²ʲв
:
³
ʳ
'
˳
˳
ϳ
'
㳿
Գ
Գ
Գ
Գ


TASK 2.Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian.

1.The nature of government regulation of economics is difficult to define.

2. Although law, morality, and justice sometimes regulate the same social relations, they are hardly synonymous terms.

3. The application of law may be harsh and unfair.

4. The Constitution of Ukraine provides for the protection of individual rights and liberties.

5. In Ukraine there are three major sources of law. They are: constitutional law, enactments of legislature, and administrative regulations.

6. It is the major function of the Constitution of the newly-independent Ukraine to put limitations on the power of government, both central and local, to interfere with individual liberties and economic freedoms of individuals, groups, and institutions.

7. Law is complex phenomenon of the social life; while there exist many ways of defining it, there are no single concept which could possibly include every aspect of law.

 

 

NOTE: Please pay attention to different possibilities of translating such English terms as government, law, and state into Ukrainian. Remember that English term government may be translated as , , , , . As an adjective it may correspond to the Ukrainian , . For example: government intervention , government structures , government policy .

Law may mean , , , . For example: the Law of Ukraine on the Entrepreneurship , Ukrainian law , law of the land ().

State is usually translated as , , ( ), , , . For example: the state of Ukraine , European states (), State California , the state ruled against it .

 

 

TASK 3. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. .

2. : , .

3. , .

4. II .

5. .

6. - ( ) , .

 

 

TASK 4. Complete the following statements.

 

1) Law is an important part of ......

2) Legal philosophers and legal scholars do ......

3) The term law is sometimes applied to ......

4) More commonly, when people speak of law they ......

5) The following definition of law is ......

6) Law in a broader sense is ......

7) In a primitive society the rules of behaviour may not be ......

8) The term a law has a ......

 

 

TASK 5. Choose the correct explanation of the following words and word combinations. Explain your choice.

Ø Law

a) is the set of values, institutions and concepts that permit civilization to exist and people to live orderly lives;

b) is the system which cannot be categorized at all;

c) is a synonym of morality and justice.

Ø Constitutional Law

a) is one of three major sources of law in the United States;

b) is the supreme law of the land;

c) puts no limits on the powers of the different branches of government.

 

Ø Statutes [the enactments of legislature]

a) are created on the federal, state, and local levels;

b) are the same as administrative decisions;

c) have nothing to do with law.

 

Ø Common Law

a) or unwritten law, is the body of law that emanates from courts through judicial decisions;

b) is the only source of law in the United States;

c) is molded and implemented in the House of Commons.

 

 

TASK 6.Just for Fun.

 

When asked to explain the difference between an ordinary citizen and a lawyer, a well-known barrister explained, If an ordinary citizen gave you an orange, he would, say, I give you this orange But if a lawyer gave you an orange, he would say, I hereby give, grant and convey to you all my interest, right, title and claim of and in this orange, together with all its rind, skin, juice and pulp, and all right and advantage therein with full power to bite, cut, suck, or otherwise eat or consume the said orange, or give away or dispose of to any third party the said orange, with or without its rind, skin, juice and pulp, subject to any amendments subsequently, introduced or drawn up to this agreement.


UNIT V

 

Criminal Law

 

 

Remember the following words and word combinations.

criminal law
body of law
apprehension ,
charging
convicted
voluntary act
omission
wrong
state of mind , ,
epilepsy
awareness
recklessness ,
mental disorder
absolve ,
otherwise
justifiable ,
enforcement of law
arson
rape
treason
aggravated assault
theft
burglary
robbery
murder
conspiracy
public trial
right to counsel
establish the guilt
postconviction procedure
challenge ,
conviction

 

 

TEXT A. CRIMINAL LAW

 

Criminal law absorbs our attention in a way that no other body of law does. Horrific crimes, juicy tales of passion, and mundane muggings occupy the front pages and public attention. Criminal law is a hot political topic that has immediate personal dimensions. But, as elsewhere in the law, the issues are more complicated than they seem.

To define criminal law, we need to distinguish it from other bodies of law that do something like that, and to distinguish the substantive criminal law from the process that applies it.

Criminal law is the body of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging, and trial of suspected persons, and fixes punishment for convicted offenders. Criminal law defines acts as criminal. In other words, however immoral or unjust an act may be thought to be, it is not a crime unless the law says it is one. Criminal acts are so wrongful that when someone commits a criminal act as distinguished from some other type of wrong, she is not just made to pay damages or be snubbed at the country club, she is punished.

We need criminal law to punish criminals and prevent crime.

The first purpose criminal law serves is to define what behavior society regards as wrongful. It is wrong to murder your neighbor, set fire to her house, or steal her lawnmower. The acts defined as criminal often (but not always) have the most serious consequences for others; murder and arson are very harmful, but stealing your neighbors lawnmower probably is less of a social evil than manufacturing lawnmowers without adequate safety devices, which is only a civil wrong.

A crime is usually defined as a voluntary act or omission, together with a given state of mind. The state of mind involves purpose, awareness, recklessness, or negligence. Acts committed during fits of epilepsy or while sleepwalking are involuntary and thus do not qualify as crimes. Mental disorders are also recognized as limiting or absolving responsibility for acts otherwise regarded as criminal. The law of most countries recognizes that the use of force might be justifiable. The use of force might be justifiable in self-defense, defense of other persons, protection of property, and enforcement of the law. Criminal acts include arson, rape, treason, aggravated assault, theft, burglary, robbery, murder, and conspiracy. [Conspiracy is a secret plan made by two or more people to do something that is harmful or illegal.] Criminal law also deals with the preparation of charges and with trial procedures. The latter involves the formation of juries, the guarantee of a public trial, the right to counsel, the presentation of evidence, the establishment of guilt, and sentencing, if guilt has been established. Criminal law is concerned with postconviction procedures, such as calling for a new trial or challenging a conviction, either in the court where the conviction was declared or in appeal to a higher court.

 

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