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Educational System in Ukraine

Present day independent Ukraine has a well-developed system of education which matches the standards of the developed countries. Pre-school education is not compulsory and is fee-paying. Most parents take their children to nursery schools or kindergartens at the age of 3. Up to the age of 5 children mostly eat, sleep and play there, but in senior groups they are taught the basics of arithmetic, reading, writing, arts and in some schools foreign languages.

Compulsory secondary education begins at the age of 6 7 and is free in state schools and fee-paying in private ones. Some schools, especially those with language slant, have preparatory classes. Secondary education includes three stages: primary (1st 3d grades), basic (4 9th grades) and senior (10 11th grades). In regular secondary schools children start learning foreign languages from the 5th grade and have fewer lessons of language a week than specialized language schools that start teaching languages from the 1st grade. Recently new types of schools have appeared: gymnasiums and lycees. In addition, there are schools with technical, computer, mathematical, law, pedagogical and art slant. All the subjects in the secondary schools are obligatory but there are optional courses that students of senior grades can take in addition to the required ones.

Extra-curricular activities usually include a variety of sports and drama clubs, interest groups and various school parties.

Those senior students who want to get qualification alongside the secondary education, can go to vocational training schools. Post-secondary education is provided by technical schools and colleges of 1st and 2nd Level of Accreditation that train young specialists in different trades.

Institutions of higher learning (higher educational establishments) include universities, academies, institutes and conservatories. They all hold entrance examinations to select the best applicants to be their students. Among the best known higher educational establishments there are Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Kyiv Polytechnic University, International Independent University Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Kyiv State Conservatory, Lviv State University, Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv State Pedagogical University, Kharkiv State Polytechnic University and many others.

Post graduate education begins after the last year of studies and usually results in theses on the chosen scientific topic and the degree of the Candidate of Science. Doctorate Degree is awarded for an outstanding scientific research.

HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN
There are different kinds of educational institutions in Great Britain: universities, colleges (residential and non-residential), University extra-mural departments, evening departments at colleges.
If you want to go to university, you usually apply during your last year at school, when you are 17-18. You can apply to study at any university in Britain and most people choose a university that is not in their own town. So, university students usually live away from home. Students get a grant or a loan from the government to study.
At the beginning of your last year at school you receive an application form. On this form you choose up to five universities that you would like to go to. The form is sent to those universities with information from your school about you and your academic record. If the universities are interested in your application, they will ask you to attend an interview. If they are still interested after the interview, they will offer you a place. Any offer, however, is only conditional at this stage. Applications and interviews take place several months before students do their A-level examinations. These are the exams that you do at the end of your time at school. So, when a university makes an offer, it will tell you the minimum grades that you will have to get when you do your A-level exams. If you dont get those grades, then you will not be able to accept the place. It will be offered to someone else and you must apply again to another university.
You dont have to accept your place immediately. Some students dont want to go straight from school to university, so after they have taken their A-levels, they take a year out to work or travel.
At present there are about 40 universities in Great Britain: practically every big city of the country has a university.
A university usually consists of some colleges, which are a part of the University. They provide training and give degrees to their students.
Universities in Britain are different from those in other countries. They greatly differ from each other in date of foundation, history, tradition, size, methods of teaching, way of student life, etc.
Until the 19th century there were only two universities in England: Oxford and Cambridge. Both Universities are residential. They have a tutorial system of education. Each student has a tutor who helps the student to plan his work. The student must regularly come to see his tutor. They discuss different questions and problems. A student writes papers on the subject which he is studying and submits them regularly to his tutor for correction.

The modern Universities are University of London, Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham and others. They are not residential. They provide instruction chiefly by means of lectures attended mainly by day students.
Most of civic universities were founded in the 19th century as University colleges. Later they became universities. These universities were founded to serve the needs of their city and surrounding area, in contrast to Oxford, Cambridge and London which took students from all over the country.
College is a separate institution. Most colleges are state colleges but there are also private colleges. At present there are about 300 technical colleges in England. They give diplomas, not degrees. The course for training specialists at such colleges is shorter as a rule than at the universities. It usually lasts 3 or 4 years, while at the universities it lasts as a rule more than 4 years.
A person who studies for a degree at a British University is called an undergraduate. Bachelor of Arts or of Science is the first degree. One can become a B.A. after 3 years of hard study and a M.A. (Master of Arts or of Science) at the end of 5 years. Doctor of Phylosophy is the highest degree.
Tuition costs a lot of money. Its necessary to pay for taking examinations, for attending lectures, for borrowing books from the library, for hostel accommodations.

The academic year has 3 terms. Each term lasts about eight ten weeks. Between terms the students have their holidays a month in winter, a month in spring and three or four months in summer.

Teaching as a Profession

Essay by Charlotte Good

The mediocre teacher tells.

The good teacher explains.

The superior teacher demonstrates.

The great teacher inspires.

W. Ward

Children, our next generation, is our future and to shape its image means to educate the young people properly, in accordance with common moral norms of society. And the people who do this are teachers. To my mind it is a great responsibility to bring up children.

A good teacher develops a burning desire for knowledge in his pupils. He also helps the children become independent, fulfill their potential and organize their own learning. He is interested in his students, tries to help where possible and works hard to remain up-to-date in his subject. The last thing is the most difficult, especially when you teach the same material for years (such as Math, for example). Teaching English is different, because the language is developing all the time and it always remains up-to-date.

I must admit that it is extremely difficult to become a good teacher. You should know the subject you teach perfectly; you must also be well-educated and well-informed. A good teacher knows the answers to any question.

As any other profession, teaching has its advantages: short working hours, long vacation, personal freedom, room for personal initiatives. Being a teacher you are always challenged by new tasks and you definitely like dealing with kids and the whole school atmosphere.

Nevertheless, this profession has some disadvantages, such as low pay and lots of home assignments to check. A teacher usually has to deal with discipline problems having many students in class.

But it is good to be a teacher, to share your knowledge and give your experience to small children, who will be independent adults in future.

WHAT MAKES A GOOD TEACHER?
It is undeniable that being a teacher is a challenging career. But what makes a good teacher?
First of all, a good teacher has to be an expert in the subject he/she teaches. A wide range of knowledge is absolutely needed to make a good teacher.
Good teachers have to be very responsible because they are the ones who play a very important role in nurturing our next generations who are going to determine the future.

A good teacher should be caring towards the students. Most students are immature compared with adults. They undergo emotional revolution and encounter a lot of problems. A good teacher should understand those problems and approach them in a sensible method. Understanding can only be achieved by care and communication over a long time. Thus, it takes time and efforts to become a caring teacher.

A good teacher also treats his/her students with respect.

A good teacher is always a great listener. He or she not only talks, but also keenly listens to all that his or her students have to say. If a certain topic or point is found to be debatable, a good teacher does not hesitate to throw open the topic to the whole class and invite individual opinions on the matter.
Love for teaching is very important characteristic of a teacher. All great teachers are people who teach simply because they love doing so. It isn't about the money, or about earning the respect of their students, or anything else. It is all about the love for teaching. It has always been that way, and it always will.

Sense of humour is also very important. A good teacher is one who freely jokes around in the class, but is dead serious when the need arises.

So, in my opinion, good teachers must be experts in the subject they teach, they must be responsible, understanding and caring, they must love their job, be great listeners and have nice sense of humour.

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