge Ч в≥вс€на каша з молоком
salt Ч с≥ль
tea is Indian, China, CeylonЧ чай ≥нд≥йський, китайський, цейлонський
black coffee/ white coffee Ч чорна кава/ кава з молоком
instant / ready-ground coffee Ч розчинна/ мелена кава
cocoa Ч какао
pepper Ч перець
vinegar Ч оцет
sunflower oil Ч ол≥€
vegetable oil Ч рослинне масло
olive oil Ч оливкова ол≥€
spices Ч спец≥њ
mustard Ч г≥рчиц€
corn flakes Ч в≥вс€н≥ пласт≥вц≥
Fruit Ч ‘рукти
an apple Ч €блуко
an apricot Ч абрикос
a pear Ч груша
a plum Ч слива
a peach Ч персик
a cherry Ч вишн€
grapes Ч виноград
a banana Ч банан
an orange Ч апельсин
a pineapple Ч ананас
a tangerine Ч мандарин
a lemon Ч лимон
a pomegranate Ч гранат
a kiwi fruit Ч к≥в≥
a water melon Ч кавун
a melon Ч дин€
a grapefruit Ч грейпфрут
Vegetables Ч ќвоч≥
tomatoes Ч пом≥дори
cucumbers Ч ог≥рки
carrots Ч морква
potatoes Ч картопл€
radish Ч редиска
peas Ч горох
aubergine (Br)/ egg-plant (Am.) Ч баклажан
turnip Ч р≥па
beets Ч бур€к
beans Ч квасол€, б≥б
lettuce Ч салат латук
cabbage Ч капуста
fennel Ч кр≥п
garlic Ч часник
cauliflower Ч цв≥тна капуста
onion Ч цибул€
sweet pepperЧ солодкий перець
(vegetable) marrow Ч кабачок
celery Ч селера
pumpkin Ч гарбуз
sauekraut Ч кисла капуста
parsley Ч петрушка
Berries Ч ягоди
strawberry Ч полуниц€, суниц€
raspberry Ч малина
gooseberry Ч агрус
blackberry Ч чорниц€
currant Ч смородина
cranberry Ч журавлина
Nuts Ч √ор≥хи
walnut Ч волоський гор≥х
cashew nut Ч л≥сний гор≥х, л≥щина
nutmeg Ч мускатний гор≥х
almond Ч мигдаль
Meals in Britain
A traditional English breakfast is a very big meal Ц sausages, bacon, eggs, tomatoes, mushrooms ....But nowadays many people just have cereal with milk and sugar, or toast with marmalade, jam, or honey. Marmalade and jam are not the same! Marmalade is made from oranges and jam is made from other fruit. The traditional breakfast, drink is tea, which people have with cold milk. Some people have coffee, often instant coffee, which is made with just hot water.
Many visitors to Britain find this coffee disgusting!
For many people lunch is a quick meal. In cities there are a lot of sandwich bars, where office workers can choose the kind of bread they want Ц brown, white, or a roll Ц and then all sorts of salad and meat or fish to go in the sandwich. Pubs often serve good, cheap food, both hot and cold. School-children can have a hot meal at school, but many just take a snack from home Ц a sandwich, a drink, some fruit, and perhaps some crisps.
УTeaФ means two things. It is a drink and a meal! Some people have afternoon tea, with sandwiches, cakes, and, of course, a cup of tea. Cream teas are popular. You have scones (a kind of cake) with cream and jam.
The evening meal is the main meal of the day for many people. They usually have it quite early, between 6.00 and 8.00, and often the whole family eats together.
On Sundays many families have a traditional lunch. They have roast meat, either beef, lamb, chicken, or pork, with potatoes, vegetables, and gravy. Gravy is a sauce made from the meat juices.
The British like food from other countries, too, especially Italian, French, Chinese, and Indian. People often get take≠away meals-you buy the food at the restaurant and then bring it home to eat. Eating in Britain is quite international!
Exercise 2. Are the sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences.
a Many British people have a big breakfast.
b People often have cereal or toast for breakfast.
с Marmalade is different from jam.
d People drink tea with hot milk.
e Many foreign visitors love instant coffee.
f All British people have a hot lunch.
g Pubs are good places to go for lunch.
h British people eat dinner late in the evening.
i Sunday lunch is a special meal.
j When you get a take-away meal, you eat it at home.
Exercise 3. Answer the questions.