III. Render the following abstract in English.

( , ) . . ( 1-3 .), , , . 䳿, (nifedipine, corinfar) , (deoxycorticosterone acetate, cortexone) .

, . , , , , . 75% , , 1-3 ., .

. , , , . ( , ). (, ) , - 䳿 .

. , . ij , , , . 20% , .


IV. Solve the cross-word puzzle.

1. An animal-derived or synthetic form a hormone used to treat diabetes.

2. A protein that speeds up the rate of a biological reaction without itself being used up in the reaction.

3. A vasodilator used in the treatment of angina pectoris.

4. A substance formed in or necessary for metabolism.

5. A solid medical preparation that is inserted into the vagina or rectum, where it gradually dissolves.

6. A small compressed round mass of medicine which you swallow.

7. The proportion of a drug which enters the circulation when introduced into the body and so is able to have an active effect.

8. A medicine (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms.

9. An excess of glucose in the bloodstream, often associated with diabetes mellitus.


  2.   4.     7. 8.  
1. I N T E 5. S 6. T I N E


V. Complete the sentences by choosing appropriate prepositions from those in the brackets.

(In/Into) medicine, a bolus (from Latin bolus, ball) is the administration (of/at) a medication, drug or other compound that is given to raise its concentration (on/in) blood (by/to) an effective level. The term bolus may also mean a single, relatively large dose (of/above) a drug that is administered (at/for) therapeutic purposes and taken orally.

The placement of the bolus dose depends (from/on) the systemic levels of the contents desired (through/throughout) the body. An intramuscular bolus is used (under/in) the administration of vaccines to allow a slow release of the antigen to stimulate the bodys immune system and allow time to develop antibodies. Subcutaneous injections are used (by/for) heroin addicts, to sustain a slow release that staves off withdrawal symptoms (with/without) producing euphoria. A bolus delivered directly to the veins (through/for) an intravenous drip allows a much faster delivery. This is typically done (in/at) the beginning of a treatment or (at/after) a removal of medicine (in/from) blood (e.g. through dialysis).

Diabetics and health care professionals use bolus to refer (on/to) a dosage of fast-acting insulin with a meal.


VI. Have a bit of fun.

Patient: Its been one month since my last visit and I still feel miserable.

Doctor: Did you follow the instructions on the medicine I gave you?

Patient: I sure did. The bottle said keep tightly closed.


IV. Grammar Exercises


I. Change the following from direct into indirect speech.

1. The pediatrician said to the childs mother, Today Ive prescribed this remedy in the form of intramuscular injections because your son refuses to take it orally.

2. The customer asked the pharmacist, Am I to take gastric protectants before or after meals?

3. Both in the intestinal mucous membrane and in the liver, the drug meets enzymes able to transform it into one or more metabolites, sometimes active but generally inactive, explained the professor to his students.

4. The physician said, I hope that with the help of this probiotic your microbial flora will improve in a week.

5. My sister advised me, Take several tablets of activated charcoal. It will reduce the absorption of toxic products and in half an hour you will feel much better.

6. Dont take cholestyramine together with diuretics as it can reduce their absorption, recommended the druggist to his client.

7. The young woman asked her district physician, Why is the use of suppositories disadvised?

8. My grandfather explained to the first aid medical worker, I took nitroglycerin some minutes ago. The attack of angina pectoris subsided and now I feel much better.

9. At this time tomorrow Ill be getting ready with my report on chemical interactions between drugs. I am very sorry but I wont be able to go to the cinema with you, said Helen to her boyfriend.


II. Choose the proper modal verb from those in brackets.

1. Uptake of drugs administered orally (should, may, have, is) occur already in the stomach.

2. You (might, have, are able, were) read the user information sheet accompanying the drug more attentively. This gastric protectant (must, can, may, is) to be taken apart from meals and in the evening at bedtime.

3. The oral route of drug administration (must, ought, can, had) be used for a local or general treatment.

4. Before absorption tablets (may, can, might, must) be first disintegrated so as to release the powder which is emulsified.

5. When (should, ought, had, are) a drug be taken: under fasting conditions, before, during, after meals?

6. (May, Can, Ought, Have) I use your phone? I (can, might, could, have) to buy some antibechic ( ) for my husband but I forgot its name, said Ann to the chemists worker.

7. The desired effect of a drug (must, should, is, can) depend on the moment of its administration compared to meals.

8. Tomorrow this patient having been operated on appendicitis (will be allowed, may, could, must) to eat some broth.

9. You (ought, should, must, could) to consult a doctor or a pharmacist before taking any medications.

Lesson 3

Other Routes of Drug Administration

Text:Other Routes of Drug Administration

Grammar: The Infinitive


. Active Vocabulary


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