Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives

: , er, -est;

, more, most;

, -er, -le, -ow, -y cold clever simple narrow happy colder cleverer simpler narrower happier coldest cleverest simplest narrowest happiest
famous beautiful more famous more beautiful most famous most beautiful
good bad old   far better worse older elder farther further best worst oldest eldest farthest furthest


1. , , , : hot hotter hottest; big bigger biggest.

2. y, , er, -est y i: dry drier driest.


1. as as:

Macroeconomics is as important as microeconomics.

2. not so as:

Statistics is not so difficult as higher mathematics.

3. , , than: Higher mathematics is more interesting to me than statistics.

4. , , the:He is the cleverest in our class.



  ʳ.         ʳ       ʳ
one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty twenty - one twenty-two thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety a (one) hundred one hundred and one two hundred and forty-five four hundred and sixty seven first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth the eleventh the twelfth the thirteenth the fourteenth the fifteenth the sixteenth the seventeenth the eighteenth the nineteenth the twentieth the twenty - first the twenty - second the thirtieth the fortieth the fiftieth the sixtieth the seventieth the eightieth the ninetieth the hundredth the one hundred and first the two hundred and forty fifth the four hundred and sixty seventh   eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen   eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth       twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety hundred   twentieth thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth hundredth




ʳ 13 19 teen, .

ʳ , 20 ty, .



Four fourteen forty;

Five fifteen fifty;

Nine ninth;

Eight eighth;

Twelve twelfth.




. hundred, thousand, million . and.

82,437,821 eighty-two million four hundred and thirty-seven thousand eight hundred and twenty-one;

(BE) (AE) -:

1,000,000,000 a thousand million (BE), a billion (AE);

1,000,000,000,000 a billion (BE), a trillion (AE).

milliard = a thousand million (BE) = a billion (AE) .

( , , ) , double:

720844 seven two oh eight double four


, : $ 4 m four million dollars; ₤92bn ninety-two billion pounds;

?742 seven hundred and forty-two euros


: 1999 nineteen ninety-nine, 2000 : 2006 two thousand and six.

̳ :

25th of April 1987 the twenty-fifth of April, nineteen eighty-seven

April, the twenty-fifth, nineteen eighty-seven

, . , , . ,

10.12.2004 the tenth of December, two thousand and four (BE) October, (the) twelfth, two thousand and four (AE).



24- ( , , ), (AM) (PM). quarter(), half (), past(), to().

3.45AM 1) three forty-five AM; 2) a quarter to four AM;

7.30 PM 1) seven thirty PM; 2) half past seven PM;

11.45 AM 1) eleven forty-five AM; 2) a quarter to twelve AM.

12.00 midday (); 24.00 midnight ().

, :

The train leaves at 14.00 at fourteen hundred hours.



62 km sixty-two kilometers;

14 ½ cm fourteen and a half centimeters;

6m∙6m six metres by six metres;

-10˚C minus four degrees Celsius /centigrade.


. , . 1, s.

½ -one second or a half; ⅔ two-thirds; ¾ - three fourthsor three quarters; 1 5/7 one and five sevenths.


BE AE ( point), . . 0 () -, :

oh - naught (BE);

zero (AE).

8.07 eight point oh seven (BE); eight point zero seven (AE);

0.6 naught point six (BE); point six (AE);

6.9057 six point nine oh five seven; six point nine zerofive seven.



: 15+6=21 fifteen plus/and six equals twenty-one;

³: 7-3=4 seven minus /take away/less three equals four;

:6∙8=48 six multiplied by eight/times eight equals forty-eight

ij: 28:7=4 twenty-eight divided by seven equals four;

ϳ : 52- five squared; 47- four to the power seven;

: √4 the square root of four; 3√81 the cube root of eighty-one; 4√16 the fourth root of sixteen.



The Principal Forms of the Verb


Infinitive Past indefinite Past participle ij Present participle ij
to work worked worked working
to teach taught taught teaching
to know knew known knowing



: infinitive to


I/we/you/they work/do not (dont) work at this plan.
He/she/it works/does not(doesnt) work


Do I/we/you/they work at this plan?
Does he/she/it



䳿, Roman likes to travel . Water boils at 100 Centigrade.
, , I go to the institute by bus. She cleans the room twice a week.
ij, The train leaves at 5 p.m. The meeting startsat 5 o'clock.


!! 䳿, : never, rarely, not often, sometimes, often, usually, always.

s/es , (. .115).


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